Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

William M. Lewis Jr.

William M. Lewis Jr.

Research Interests

My field of study is limnology, which is the ecological analysis of lakes, streams, and wetlands. I do my research and teaching through the CIRES Center for Limnology, which offers analytical services and opportunities for field work in all aquatic environments of Colorado. Research projects as well as graduate and undergraduate studies in limnology typically incorporate analyses and interpretation from physics, chemistry, and biology as an interdisciplinary mix that facilitates the understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Some fields of special interest for me and my graduate students at CU have been biogeochemistry, food webs, and biological production. In limnology, biogeochemistry, which is based on analysis of element cycling in ecosystems, has been used frequently to study the effects of humans on biological processes in aquatic environments through nutrients or toxins. Food web studies are frequently based on use of tracers such as stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the rates at which biomass for groups of organisms are processed through the food web by grazing, predation, and decomposition. The study of biological production, which is critical to human interest in the yield of biomass from aquatic ecosystems, focuses on factors that restrict or magnify the amount of production per unit area in ecosystems, and takes into account the influences of humans on biological production.

Current Research

Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen

Much of my current work with students and other collaborators focuses on environmental cycling of nitrogen in numerous aquatic environments of Colorado. One example is the South Platte River below Denver, which receives a large amount of treated wastewater from Denver and its suburbs. Our recent studies show that the South Platte River below Denver supports very high rates of denitrification, which converts nitrate to N2, an inert gas that is released to the atmosphere. This process is environmentally favorable because excessive nitrate derived from wastewater causes nuisance growth of algae and aquatic vascular plants.

Analysis of Food Webs in Lakes

Recent PhD graduate Thomas Detmer led an ambitious project in Rocky Mountain National Park related to the influence of fish on food webs. The RMNP has lakes with fish and lakes that lack fish. In comparing these lakes, Detmer showed that fish very strongly suppress the presence of large invertebrates such as stoneflies, thus shifting the composition of aquatic invertebrates in the lakes, as expected. Contrary to expectation, however, he showed that loss of the large invertebrates was compensated by a great increase in the abundance of small invertebrates. Ecologically speaking, the small invertebrates took the place of the larger invertebrates in the food web, so that changes in food web functions were negligible. This is an example of ecological resilience.

Production of Aquatic Biomass

Aquatic environments create new biomass through photosynthesis, which is conducted by algae and aquatic vascular plants. Our research on both lakes and streams in Colorado shows that photosynthesis is controlled in some cases by P, a nutrient, and sometimes by N, also a nutrient. In the past, limnologists have thought that P is a master nutrient, and that N does not commonly control production through photosynthesis. Our experiments in Colorado, and similar work conducted elsewhere, support a new view of nitrogen as a commonly limiting nutrient for aquatic photosynthesis.



Summary of nitrogen fluxes relevant to concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and nitrite (NO3-), important pollutants in the South Platte River below Denver.

Honors and Awards

  • Past President, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
  • Member of the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 1993-1999
  • Recipient of the Naumann-Thienemann Medal of the International Society of Pure and Applied Limnology, 1999
  • Sustained Achievement Award of the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation, 1996
  • Chair, National Research Council Committee on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2001-2003).

View Publications

  • Robertson, DS, WM Lewis, PM Sheehan and OB Toon (2013), K-Pg extinction: Reevaluation of the heat-fire hypothesis. J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci. Version: 1 118 (1) 329-336, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 129MN, doi: 10.1002/jgrg.20018
  • Robertson, DS, WM Lewis, PM Sheehan and OB Toon (2013), K-Pg extinction patterns in marine and freshwater environments: The impact winter model. J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci. Version: 1 118 (3) 1006-1014, issn: 2169-8953, ids: 233EV, doi: 10.1002/jgrg.20086
  • Rhoades, CC, JH McCutchan, LA Cooper, D Clow, TM Detmer, JS Briggs, JD Stednick, TT Veblen, RM Ertz, GE Likens and WM Lewis (2013), Biogeochemistry of beetle-killed forests: Explaining a weak nitrate response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (5) 1756-1760, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 084RZ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1221029110, PubMed ID: 23319612
  • Anthony, JL and WM Lewis (2012), Low boundary layer response and temperature dependence of nitrogen and phosphorus releases from oxic sediments of an oligotrophic lake. Aquat. Sci. Version: 1 74 (3) 611-617, issn: 1015-1621, ids: 964XR, doi: 10.1007/s00027-012-0255-6
  • Clow, DW, C Rhoades, J Briggs, M Caldwell and WM Lewis (2011), Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA. Appl. Geochem. Version: 1 26 S174-S178, issn: 0883-2927, ids: 858HZ, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.096
  • Lewis, WM, WA Wurtsbaugh and HW Paerl (2011), Rationale for Control of Anthropogenic Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Reduce Eutrophication of Inland Waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 45 (24) 10300-10305, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 862TZ, doi: 10.1021/es202401p, PubMed ID: 22070635
  • Lewis, WM (2011), Global primary production of lakes: 19th Baldi Memorial Lecture. Inland Waters Version: 1 1 (1) 1-28, issn: 2044-2041, ids: 991RY, doi: 10.5268/IW-1.1.384
  • Segura, C, JH McCutchan, WM Lewis and J Pitlick (2011), The influence of channel bed disturbance on algal biomass in a Colorado mountain stream. Ecohydrology Version: 1 4 (3) 411-421, issn: 1936-0584, ids: 776HF, doi: 10.1002/eco.142
  • Lewis, WM and JH McCutchan (2010), Ecological responses to nutrients in streams and rivers of the Colorado mountains and foothills. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 55 (9) 1973-1983, issn: 0046-5070, ids: 639TL, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02431.x
  • Higgins, TM, JH McCutchan and WM Lewis (2008), Nitrogen ebullition in a Colorado plains river. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 89 (3) 367-377, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 338RV, doi: 10.1007/s10533-008-9225-4
  • Lewis, WM, JF Saunders and JH McCutchan (2008), Application of a nutrient-saturation concept to the control of algal growth in lakes. Lake Reserv. Manag. Version: 1 24 (1) 41-46, issn: 1040-2381, ids: 492NQ
  • Gardner, EM, DM McKnight, WM Lewis and MP Miller (2008), Effects of nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton in an alpine lake, Colorado, USA. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. Version: 1 40 (1) 55-64, issn: 1523-0430, ids: 258LI, doi: 10.1657/1523-0430(07-002)[GARDNER]2.0.CO;2
  • Lewis, WM and WA Wurtsbaugh (2008), Control of Lacustrine Phytoplankton by Nutrients: Erosion of the Phosphorus Paradigm. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 93 (5-Apr) 446-465, issn: 1434-2944, ids: 370PD, doi: 10.1002/iroh.200811065
  • Cronin, G, JH McCutchan, J Pitlick and WM Lewis (2007), Use of Shields stress to reconstruct and forecast changes in river metabolism. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 52 (8) 1587-1601, issn: 0046-5070, ids: 188FW, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01790.x
  • Rodriguez, MA, KO Winemiller, WM Lewis and DCT Baechle (2007), The freshwater habitats, fishes, and fisheries of the Orinoco River basin. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manag. Version: 1 10 (2) 140-152, issn: 1463-4988, ids: 187SY, doi: 10.1080/14634980701350686
  • McGrath, CC and WM Lewis (2007), Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Version: 1 136 (5) 1381-1392, issn: Feb-87, ids: 220VE, doi: 10.1577/T07-017.1
  • Sedarat, A, MJ Sterling, MA Fuhrman, WM Lewis and M Saric (2006), Achalasia as a cause of congestive heart failure. Gastrointest. Endosc. Version: 1 64 (6) 1026-1028, issn: 0016-5107, ids: 116AM
  • Cronin, G, WM Lewis and MA Schiehser (2006), Influence of freshwater macrophytes on the littoral ecosystem structure and function of a young Colorado reservoir. Aquat. Bot. Version: 1 85 (1) 37-43, issn: 0304-3770, ids: 042HE, doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.01.011
  • McCutchan, JH and WM Lewis (2006), Groundwater flux and open-channel estimation of stream metabolism: response to Hall and Tank. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. Version: 1 4 213-215, ids: 079XO
  • Kaushal, SS, WM Lewis and JH McCutchan (2006), Land use change and nitrogen enrichment of a Rocky Mountain watershed. Ecol. Appl. Version: 1 16 (1) 299-312, issn: 1051-0761, ids: 028SW, doi: 10.1890/05-0134, PubMed ID: 16705981
  • Pribyl, AL, JH McCutchan, WM Lewis and JF Saunders (2005), Whole-system estimation of denitrification in a plains river: a comparison of two methods. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 73 (3) 439-455, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 963QA, doi: 10.1007/s10533-004-0565-4
  • Kaushal, SS and WM Lewis (2005), Fate and transport of organic nitrogen in minimally disturbed montane streams of Colorado, USA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 74 (3) 303-321, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 978YO, doi: 10.1007/s10533-004-4723-5
  • Ortiz-Zayas, JR, WM Lewis, JF Saunders, JH McCutchan and FN Scatena (2005), Metabolism of a tropical rainforest stream. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 24 (4) 769-783, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 991UJ, doi: 10.1899/03-094.1
  • Saunders, JF, M Murphy, M Clark and ML Lewis (2004), The influence of climate variation on the estimation of low flows used to protect water quality: A nationwide assessment. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. Version: 1 40 (5) 1339-1349, issn: 1093-474X, ids: 865SA, doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2004.tb01590.x
  • Saunders, JF and WM Lewis (2003), Implications of climatic variability for regulatory low flows in the South Platte River basin, Colorado. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. Version: 1 39 (1) 33-45, issn: 1093-474X, ids: 656PY, doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb01559.x
  • McCutchan, JH, JF Saunders, AL Pribyl and WM Lewis (2003), Open-channel estimation of denitrification. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. Version: 1 1 74-81, ids: V42MW
  • Kaushal, SS and WM Lewis (2003), Patterns in the chemical fractionation of organic nitrogen in Rocky Mountain streams. Ecosystems Version: 1 6 (5) 483-492, issn: 1432-9840, ids: 720HU, doi: 10.1007/s10021-003-0175-3
  • Niyogi, DK, WM Lewis and DM McKnight (2003), Direct and indirect effects of mine drainage on bacterial processes in mountain streams. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 22 (2) 276-291, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 691FF, doi: 10.2307/1467998
  • McCutchan, JH, WM Lewis, C Kendall and CC McGrath (2003), Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Oikos Version: 1 102 (2) 378-390, issn: 0030-1299, ids: 704CA, doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12098.x
  • McCutchan, JH and WM Lewis (2002), Relative importance of carbon sources for macroinvertebrates in a Rocky Mountain stream. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 47 (3) 742-752, issn: 0024-3590, ids: 551HP
  • Lewis, WM (2002), Yield of nitrogen from minimally disturbed watersheds of the United States. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 57 (1) 375-385, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 559AG, doi: 10.1023/A:1015709128245
  • McCutchan, JH, JF Saunders, WM Lewis and MG Hayden (2002), Effects of groundwater flux on open-channel estimates of stream metabolism. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 47 (1) 321-324, issn: 0024-3590, ids: 516AM
  • Niyogi, DK, WM Lewis and DM McKnight (2002), Effects of stress from mine drainage on diversity, biomass, and function of primary producers in mountain streams. Ecosystems Version: 1 5 (6) 554-567, issn: 1432-9840, ids: 595QV, doi: 10.1007/s10021-002-0182-9
  • Niyogi, DK, DM McKnight and WM Lewis (2002), Fungal communities and biomass in mountain streams affected by mine drainage. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 155 (2) 255-271, issn: Mar-36, ids: 603BN
  • Sjodin, A, WM Lewis and JF Saunders (2001), Analysis of groundwater exchange for a large plains river in Colorado (USA). Hydrol. Processes Version: 1 15 (4) 609-620, issn: 0885-6087, ids: 413MZ, doi: 10.1002/hyp.173
  • Ricard, CS, JM Jakubowski, JW Verbsky, MA Barbieri, WM Lewis, GE Fernandez, M Vogel, C Tsou, V Prasad, PD Stahl, G Waksman and CM Cheney (2001), Drosophila rab GDI mutants disrupt development but have normal rab membrane extraction. Genesis Version: 1 31 (1) 17-29, issn: 1526-954X, ids: 477QJ
  • Niyogi, DK, WM Lewis and DM McKnight (2001), Litter breakdown in mountain streams affected by mine drainage: Biotic mediation of abiotic controls. Ecol. Appl. Version: 1 11 (2) 506-516, issn: 1051-0761, ids: 418EA, doi: 10.2307/3060905
  • Lewis, WM, SK Hamilton, MA Rodriguez, JF Saunders and MA Lasi (2001), Foodweb analysis of the Orinoco floodplain based on production estimates and stable isotope data. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 20 (2) 241-254, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 433JN, doi: 10.2307/1468319
  • Lewis, WM, SK Hamilton, MA Lasi, M Rodriguez and JF Saunders (2000), Ecological determinism on the Orinoco floodplain. Bioscience Version: 1 50 (8) 681-692, issn: Jun-68, ids: 343QE, doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0681:EDOTOF]2.0.CO;2
  • Smith, LK, WM Lewis, JP Chanton, G Cronin and SK Hamilton (2000), Methane emissions from the Orinoco River floodplain, Venezuela. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 51 (2) 113-140, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 341HT, doi: 10.1023/A:1006443429909
  • Lewis, WM, JM Melack, WH McDowell, M McClain and JE Richey (1999), Nitrogen yields from undisturbed watersheds in the Americas. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 46 (3-Jan) 149-162, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 204QU, doi: 10.1007/BF01007577
  • Groppo, JG, TL Robl, WM Lewis and CJ McCormick (1999), Classification and froth flotation of fly ash for producing high quality pozzolan. Miner. Metall. Process. Version: 1 16 (3) 34-36, issn: 0747-9182, ids: 258WD
  • Downing, JA, M McClain, R Twilley, JM Melack, J Elser, NN Rabalais, WM Lewis, RE Turner, J Corredor, D Soto, A Yanez-Arancibia, JA Kopaska and RW Howarth (1999), The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-cycle of tropical aquatic ecosystems: Current conditions and projected changes. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 46 (3-Jan) 109-148, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 204QU, doi: 10.1007/BF01007576
  • Niyogi, DK, DM McKnight and WM Lewis (1999), Influences of water and substrate quality for periphyton in a montane stream affected by acid mine drainage. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 Symposium on the Effects of Multiple Stressors on Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems at the Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Limnology-and-Oceanography 44 (3) 804-809, SAMTA FE, NEW MEXICO, FEB, 1997, issn: 0024-3590, ids: 196UU
  • Vavilova, VV and WM Lewis (1998), Temporal and altitudinal variations in the attached algae of mountain streams in Colorado. Hydrobiologia Version: 1 390 (3-Jan) 99-106, issn: 0018-8158, ids: 195EJ, doi: 10.1023/A:1003526306724
  • McCutchan, JH, WM Lewis and JF Saunders (1998), Uncertainty in the estimation of stream metabolism from open-channel oxygen concentrations. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 17 (2) 155-164, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 108JL, doi: 10.2307/1467959
  • Skaggs, RL, M Lores, WM Lewis and JW Birks (1998), Detection of argon by Penning ionization and competitive absorption using a sensitized photoionization detector. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 70 (16) 3493-3497, issn: Mar-00, ids: 111AF, doi: 10.1021/ac9802022
  • Rodriguez, MA and WM Lewis (1997), Structure of fish assemblages along environmental gradients in floodplain lakes of the Orinoco River. Ecol. Monogr. Version: 1 67 (1) 109-128, issn: 0012-9615, ids: WH237, doi: 10.1890/0012-9615(1997)067[0109:SOFAAE]2.0.CO;2
  • Sjodin, AL, WM Lewis and JF Saunders (1997), Denitrification as a component of the nitrogen budget for a large plains river. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 39 (3) 327-342, issn: 0168-2563, ids: YD252, doi: 10.1023/A:1005884117467
  • Arenz, RF, WM Lewis and JF Saunders (1996), Determination of chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon from reflectance data for Colorado reservoirs. Int. J. Remote Sens. Version: 1 17 (8) 1547-1566, issn: 0143-1161, ids: UJ901
  • Friedman, JM, WR Osterkamp and WM Lewis (1996), Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a Great Plains flood. Ecology Version: 1 77 (7) 2167-2181, issn: 0012-9658, ids: VM421, doi: 10.2307/2265710
  • Friedman, JM, WR Osterkamp and WM Lewis (1996), The role of vegetation and bed-level fluctuations in the process of channel narrowing. Geomorphology Version: 1 14 (4) 341-351, issn: 0169-555X, ids: UC058, doi: 10.1016/0169-555X(95)00047-9
  • FRIEDMAN, JM, ML SCOTT and WM LEWIS (1995), RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST USING IRRIGATION, ARTIFICIAL DISTURBANCE, AND NATURAL SEEDFALL. Environ. Manage. Version: 1 19 (4) 547-557, issn: 0364-152X, ids: RC019, doi: 10.1007/BF02471966
  • LEWIS, WM and JF SAUNDERS (1995), IMPROVEMENTS IN STREAM AMMONIA MODELS BY SIMULTANEOUS COMPUTATION OF EXTREMES IN FLOW AND WATER CHEMISTRY. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 29 (7) 1796-1801, issn: 0013-936X, ids: RG467, doi: 10.1021/es00007a016
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA and WM LEWIS (1994), REGULATION AND STABILITY IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF NEOTROPICAL FLOODPLAIN LAKES. Oecologia Version: 1 99 (2-Jan) 166-180, issn: 0029-8549, ids: PJ341, doi: 10.1007/BF00317098
  • MUELLER, JP, WM LEWIS, JT GREEN and JC BURNS (1993), YIELD AND QUALITY OF SILAGE CORN AS ALTERED BY JOHNSONGRASS INFESTATION. Agron. J. Version: 1 85 (1) 49-52, issn: 0002-1962, ids: KL367
  • SPAK, DR, JM DIPAOLA, WM LEWIS and CE ANDERSON (1993), TALL FESCUE SWARD DYNAMICS .2. INFLUENCE OF 4 PLANT-GROWTH REGULATORS. Crop Sci. Version: 1 33 (2) 304-310, issn: 0011-183X, ids: LC508
  • HAMILTON, SK, WM LEWIS and SJ SIPPEL (1992), ENERGY-SOURCES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS IN THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN - EVIDENCE FROM STABLE ISOTOPES. Oecologia Version: 1 89 (3) 324-330, issn: 0029-8549, ids: HJ153
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS (1992), STABLE CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN ALGAE AND DETRITUS FROM THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Version: 1 56 (12) 4237-4246, issn: 0016-7037, ids: KF602, doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(92)90264-J
  • MITTON, JB and WM LEWIS (1992), HETEROZYGOSITY AND LIFE-HISTORY VARIATION IN BONY FISHES - RESPONSE. Evolution Version: 1 46 (2) 576-577, issn: 0014-3820, ids: HQ631, doi: 10.2307/2409876
  • MORRIS, DP and WM LEWIS (1992), NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF BACTERIOPLANKTON GROWTH IN LAKE DILLON, COLORADO. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 37 (6) 1179-1192, issn: 0024-3590, ids: KR914
  • UNGER, PA and WM LEWIS (1991), POPULATION ECOLOGY OF A PELAGIC FISH, XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE (ATHERINIDAE), IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Ecology Version: 1 72 (2) 440-456, issn: 0012-9658, ids: FE248, doi: 10.2307/2937186
  • LEWIS, WM (1990), COMPARISONS OF PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN TEMPERATE AND TROPICAL LAKES. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 35 (8) 1838-1845, issn: 0024-3590, ids: FE655
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA and WM LEWIS (1990), DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF FISH COMMUNITIES OF ORINOCO FLOODPLAIN LAKES. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Version: 1 6 (3) 319-328, issn: 8755-724X, ids: DL276
  • HAMILTON, SK, SJ SIPPEL, WM LEWIS and JF SAUNDERS (1990), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND EVIDENCE FOR ITS REDUCTION BY MACROPHYTE MATS IN 2 ORINOCO FLOODPLAIN LAKES. J. Plankton Res. Version: 1 12 (2) 345-363, issn: 0142-7873, ids: CR963, doi: 10.1093/plankt/12.2.345
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA, SE RICHARDSON and WM LEWIS (1990), NOCTURNAL BEHAVIOR AND ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF A DRIFTWOOD CATFISH, ENTOMOCORUS-GAMEROI (AUCHENIPTERIDAE). Biotropica Version: 1 22 (4) 435-438, issn: 0006-3606, ids: EQ793, doi: 10.2307/2388565
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS (1990), BASIN MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKES ON THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 119 (4) 393-425, issn: 0003-9136, ids: FU564
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1989), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE LOWER ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 34 (2) 397-409, issn: 0024-3590, ids: U5388
  • LEWIS, WM (1989), FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR ANOMALOUS SIZE SCALING OF RESPIRATION IN PHYTOPLANKTON. J. Phycol. Version: 1 25 (2) 395-397, issn: 0022-3646, ids: AC845, doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1989.tb00136.x
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1989), TRANSPORT OF MAJOR SOLUTES AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS AND DISCHARGE IN THE APURE RIVER, VENEZUELA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 8 (2) 101-113, issn: 0168-2563, ids: AN742
  • TWOMBLY, S and WM LEWIS (1989), FACTORS REGULATING CLADOCERAN DYNAMICS IN A VENEZUELAN FLOODPLAIN LAKE. J. Plankton Res. Version: 1 11 (2) 317-333, issn: 0142-7873, ids: T5567, doi: 10.1093/plankt/11.2.317
  • MITTON, JB and WM LEWIS (1989), RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GENETIC-VARIABILITY AND LIFE-HISTORY FEATURES OF BONY FISHES. Evolution Version: 1 43 (8) 1712-1723, issn: 0014-3820, ids: CH764, doi: 10.2307/2409387
  • LEWIS, WM and JF SAUNDERS (1989), CONCENTRATION AND TRANSPORT OF DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED SUBSTANCES IN THE ORINOCO RIVER. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 7 (3) 203-240, issn: 0168-2563, ids: AD097, doi: 10.1007/BF00004218
  • MORRIS, DP and WM LEWIS (1988), PHYTOPLANKTON NUTRIENT LIMITATION IN COLORADO MOUNTAIN LAKES. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 20 (3) 315-327, issn: 0046-5070, ids: T0991, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1988.tb00457.x
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1988), COMPOSITION AND SEASONALITY OF THE ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. J. Plankton Res. Version: 1 10 (5) 957-985, issn: 0142-7873, ids: P8813, doi: 10.1093/plankt/10.5.957
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1988), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE CAURA RIVER, VENEZUELA. Biotropica Version: 1 20 (3) 206-214, issn: 0006-3606, ids: P8500, doi: 10.2307/2388235
  • LEWIS, WM (1988), PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN THE ORINOCO RIVER. Ecology Version: 1 69 (3) 679-692, issn: 0012-9658, ids: N7209, doi: 10.2307/1941016
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1988), TRANSPORT OF PHOSPHORUS, NITROGEN, AND CARBON BY THE APURE RIVER, VENEZUELA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 5 (3) 323-342, issn: 0168-2563, ids: P0815, doi: 10.1007/BF02180071
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1988), DYNAMICS AND CONTROL MECHANISMS IN A TROPICAL ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY (LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA). Ecol. Monogr. Version: 1 58 (4) 337-353, issn: 0012-9615, ids: R0417, doi: 10.2307/1942544
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS (1988), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND TRANSPORT IN A TROPICAL WHITE-WATER RIVER. Hydrobiologia Version: 1 162 (2) 147-155, issn: 0018-8158, ids: N2762, doi: 10.1007/BF00014537
  • NETO, JR, CC KOHLER and WM LEWIS (1987), WATER REUSE SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION OF FINGERLING FISHES IN BRAZIL WITH EMPHASIS ON SOUTH-AMERICAN CATFISHES (RHAMDIA-QUELENS AND RHAMDIA-SAPO). Trop. Agric. Version: 1 64 (1) 2-6, issn: 0041-3216, ids: F4928
  • LEWIS, WM and PJ CLARK (1987), RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION - ANGLIA CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECTS. PROC INST CIVIL ENG PT 1 Version: 1 82 247-268, issn: 0307-8353, ids: G8213
  • LUNDBERG, JG, WM LEWIS, JF SAUNDERS and F MAGOLECCIA (1987), A MAJOR FOOD WEB COMPONENT IN THE ORINOCO RIVER CHANNEL - EVIDENCE FROM PLANKTIVOROUS ELECTRIC FISHES. Science Version: 1 237 (4810) 81-83, issn: 0036-8075, ids: H9606, doi: 10.1126/science.237.4810.81
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS (1987), CAUSES OF SEASONALITY IN THE CHEMISTRY OF A LAKE ON THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 32 (6) 1277-1290, issn: 0024-3590, ids: L6101
  • LEWIS, WM, SK HAMILTON, SL JONES and DD RUNNELS (1987), MAJOR ELEMENT CHEMISTRY, WEATHERING AND ELEMENT YIELDS FOR THE CAURA RIVER DRAINAGE, VENEZUELA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 4 (2) 159-181, issn: 0168-2563, ids: J3311, doi: 10.1007/BF02180153
  • LEVINE, SN and WM LEWIS (1987), A NUMERICAL-MODEL OF NITROGEN-FIXATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 17 (2) 265-274, issn: 0046-5070, ids: G5950, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1987.tb01047.x
  • LEWIS, WM, JF SAUNDERS, SN LEVINE and FH WEIBEZAHN (1986), ORGANIC-CARBON IN THE CAURA RIVER, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 31 (3) 653-656, issn: 0024-3590, ids: C8635
  • LEWIS, WM (1986), EVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETATIONS OF ALLELOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN PHYTOPLANKTON ALGAE. Am. Nat. Version: 1 127 (2) 184-194, issn: 0003-0147, ids: A0176
  • LEWIS, WM (1986), PHYTOPLANKTON SUCCESSION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Hydrobiologia Version: 1 138 189-203, issn: 0018-8158, ids: E0709, doi: 10.1007/BF00027240
  • LEWIS, WM, T FROST and D MORRIS (1986), STUDIES OF PLANKTONIC BACTERIA IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 106 (3) 289-305, issn: 0003-9136, ids: C7640
  • LEWIS, WM (1986), NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSSES FROM A NUTRIENT-POOR TROPICAL MOIST FOREST. Ecology Version: 1 67 (5) 1275-1282, issn: 0012-9658, ids: E1979, doi: 10.2307/1938683
  • CRESSA, C and WM LEWIS (1986), ECOLOGICAL ENERGETICS OF CHAOBORUS IN A TROPICAL LAKE. Oecologia Version: 1 70 (3) 326-331, issn: 0029-8549, ids: E3639, doi: 10.1007/BF00379492
  • MCCARTY, LB, JM DIPAOLA, WM LEWIS and WB GILBERT (1985), TALL FESCUE RESPONSE TO PLANT-GROWTH RETARDANTS AND FERTILIZER SOURCES. Agron. J. Version: 1 77 (3) 476-480, issn: 0002-1962, ids: AHF27
  • LEWIS, WM (1985), WORLD-HEALTH-ORGANIZATION, GUIDELINES ON ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS. Sci. Total Environ. Version: 1 47 (DEC) 83-91, issn: 0048-9697, ids: AVA56
  • LEWIS, WM (1985), PROTOZOAN ABUNDANCES IN THE PLANKTON OF 2 TROPICAL LAKES. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 104 (3) 337-343, issn: 0003-9136, ids: APV81
  • LEWIS, WM (1985), NUTRIENT SCARCITY AS AN EVOLUTIONARY CAUSE OF HAPLOIDY. Am. Nat. Version: 1 125 (5) 692-701, issn: 0003-0147, ids: AHJ76
  • LEWIS, WM, MC GRANT and SK HAMILTON (1985), EVIDENCE THAT FILTERABLE PHOSPHORUS IS A SIGNIFICANT ATMOSPHERIC LINK IN THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE. Oikos Version: 1 45 (3) 428-432, issn: 0030-1299, ids: AVY59, doi: 10.2307/3565578
  • LEVINE, SN and WM LEWIS (1985), THE HORIZONTAL HETEROGENEITY OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 30 (6) 1240-1245, issn: 0024-3590, ids: AVJ10
  • LEWIS, WM, MC GRANT and JF SAUNDERS (1984), CHEMICAL-PATTERNS OF BULK ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN THE STATE OF COLORADO. Water Resour. Res. Version: 1 20 (11) 1691-1704, issn: 0043-1397, ids: TT375, doi: 10.1029/WR020i011p01691
  • UNGER, PA, WM LEWIS and DH MCCLEARN (1984), NONVISUAL FEEDING IN A VISUAL PLANKTIVORE, XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE. Oecologia Version: 1 64 (2) 280-283, issn: 0029-8549, ids: TN847, doi: 10.1007/BF00376883
  • LEWIS, WM (1984), A 5-YEAR RECORD OF TEMPERATURE, MIXING, AND STABILITY FOR A TROPICAL LAKE (LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA). Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 99 (3) 340-346, issn: 0003-9136, ids: SF837
  • LEWIS, WM (1984), THE DIATOM SEX CLOCK AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE. Am. Nat. Version: 1 123 (1) 73-80, issn: 0003-0147, ids: RX727
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS (1984), COST AND SPEED OF LOCOMOTION FOR ROTIFERS. Oecologia Version: 1 61 (3) 289-292, issn: 0029-8549, ids: SH657, doi: 10.1007/BF00379624
  • LEVINE, SN and WM LEWIS (1984), DIEL VARIATION OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 29 (4) 887-893, issn: 0024-3590, ids: TC653
  • LEWIS, WM and SN LEVINE (1984), THE LIGHT RESPONSE OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 29 (4) 894-900, issn: 0024-3590, ids: TC653
  • CRESSA, C and WM LEWIS (1984), GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS IN A TROPICAL CHAOBORUS SPECIES AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 100 (1) 21-28, issn: 0003-9136, ids: SP180
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), INTERCEPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC FIXED NITROGEN AS AN ADAPTIVE ADVANTAGE OF SCUM FORMATION IN BLUE-GREEN-ALGAE. J. Phycol. Version: 1 19 (4) 534-536, issn: 0022-3646, ids: SC962, doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1983.00534.x
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND MIXING IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 28 (2) 273-286, issn: 0024-3590, ids: QL472
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), INTERRUPTION OF SYNTHESIS AS A COST OF SEX IN SMALL ORGANISMS. Am. Nat. Version: 1 121 (6) 825-834, issn: 0003-0147, ids: QR940
  • UNGER, PA and WM LEWIS (1983), SELECTIVE PREDATION WITH RESPECT TO BODY SIZE IN A POPULATION OF THE FISH XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE (ATHERINIDAE). Ecology Version: 1 64 (5) 1136-1144, issn: 0012-9658, ids: RJ868, doi: 10.2307/1937824
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), A REVISED CLASSIFICATION OF LAKES BASED ON MIXING. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Version: 1 40 (10) 1779-1787, issn: 0706-652X, ids: RR929
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), COLLECTION OF AIRBORNE MATERIALS BY A WATER-SURFACE. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 28 (6) 1242-1246, issn: 0024-3590, ids: RV404
  • GRANT, MC and WM LEWIS (1982), CHEMICAL LOADING RATES FROM PRECIPITATION IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. Tellus Version: 1 34 (1) 74-88, issn: 0040-2826, ids: NF076
  • LEWIS, WM (1982), VERTICAL EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES IN A LARGE TROPICAL LAKE. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 27 (1) 161-163, issn: 0024-3590, ids: NA271
  • LEWIS, WM (1982), CHANGES IN PH AND BUFFERING CAPACITY OF LAKES IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 27 (1) 167-172, issn: 0024-3590, ids: NA271
  • LEWIS, WM and W RIEHL (1982), PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGY IN LAKE-VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol. Version: 1 67 (3) 297-322, issn: 0020-9309, ids: PA477
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1981), EFFECT OF THE MAY-JUNE MOUNT ST-HELENS ERUPTIONS ON PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY IN CENTRAL COLORADO. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 15 (9) 1539-1542, issn: 1352-2310, ids: MB442, doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(81)90136-0
  • LEWIS, WM and JI WADDINGTON (1981), WHO INTERNATIONAL DRINKING-WATER STANDARDS REVISED. Sci. Total Environ. Version: 1 18 (APR) 285-292, issn: 0048-9697, ids: LH158
  • SMITH, KM and WM LEWIS (1981), PARTIAL SYNTHESIS OF CHLOROPHYLL-A FROM RHODOCHLORIN. Tetrahedron Version: 1 37 (Suppl. 9) 399-403, issn: 0040-4020, ids: LT822
  • LEWIS, WM and FH WEIBEZAHN (1981), ACID-RAIN AND MAJOR SEASONAL-VARIATION OF HYDROGEN-ION LOADING IN A TROPICAL WATERSHED. ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA Version: 1 32 (3) 236-238, issn: 0001-5504, ids: NE515
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS (1981), PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN COPEPODS. Science Version: 1 214 (4527) 1349-1350, issn: 0036-8075, ids: MT154, doi: 10.1126/science.214.4527.1349
  • LEWIS, WM and FH WEIBEZAHN (1981), CHEMISTRY OF A 7.5-M SEDIMENT CORE FROM LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 26 (5) 907-924, issn: 0024-3590, ids: MK658
  • LEWIS, WM and F WEIBEZAHN (1981), THE CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE ORINOCO AND CARONI RIVERS, VENEZUELA. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 91 (4) 521-528, issn: 0003-9136, ids: ME498
  • LEWIS, WM (1981), PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY AND NUTRIENT LOADING BY PRECIPITATION IN A TROPICAL WATERSHED. Water Resour. Res. Version: 1 17 (1) 169-181, issn: 0043-1397, ids: LD922, doi: 10.1029/WR017i001p00169
  • BRADBURY, JP, B LEYDEN, M SALGADOLABOURIAU, WM LEWIS, C SCHUBERT, MW BINFORD, DG FREY, DR WHITEHEAD and FH WEIBEZAHN (1981), LATE QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Science Version: 1 214 (4527) 1299-1305, issn: 0036-8075, ids: MT154, doi: 10.1126/science.214.4527.1299
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS (1980), THE NATURE AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF METABOLIC CHANGES DURING THE LIFE-HISTORY OF COPEPODS. Ecology Version: 1 61 (2) 259-264, issn: 0012-9658, ids: KD173, doi: 10.2307/1935183
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1980), RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SNOW COVER AND WINTER LOSSES OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES FROM A MOUNTAIN WATERSHED. Arct. Alp. Res. Version: 1 12 (1) 11-17, issn: 0004-0851, ids: JH458, doi: 10.2307/1550586
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1980), ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED-STATES. Science Version: 1 207 (4427) 176-177, issn: 0036-8075, ids: HZ705, doi: 10.1126/science.207.4427.176
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS (1980), METABOLIC UNIFORMITY OVER THE ENVIRONMENTAL-TEMPERATURE RANGE IN BRACHIONUS-PLICATILIS (ROTIFERA). Hydrobiologia Version: 1 73 (3-Jan) 145-147, issn: 0018-8158, ids: KF096, doi: 10.1007/BF00019439
  • SMITH, KM, JAP BAPTISTADEALMEIDA and WM LEWIS (1980), STUDIES OF SPIRO-CHLORIN FORMATION USING PORPHYRIN AMIDES. J. Heterocycl. Chem. Version: 1 17 (3) 481-487, issn: 0022-152X, ids: JQ944
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1980), EFFECT OF URBAN SOURCES ON ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED-STATES - REPLY. Science Version: 1 210 (4473) 1043-1043, issn: 0036-8075, ids: KR043, doi: 10.1126/science.210.4473.1043-a
  • DEINFANTE, A, O INFANTE, M MARQUEZ, WM LEWIS and FH WEIBEZAHN (1979), CONDITIONS LEADING TO MASS MORTALITY OF FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON IN LAKE VALENCIA VENEZUELA. ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA Version: 1 30 (1) 67-73, issn: 0001-5504, ids: HL682
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1979), CHANGES IN THE OUTPUT OF IONS FROM A WATERSHED AS A RESULT OF THE ACIDIFICATION OF PRECIPITATION. Ecology Version: 1 60 (6) 1093-1097, issn: 0012-9658, ids: JS622, doi: 10.2307/1936955
  • LEWIS, WM and JF SAUNDERS (1979), 2 NEW INTEGRATING SAMPLERS FOR ZOOPLANKTON, PHYTOPLANKTON, AND WATER CHEMISTRY. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 85 (2) 244-249, issn: 0003-9136, ids: GV264
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS (1979), SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN BRACHIONUS-PLICATILIS (ROTIFERA) - EVOLUTIONARY AND ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE. Evolution Version: 1 33 (3) 919-928, issn: 0014-3820, ids: HR242, doi: 10.2307/2407655
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1979), RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STREAM DISCHARGE AND YIELD OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES FROM A COLORADO MOUNTAIN WATERSHED. Soil Sci. Version: 1 128 (6) 353-363, issn: 0038-075X, ids: JA516, doi: 10.1097/00010694-197912000-00007
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS (1979), METABOLIC RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE-CHANGE IN A TROPICAL FRESHWATER COPEPOD (MESOCYCLOPS-BRASILIANUS) AND THEIR ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE. Oecologia Version: 1 42 (2) 123-138, issn: 0029-8549, ids: HP799, doi: 10.1007/BF00344853
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSION IN A TROPICAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY AND A NEW MEASURE OF SUCCESSION RATE. Am. Nat. Version: 1 112 (984) 401-414, issn: 0003-0147, ids: EX444
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), COMPOSITIONAL, PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL AND ELEMENTARY STRUCTURAL-ANALYSIS OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE - LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES. J. Ecol. Version: 1 66 (1) 213-226, issn: 0022-0477, ids: EY131, doi: 10.2307/2259189
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE (LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES). Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol. Version: 1 63 (5) 619-635, issn: 0020-9309, ids: GU121, doi: 10.1002/iroh.19780630508
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  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT (1978), SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL INTERPRETATION OF PRECIPITATION FOR MASS BALANCE STUDIES. Water Resour. Res. Version: 1 14 (6) 1098-1104, issn: 0043-1397, ids: GC389, doi: 10.1029/WR014i006p01098
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), COMPARISON OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN ZOOPLANKTON OF A LAKE BY MEANS OF VARIANCE COMPONENTS. Ecology Version: 1 59 (4) 666-671, issn: 0012-9658, ids: GB333
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), FEEDING SELECTIVITY OF A TROPICAL CHAOBORUS POPULATION. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 7 (4) 311-325, issn: 0046-5070, ids: DS274, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1977.tb01679.x
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), COMMENTS ON ANALYSIS OF GRAZING IN LAKE ERKEN. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 22 (5) 966-967, issn: 0024-3590, ids: DV903
  • EIVAZI, F, WM LEWIS and KM SMITH (1977), FRAGMENTATION REACTIONS OF BILINDIONES. Tetrahedron Lett. Version: 1(35) 3083-3086, issn: 0040-4039, ids: DS558
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SHAPES OF ABUNDANCE-FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR COEXISTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES. Ecology Version: 1 58 (4) 850-859, issn: 0012-9658, ids: DV440, doi: 10.2307/1936220
  • LEWIS, WM and D CANFIELD (1977), DISSOLVED ORGANIC-CARBON IN SOME DARK VENEZUELAN WATERS AND A REVISED EQUATION FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC-CARBON. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 79 (4) 441-445, issn: 0003-9136, ids: DN108
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), NET GROWTH-RATE THROUGH TIME AS AN INDICATOR OF ECOLOGICAL SIMILARITY AMONG PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES. Ecology Version: 1 58 (1) 149-157, issn: 0012-9658, ids: DJ641, doi: 10.2307/1935116
  • LEWIS, WM (1976), SURFACE/VOLUME RATIO - IMPLICATIONS FOR PHYTOPLANKTON MORPHOLOGY. Science Version: 1 192 (4242) 885-887, issn: 0036-8075, ids: BR576, doi: 10.1126/science.192.4242.885
  • LEWIS, WM (1976), OBSERVATIONS ON SUPERFICIAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURES OF SOME LAKES IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED-STATES. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 6 (1) 49-57, issn: 0046-5070, ids: BG441, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1976.tb01590.x
  • LEWIS, WM (1975), THEORETICAL COMPARISON OF ATTENUATION OF LIGHT ENERGY AND QUANTA IN WATERS OF DIVERGENT OPTICAL-PROPERTIES. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 75 (3) 285-296, issn: 0003-9136, ids: AL213
  • SATCHELL, DP, SD CRAWFORD and WM LEWIS (1975), STATUS OF SEDIMENT FROM CATFISH PRODUCTION PONDS AS A FERTILIZER AND SOIL CONDITIONER. Progress. Fish-Cult. Version: 1 37 (4) 191-193, issn: 0033-0779, ids: BQ177
  • LEWIS, WM (1974), ANALYSIS OF SURFACE SLICKS IN A RESERVOIR RECEIVING HEATED EFFLUENT. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 74 (3) 304-315, issn: 0003-9136, ids: U9195
  • LEWIS, WM (1974), PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN PLANKTON COMMUNITY OF A TROPICAL LAKE. Ecol. Monogr. Version: 1 44 (4) 377-409, issn: 0012-9615, ids: U7957
  • LEWIS, WM (1974), EFFECTS OF FIRE ON NUTRIENT MOVEMENT IN A SOUTH-CAROLINA PINE FOREST. Ecology Version: 1 55 (5) 1120-1127, issn: 0012-9658, ids: U7315
  • LEWIS, WM and JA TYBURCZY (1974), AMOUNTS AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SOME FRESHWATERS OF SOUTHEASTERN US. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 74 (1) 8-17, issn: 0003-9136, ids: U0473
  • LEWIS, WM (1973), THERMAL REGIME OF LAKE LANAO (PHILIPPINES) AND ITS THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR TROPICAL LAKES. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 18 (2) 200-217, issn: 0024-3590, ids: P8583
  • COPE, WA, TW WALDREP, DS CHAMBLEE and WM LEWIS (1973), EVALUATION OF HERBICIDES IN ESTABLISHMENT OF ALFALFA, LADINO WHITE CLOVER, AND CROWNVETCH. Agron. J. Version: 1 65 (5) 820-825, issn: 0002-1962, ids: R0524
  • LEWIS, WM (1970), MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYPRINODONTOIDS FOR INHABITING OXYGEN DEFICIENT WATERS. Copeia Version: 1(2) 319-&, issn: 0045-8511, ids: G4699