Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Margaret A. Tolbert

Margaret A. Tolbert

Research Interests

I am a professor in Chemistry at the University of Colorado in Boulder. My research group focuses on clouds and aerosols in atmospheric chemistry. Research topics include stratospheric ozone depletion, cirrus cloud chemistry, tropospheric clouds and particles, the interaction between clouds and climate, and the chemistry of planetary atmospheres including Titan and Mars. Our work is laboratory-based; we use simulation chambers to identify key atmospheric aerosol processes important in different environments. Novel laboratory techniques include aerosol optical levitation, aerosol mass spectrometry, and aerosol optical techniques such as photo acoustic and Raman spectroscopies. 


Current Research

Research in the Tolbert Group is focused on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, specifically determining the chemical, physical, and optical properties of atmospheric particulate. One area of recent emphasis has been the determination of aerosol phase state. Aerosol phase is important for heterogeneous chemistry, aerosol climate effects, and visibility reduction due to aerosols. The process of deliquescence refers to a crystalline particle taking up water at a specific relative humidity to become an aqueous droplet and is well understood. The converse process, efflorescence, is a nucleation event whereby an aqueous droplet nucleates to reform the crystalline phase. Despite being studied for decades, the efflorescence of atmospheric aerosols remains uncertain.

We have developed a new optical levitation technique to probe aerosol efflorescence of freely floating uncharged particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). In particular, we examine a novel efflorescence path—contact efflorescence initiated by a collision between two aerosol particles. In the figure below, we illustrate what might happen when an amorphous particle (simulating an organic aerosol in the atmosphere) collides with an aqueous droplet of sodium chloride (salt). The light scattering by the levitated particles is shown in green while the illustrations depict the corresponding physical processes. In panel A, the light scattering by the salt appears as a series of horizontal lines, indicative of Mie scattering from a liquid droplet. The organic particle is approaching from below and a collision has not yet occurred. Panel B shows the results of a collision below 68 percent RH that caused nucleation to form crystalline sodium chloride, where the linear light scattering pattern has been replaced by random scattering due to the crystal facets. For very high values of RH above 69 percent, instead of nucleation, the salt droplet simply captures the organic particle, slightly disrupting the linear light scattering pattern, Panel C. Of note: when the salt droplet has immersed the organic particle, a much lower RH is required for efflorescence.

This study shows that the same particle can cause salt to effloresce at a much higher RH if it is in contact with the foreign nucleus rather than being immersed in the droplet. Thus, there is a fundamental difference between nucleation from the “outside-in” and nucleation from the “inside-out.” These studies have revealed a new aerosol process of possible importance in the atmosphere, so called “contact-efflorescence.” Ongoing studies are probing the atmospheric significance of contact efflorescence in a variety of environments.

 

panel A: light scattering by the salt appears as a series of horizontal lines, indicative of Mie scattering from a liquid droplet. Panel B shows the results of a collision below 68 percent RH that caused nucleation to form crystalline sodium chloride,

Honors and Awards

  • CU Distinguished Professor, 2010 Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology
  • 2009 Hazel Barnes Prize
  • 2007 Guggenheim Fellowship
  • 2005 National Academy of Sciences Member
  • 2004 NASA Group Achievement Award
  • Crystal-Face Science Team
  • 2003 NASA Group Achievement Award SOLVE Experiment
  • 2001 BFA Award for Excellence in Research
  • Scholarly and Creative Work, 2001

View Publications

  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2016), Formation of liquid water at low temperatures via the deliquescence of calcium chloride: Implications for Antarctica and Mars. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 131 79-87, issn: 0032-0633, ids: DY1LT, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2016.07.006
  • Hicks, RK, DA Day, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2016), Follow the Carbon: Isotopic Labeling Studies of Early Earth Aerosol. Astrobiology Version: 1 16 (11) 822-830, issn: 1531-1074, ids: EC6ZB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2015.1436, PubMed ID: 27870584
  • Hasenkopf, CA, DP Veghte, GP Schill, S Lodoysamba, MA Freedman and MA Tolbert (2016), Ice nucleation, shape, and composition of aerosol particles in one of the most polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 139 222-229, issn: 1352-2310, ids: DQ3HR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.037
  • Hiranuma, N, S Augustin-Bauditz, H Bingemer, C Budke, J Curtius, A Danielczok, K Diehl, K Dreischmeier, M Ebert, F Frank, N Hoffmann, K Kandler, A Kiselev, T Koop, T Leisner, O Mohler, B Nillius, A Peckhaus, D Rose, S Weinbruch, H Wex, Y Boose, PJ DeMott, JD Hader, TCJ Hill, ZA Kanji, G Kulkarni, EJT Levin, CS McCluskey, M Murakami, BJ Murray, D Niedermeier, MD Petters, D O'Sullivan, A Saito, GP Schill, T Tajiri, MA Tolbert, A Welti, TF Whale, TP Wright and K Yamashita (2015), A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (5) 2489-2518, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CC7PE, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015
  • Schill, GP, K Genareau and MA Tolbert (2015), Deposition and immersion-mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (13) 7523-7536, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CM8UT, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-7523-2015
  • Nuding, DL, RD Davis, RV Gough and MA Tolbert (2015), The aqueous stability of a Mars salt analog: Instant Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 120 (3) 588-598, issn: 2169-9097, ids: CF9AY, doi: 10.1002/2014JE004722
  • Hicks, RK, DA Day, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2015), Elemental Analysis of Complex Organic Aerosol Using Isotopic Labeling and Unit-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (5) 2741-2747, issn: Mar-00, ids: CC8IM, doi: 10.1021/ac504014g, PubMed ID: 25645140
  • Davis, RD, S Lance, JA Gordon, SB Ushijima and MA Tolbert (2015), Contact efflorescence as a pathway for crystallization of atmospherically relevant particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 112 (52) 15815-15820, issn: 0027-8424, ids: CZ6TU, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1522860113, PubMed ID: 26668396
  • Davis, RD, S Lance, JA Gordon and MA Tolbert (2015), Long Working-Distance Optical Trap for in Situ Analysis of Contact-Induced Phase Transformations. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (12) 6186-6194, issn: Mar-00, ids: CL2DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00809, PubMed ID: 25961113
  • Schill, G. P., Genareau, K., Tolbert, M. A. (2015), Deposition and immersion mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman spectroscopy. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. Version: 1 15 (2) , issn: 16807375, doi: 10.5194/ACPD-15-1385-2015
  • Nuding, DL, EG Rivera-Valentin, RD Davis, RV Gough, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2014), Deliquescence and efflorescence of calcium perchlorate: An investigation of stable aqueous solutions relevant to Mars. Icarus Version: 1 243 420-428, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AT0OO, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.036
  • Robinson, CB, GP Schill and MA Tolbert (2014), Optical growth of highly viscous organic/sulfate particles. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 71 (2) 145-156, issn: 0167-7764, ids: AO6ZM, doi: 10.1007/s10874-014-9287-8
  • Horst, SM and MA Tolbert (2014), THE EFFECT OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON PLANETARY HAZE FORMATION. Astrophys. J. Version: 1 781 (1) , Art. No. 53, issn: 0004-637X, ids: 286AE, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/53
  • Hawkins, LN, MJ Baril, N Sedehi, MM Galloway, DO De Haan, GP Schill and MA Tolbert (2014), Formation of Semisolid, Oligomerized Aqueous SOA: Lab Simulations of Cloud Processing. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (4) 2273-2280, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AB4QD, doi: 10.1021/es4049626, PubMed ID: 24428707
  • Sihvonen, SK, GP Schill, NA Lyktey, DP Veghte, MA Tolbert and MA Freedman (2014), Chemical and Physical Transformations of Aluminosilicate Clay Minerals Due to Acid Treatment and Consequences for Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 118 (38) 8787-8796, issn: 1089-5639, ids: AP9JM, doi: 10.1021/jp504846g, PubMed ID: 25211030
  • Thalman, R, KJ Zarzana, MA Tolbert and R Volkamer (2014), Rayleigh scattering cross-section measurements of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and air. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. Version: 1 147 171-177, issn: 0022-4073, ids: AN6GY, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.05.030
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2014), Formation of aqueous solutions on Mars via deliquescence of chloride-perchlorate binary mixtures. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 393 73-82, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AG0KG, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.002
  • Schill, GP, DO De Haan and MA Tolbert (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Secondary Organic Aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (3) 1675-1682, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AA3TL, doi: 10.1021/es4046428, PubMed ID: 24410444
  • Yoon, YH, SM Horst, RK Hicks, R Li, JA de Gouw and MA Tolbert (2014), The role of benzene photolysis in Titan haze formation. Icarus Version: 1 233 233-241, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AE1KX, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.02.006
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Sea-Spray Aerosol Using Raman Microscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 118 (50) 29234-29241, issn: 1932-7447, ids: AX2FP, doi: 10.1021/jp505379j
  • Cable, ML, SM Horst, C He, AM Stockton, MF Mora, MA Tolbert, MA Smith and PA Willis (2014), Identification of primary amines in Titan tholins using microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 403 99-107, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AP7GZ, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.028
  • Zarzana, KJ, CD Cappa and MA Tolbert (2014), Sensitivity of Aerosol Refractive Index Retrievals Using Optical Spectroscopy. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (11) 1133-1144, issn: 0278-6826, ids: AR7OL, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2014.963498
  • Robinson, CB, GP Schill, KJ Zarzana and MA Tolbert (2013), Impact of Organic Coating on Optical Growth of Ammonium Sulfate Particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (23) 13339-13346, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 266CH, doi: 10.1021/es4023128, PubMed ID: 24144443
  • Trainer, MG, JA Sebree, YH Yoon and MA Tolbert (2013), THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 766 (1) , Art. No. L4, issn: 2041-8205, ids: 103WH, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/766/1/L4
  • Baustian, KJ, ME Wise, EJ Jensen, GP Schill, MA Freedman and MA Tolbert (2013), State transformations and ice nucleation in amorphous (semi-)solid organic aerosol. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (11) 5615-5628, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 164AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-5615-2013
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2013), Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (9) 4681-4695, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 144LR, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-4681-2013
  • Horst, SM and MA Tolbert (2013), IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 770 (1) , Art. No. UNSP L10, issn: 2041-8205, ids: 155CR, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/770/1/L10
  • Baustian, KJ, DJ Cziczo, ME Wise, KA Pratt, G Kulkarni, AG Hallar and MA Tolbert (2012), Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. D06217, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 918GK, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016784
  • Connelly, BM, DO De Haan and MA Tolbert (2012), Heterogeneous Glyoxal Oxidation: A Potential Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 6180-6187, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp211502e, PubMed ID: 22510110
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2012), Depositional Ice Nucleation on Monocarboxylic Acids: Effect of the O:C Ratio. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (25) 6817-6822, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 965LR, doi: 10.1021/jp301772q, PubMed ID: 22646721
  • Zarzana, KJ, DO De Haan, MA Freedman, CA Hasenkopf and MA Tolbert (2012), Optical Properties of the Products of alpha-Dicarbonyl and Amine Reactions in Simulated Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 46 (9) 4845-4851, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 933GO, doi: 10.1021/es2040152, PubMed ID: 22515474
  • Trainer, MG, JL Jimenez, YL Yung, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2012), Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N-2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation. Astrobiology Version: 1 12 (4) 315-326, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 929LK, doi: 10.1089/ast.2011.0754, PubMed ID: 22519972
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian, T Koop, MA Freedman, EJ Jensen and MA Tolbert (2012), Depositional ice nucleation onto crystalline hydrated NaCl particles: a new mechanism for ice formation in the troposphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 12 (2) 1121-1134, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 892YL, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-1121-2012
  • Hasenkopf, CA, MA Freedman, MR Beaver, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2011), Potential Climatic Impact of Organic Haze on Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 11 (2) 135-149, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 739DJ, doi: 10.1089/ast.2010.0541, PubMed ID: 21417943
  • Gough, RV, JJ Turley, GR Ferrell, KE Cordova, SE Wood, DO DeHaan, CP Mckay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2011), Can rapid loss and high variability of Martian methane be explained by surface H2O2?. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 59 (3-Feb) 238-246, issn: 0032-0633, ids: 724AP, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.09.018
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier, KJ Baustian, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2011), Laboratory studies of perchlorate phase transitions: Support for metastable aqueous perchlorate solutions on Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 312 (4-Mar) 371-377, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 880ID, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.10.026
  • De Haan, DO, LN Hawkins, JA Kononenko, JJ Turley, AL Corrigan, MA Tolbert and JL Jimenez (2011), Formation of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers by Methylglyoxal and Amines in Simulated Evaporating Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 45 (3) 984-991, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 711HG, doi: 10.1021/es102933x, PubMed ID: 21171623
  • Connelly, BM and MA Tolbert (2010), Reaction of Isoprene on Thin Sulfuric Acid Films: Kinetics, Uptake, and Product Analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (12) 4603-4608, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 608WP, doi: 10.1021/es100708b, PubMed ID: 20499904
  • Beaver, MR, MA Freedman, CA Hasenkopf and MA Tolbert (2010), Cooling Enhancement of Aerosol Particles Due to Surfactant Precipitation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 114 (26) 7070-7076, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 617LO, doi: 10.1021/jp102437q, PubMed ID: 20536216
  • Hasenkopf, CA, MR Beaver, MG Trainer, HL Dewitt, MA Freedman, OB Toon, CP McKay and MA Tolbert (2010), Optical properties of Titan and early Earth haze laboratory analogs in the mid-visible. Icarus Version: 1 207 (2) 903-913, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 597VS, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.015
  • Gough, RV, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and OB Toon (2010), Methane adsorption on a martian soil analog: An abiogenic explanation for methane variability in the martian atmosphere. Icarus Version: 1 207 (1) 165-174, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 584KJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.030
  • Baustian, KJ, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2010), Depositional ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 10 (5) 2307-2317, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 568ER
  • Freedman, MA, KJ Baustian, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2010), Characterizing the Morphology of Organic Aerosols at Ambient Temperature and Pressure. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 82 (19) 7965-7972, issn: Mar-00, ids: 655NT, doi: 10.1021/ac101437w, PubMed ID: 20726528
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian and MA Tolbert (2010), Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6693-6698, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0913018107, PubMed ID: 20388912
  • Trainer, MG, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and OB Toon (2010), Limits on the trapping of atmospheric CH4 in martian polar ice analogs. Icarus Version: 1 208 (1) 192-197, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 611RJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.02.006
  • DeWitt, HL, CA Hasenkopf, MG Trainer, DK Farmer, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2010), The Formation of Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Aerosols under Varying Laboratory Conditions: Implications for Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 10 (8) 773-781, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 682JL, doi: 10.1089/ast.2009.9455, PubMed ID: 21087157
  • Freedman, MA, CA Hasenkopf, MR Beaver and MA Tolbert (2009), Optical Properties of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Composed of Dicarboxylic Acids and Ammonium Sulfate. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (48) 13584-13592, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 522ZE, doi: 10.1021/jp906240y, PubMed ID: 19877658
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian and MA Tolbert (2009), Laboratory studies of ice formation pathways from ammonium sulfate particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (5) 1639-1646, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 418FA
  • Trainer, MG, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2009), Measurements of Depositional Ice Nucleation on Insoluble Substrates at Low Temperatures: Implications for Earth and Mars. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 113 (6) 2036-2040, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 404EW, doi: 10.1021/jp805140p
  • De Haan, DO, MA Tolbert and JL Jimenez (2009), Atmospheric condensed-phase reactions of glyoxal with methylamine. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L11819, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 458FN, doi: 10.1029/2009GL037441
  • DeWitt, HL, MG Trainer, AA Pavlov, CA Hasenkopf, AC Aiken, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2009), Reduction in Haze Formation Rate on Prebiotic Earth in the Presence of Hydrogen. Astrobiology Version: 1 9 (5) 447-453, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 464TB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2008.0289, PubMed ID: 19566425
  • De Haan, DO, AL Corrigan, MA Tolbert, JL Jimenez, SE Wood and JJ Turley (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Self-Reactions of Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal in Evaporating Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (21) 8184-8190, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 510QT, doi: 10.1021/es902152t, PubMed ID: 19924942
  • De Haan, DO, AL Corrigan, KW Smith, DR Stroik, JJ Turley, FE Lee, MA Tolbert, JL Jimenez, KE Cordova and GR Ferrell (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol-Forming Reactions of Glyoxal with Amino Acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (8) 2818-2824, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 432ZK, doi: 10.1021/es803534f, PubMed ID: 19475956
  • Beaver, MR, RM Garland, CA Hasenkopf, T Baynard, AR Ravishankara and MA Tolbert (2008), A laboratory investigation of the relative humidity dependence of light extinction by organic compounds from lignin combustion. Environ. Res. Lett. Version: 1 3 (4) , Art. No. 45003, issn: 1748-9326, ids: 442YW, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045003
  • Curtis, DB, CD Hatch, CA Hasenkopf, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and BN Khare (2008), Laboratory studies of methane and ethane adsorption and nucleation onto organic particles: Application to Titan's clouds. Icarus Version: 1 195 (2) 792-801, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 304SD, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.02.003
  • Hatch, CD, RV Gough, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2008), Heterogeneous nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate on clay minerals: Relevance to Type Ia polar stratospheric clouds. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 112 (2) 612-620, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 250GE, doi: 10.1021/jp075828n, PubMed ID: 18052146
  • Garland, RM, MJ Elrod, K Kincaid, MR Beaver, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2006), Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 40 (35) 6863-6878, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 099PH, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.009
  • Beaver, MR, MJ Elrod, RM Garland and MA Tolbert (2006), Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 6 3231-3242, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 070KC
  • Trainer, MG, AA Pavlov, HL DeWitt, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2006), Organic haze on Titan and the early Earth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 103 (48) 18035-18042, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 111PJ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0608561103, PubMed ID: 17101962
  • Shilling, JE, BM Connelly and MA Tolbert (2006), Uptake of small oxygenated organic molecules onto ammonium nitrate under upper tropospheric conditions. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (21) 6687-6695, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 046SO, doi: 10.1021/jp055940q, PubMed ID: 16722684
  • Gamblin, B, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, Y Kondo, N Takegawa, H Irie, M Koike, JO Ballenthin, DE Hunton, TM Miller, AA Viggiano, BE Anderson, M Avery, GW Sachse, JR Podolske, K Guenther, C Sorenson and MJ Mahoney (2006), Nitric acid condensation on ice: 1. Non-HNO3 constituent of NOY condensing cirrus particles on upper tropospheric. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D21) , Art. No. D21203, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 104UF, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006048
  • Shilling, JE, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray and AK Bertram (2006), Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (17) , Art. No. L17801, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 081QH, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026671
  • Mashburn, CD, EK Frinak and MA Tolbert (2006), Heterogeneous uptake of nitric acid on Na-montmorillonite clay as a function of relative humidity. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D15) , Art. No. D15213, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 074BK, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006525
  • Shilling, JE, TJ Fortin and MA Tolbert (2006), Depositional ice nucleation on crystalline organic and inorganic solids. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D12) , Art. No. D12204, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 057BT, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006664
  • Baynard, T, RM Garland, AR Ravishankara, MA Tolbert and ER Lovejoy (2006), Key factors influencing the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (6) , Art. No. L06813, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 026NG, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024898
  • Hudson, PK and MA Tolbert (2005), Uptake of trace species by ice: Implications for cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. Version: 1 ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSIS 157-175, Ed. Grassian, VH
  • Frinak, EK, CD Mashburn, MA Tolbert and OB Toon (2005), Infrared characterization of water uptake by low-temperature Na-montmorillonite: Implications for Earth and Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D9) , Art. No. D09308, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 927QN, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005647
  • Garland, RM, ME Wise, MR Beaver, HL DeWitt, AC Aiken, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2005), Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 5 1951-1961, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 950GN
  • Curtis, DB, B Rajaram, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2005), Measurement of the temperature-dependent optical constants of water ice in the 15-200 mu m range. Appl. Optics Version: 1 44 (19) 4102-4118, issn: 1559-128X, ids: 940OM, doi: 10.1364/AO.44.004102, PubMed ID: 16004058
  • Curtis, DB, DL Glandorf, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and BN Khare (2005), Laboratory studies of butane nucleation on organic haze particles: Application to Titan's clouds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 109 (7) 1382-1390, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 898XC, doi: 10.1021/jp045596h, PubMed ID: 16833455
  • Trainer, MG, AA Pavlov, DB Curtis, CP McKay, DR Worsnop, AE Delia, DW Toohey, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2004), Haze aerosols in the atmosphere of early earth: Manna from heaven. Astrobiology Version: 1 4 (4) 409-419, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 880NZ, doi: 10.1089/ast.2004.4.409, PubMed ID: 15684721
  • Shilling, JE and MA Tolbert (2004), Uptake of acetic acid on thin ammonium nitrate films as a function of temperature and relative humidity. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 108 (51) 11314-11320, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 880OK, doi: 10.1021/jp046135z
  • Frinak, EK, SJ Wermeille, CD Mashburn, MA Tolbert and CJ Pursell (2004), Heterogeneous reaction of gaseous nitric acid on gamma-phase iron(III) oxide. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 108 (9) 1560-1566, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 800IG, doi: 10.1021/jp030807o
  • Brooks, SD, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, D Baumgardner, BW Gandrud, EV Browell, H Flentje and JC Wilson (2004), Polar stratospheric clouds during SOLVE/THESEO: Comparison of lidar observations with in situ measurements. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 109 (D2) , Art. No. D02212, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 772XE, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003463
  • Gao, RS, PJ Popp, DW Fahey, TP Marcy, RL Herman, EM Weinstock, DG Baumgardner, TJ Garrett, KH Rosenlof, TL Thompson, PT Bui, BA Ridley, SC Wofsy, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, B Karcher, T Peter, PK Hudson, AJ Weinheimer and AJ Heymsfield (2004), Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Sci. Version: 1 303 (5657) 516-520, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 765XM, doi: 10.1126/science.1091255, PubMed ID: 14739457
  • Wise, ME, RM Garland and MA Tolbert (2004), Ice nucleation in internally mixed ammonium sulfate/dicarboxylic acid particles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 109 (D19) , Art. No. D19203, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 861PR, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004313
  • Trainer, MG, AA Pavlov, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, DR Worsnop, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2004), Chemical composition of Titan's haze: Are PAHs present?. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (17) , Art. No. L17S08, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 846UP, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019859
  • Wise, ME, JD Surratt, DB Curtis, JE Shilling and MA Tolbert (2003), Hygroscopic growth of ammonium sulfate/dicarboxylic acids. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D20) , Art. No. 4638, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 736XN, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003775
  • Brooks, SD, D Baumgardner, B Gandrud, JE Dye, MJ Northway, DW Fahey, TP Bui, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2003), Measurements of large stratospheric particles in the Arctic polar vortex. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D20) , Art. No. 4652, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 740GU, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003278
  • Brooks, SD, RM Garland, ME Wise, AJ Prenni, M Cushing, E Hewitt and MA Tolbert (2003), Phase changes in internally mixed maleic acid/ammonium sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D15) , Art. No. 4487, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 713PZ, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003204
  • Wise, ME, SD Brooks, RM Garland, DJ Cziczo, ST Martin and MA Tolbert (2003), Solubility and freezing effects of Fe2+ and Mg2+ in H2SO4 solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric sulfate particles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D19) , Art. No. 4434, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 710WZ, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003420
  • Kondo, Y, OB Toon, H Irie, B Gamblin, M Koike, N Takegawa, MA Tolbert, PK Hudson, AA Viggiano, LM Avallone, AG Hallar, BE Anderson, GW Sachse, SA Vay, DE Hunton, JO Ballenthin and TM Miller (2003), Uptake of reactive nitrogen on cirrus cloud particles in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 30 (4) , Art. No. 1154, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 663AN, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016539
  • Fortin, TJ, K Drdla, LT Iraci and MA Tolbert (2003), Ice condensation on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate: Implications for polar stratospheric ice clouds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 3 987-997, issn: 1680-7324, ids: 700DX
  • Glandorf, DL, A Colaprete, MA Tolbert and OB Toon (2002), CO2 snow on Mars and early Earth: Experimental constraints. Icarus Version: 1 160 (1) 66-72, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 617MF, doi: 10.1006/icar.2002.6953
  • Northway, MJ, RS Gao, PJ Popp, JC Holecek, DW Fahey, KS Carslaw, MA Tolbert, LR Lait, S Dhaniyala, RC Flagan, PO Wennberg, MJ Mahoney, RL Herman, GC Toon and TP Bui (2002), An analysis of large HNO3-containing particles sampled in the Arctic stratosphere during the winter of 1999/2000. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D20) , Art. No. 8298, issn: 0747-7309, ids: 636PY, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001079
  • Hudson, PK, MA Zondlo and MA Tolbert (2002), The interaction of methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde with ice and nitric acid-doped ice: Implications for cirrus clouds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 106 (12) 2882-2888, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 534LU, doi: 10.1021/jp012718m
  • Tolbert, MA (2002), Expertise in nano-alignment aids photonics manufacturing. Laser Focus World Version: 1 38 (1) 161-+, issn: 0740-2511, ids: 514AY
  • Brooks, SD, ME Wise, M Cushing and MA Tolbert (2002), Deliquescence behavior of organic/ammonium sulfate aerosol. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 29 (19) , Art. No. 1917, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 638ZQ, doi: 10.1029/2002GL014733
  • Hudson, PK, JE Shilling, MA Tolbert and OB Toon (2002), Uptake of nitric acid on ice at tropospheric temperatures: Implications for cirrus clouds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 106 (42) 9874-9882, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 607LA, doi: 10.1021/jp020508j
  • Fortin, TJ, JE Shilling and MA Tolbert (2002), Infrared spectroscopic study of the low-temperature phase behavior of ammonium sulfate. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D10) , Art. No. 4088, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 609HA, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000677
  • Prenni, AJ and MA Tolbert (2001), Studies of polar stratospheric cloud formation. Accounts Chem. Res. Version: 1 34 (7) 545-553, issn: Jan-42, ids: 458BT, doi: 10.1021/ar950186k, PubMed ID: 11456472
  • Rajaram, B, DL Glandorf, DB Curtis, MA Tolbert, OB Toon and N Ockman (2001), Temperature-dependent optical constants of water ice in the near infrared: new results and critical review of the available measurements. Appl. Optics Version: 1 40 (25) 4449-4462, issn: 1559-128X, ids: 467NT, doi: 10.1364/AO.40.004449, PubMed ID: 18360484
  • Hudson, PK, KL Foster, MA Tolbert, SM George, SR Carlo and VH Grassian (2001), HBr uptake on ice: Uptake coefficient, H2O/HBr hydrate formation, and H2O desorption kinetics. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 105 (4) 694-702, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 397KW, doi: 10.1021/jp002700w
  • Prenni, AJ, ME Wise, SD Brooks and MA Tolbert (2001), Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate particles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 106 (D3) 3037-3044, issn: 0747-7309, ids: 401TW, doi: 10.1029/2000JD900454
  • Nelson, CE, JW Elam, MA Tolbert and SM George (2001), H2O and HCl adsorption on single crystal alpha-Al2O3(0001) at stratospheric temperatures. Appl. Surf. Sci. Version: 1 171 (2-Jan) 21-33, issn: 0169-4332, ids: 397QX, doi: 10.1016/S0169-4332(00)00536-5
  • Prenni, AJ, RL Siefert, TB Onasch, MA Tolbert and PJ DeMott (2000), Design and characterization of a fluidized bed aerosol generator: A source for dry, submicrometer aerosol. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 32 (5) 465-481, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 307UJ, doi: 10.1080/027868200303588
  • Zondlo, MA, PK Hudson, AJ Prenni and MA Tolbert (2000), Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 51 473-499, issn: 0066-426X, ids: 379YN, doi: 10.1146/annurev.physchem.51.1.473, PubMed ID: 11031290
  • Elam, JW, CE Nelson, MA Tolbert and SM George (2000), Adsorption and desorption of HCl on a single-crystal alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface. Surf. Sci. Version: 1 450 (2-Jan) 64-77, issn: 0039-6028, ids: 299LN, doi: 10.1016/S0039-6028(99)01247-9
  • Onasch, TB, RL Siefert, SD Brooks, AJ Prenni, B Murray, MA Wilson and MA Tolbert (1999), Infrared spectroscopic study of the deliquescence and efflorescence of ammonium sulfate aerosol as a function of temperature. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D17) 21317-21326, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 238BC, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900384
  • Barone, SB, MA Zondlo and MA Tolbert (1999), Investigation of the heterogeneous reactivity of HCl, HBr, and HI on ice surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 103 (48) 9717-9730, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 263EX, doi: 10.1021/jp990400c
  • Tisdale, RT, AJ Prenni, LT Iraci, MA Tolbert and OB Toon (1999), Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: Impact on PSC identification. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 26 (6) 707-710, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 177JT, doi: 10.1029/1999GL900090
  • Warshawsky, MS, MA Zondlo and MA Tolbert (1999), Impact of nitric acid on ice evaporation rates. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 26 (7) 823-826, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 182AW, doi: 10.1029/1999GL900120
  • Prenni, AJ, TB Onasch, RT Tisdale, RL Siefert and MA Tolbert (1998), Composition-dependent freezing nucleation rates for HNO3/H2O aerosols resembling gravity-wave-perturbed stratospheric particles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 103 (D21) 28439-28450, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 140GF, doi: 10.1029/98JD02851
  • Tisdale, RT, DL Glandorf, MA Tolbert and OB Toon (1998), Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 103 (D19) 25353-25370, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129XW, doi: 10.1029/98JD02457
  • Iraci, LT, TJ Fortin and MA Tolbert (1998), Dissolution of sulfuric acid tetrahydrate at low temperatures and subsequent growth of nitric acid trihydrate. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 103 (D7) 8491-8498, issn: 2169-897X, ids: ZJ026, doi: 10.1029/98JD00281
  • Nelson, CE, JW Elam, MA Cameron, MA Tolbert and SM George (1998), Desorption of H2O from a hydroxylated single-crystal alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface. Surf. Sci. Version: 1 416 (3) 341-353, issn: 0039-6028, ids: 137HV, doi: 10.1016/S0039-6028(98)00439-7
  • Elam, JW, CE Nelson, MA Cameron, MA Tolbert and SM George (1998), Adsorption of H2O on a single-crystal alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 102 (36) 7008-7015, issn: 1089-5647, ids: 119UL, doi: 10.1021/jp981070j
  • Zondlo, MA, SB Barone and MA Tolbert (1998), Condensed-phase products in heterogeneous reactions: N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO3 reacting on ice films at 185 K. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 102 (29) 5735-5748, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 103HD, doi: 10.1021/jp980131a
  • Iraci, LT and MA Tolbert (1997), Heterogeneous interaction of formaldehyde with cold sulfuric acid: Implications for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (D13) 16099-16107, issn: 2169-897X, ids: XM347, doi: 10.1029/97JD01259
  • Zondlo, MA, TB Onasch, MS Warshawsky, MA Tolbert, G Mallick, P Arentz and MS Robinson (1997), Experimental studies of vapor-deposited water-ice firms using grazing-angle FTIR-reflection absorption spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 101 (50) 10887-10895, issn: 1089-5647, ids: YL466, doi: 10.1021/jp9709870
  • Tisdale, RT, AM Middlebrook, AJ Prenni and MA Tolbert (1997), Crystallization kinetics of HNO3/H2O films representative of polar stratospheric clouds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 101 (11) 2112-2119, issn: 1089-5639, ids: WM884, doi: 10.1021/jp9624156
  • Barone, SB, MA Zondlo and MA Tolbert (1997), A kinetic and product study of the hydrolysis of ClONO2 on type Ia polar stratospheric cloud materials at 185 K. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 101 (46) 8643-8652, issn: 1089-5639, ids: YG462, doi: 10.1021/jp971107k
  • Berland, BS, MA Tolbert and SM George (1997), Surface sensitive studies of the reactive uptake of chlorine nitrate on ice. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 101 (51) 9954-9963, issn: 1089-5639, ids: YP423, doi: 10.1021/jp971121x
  • Foster, KL, MA Tolbert and SM George (1997), Interaction of HCl with ice: Investigation of the predicted trihydrate, hexahydrate, and monolayer regimes. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 101 (27) 4979-4986, issn: 1089-5639, ids: XJ439, doi: 10.1021/jp970772q
  • Tsias, A, AJ Prenni, KS Carslaw, TP Onasch, BP Luo, MA Tolbert and T Peter (1997), Freezing of polar stratospheric clouds in orographically induced strong warming events. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (18) 2303-2306, issn: 0094-8276, ids: XW963, doi: 10.1029/97GL02181
  • Zondlo, MA, SB Barone and MA Tolbert (1997), Uptake of HNO3 on ice under upper tropospheric conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (11) 1391-1394, issn: 0094-8276, ids: XD217, doi: 10.1029/97GL01287
  • DelNegro, LA, DW Fahey, SG Donnelly, RS Gao, ER Keim, RC Wamsley, EL Woodbridge, JE Dye, D Baumgardner, BW Gandrud, JC Wilson, HH Jonsson, M Loewenstein, JR Podolske, CR Webster, RD May, DR Worsnop, A Tabazadeh, MA Tolbert, KK Kelly and KR Chan (1997), Evaluating the role of NAT, NAD, and liquid H2SO4/H2O/HNO3 solutions in Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud aerosol: Observations and implications. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (11D) 13255-13282, issn: 2169-897X, ids: XG179, doi: 10.1029/97JD00764
  • Anthony, SE, TB Onasch, RT Tisdale, RS Disselkamp, MA Tolbert and JC Wilson (1997), Laboratory studies of ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O particles: Implications for polar stratospheric cloud formation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (D9) 10777-10784, issn: 2169-897X, ids: XA717, doi: 10.1029/96JD03129
  • Middlebrook, AM, MA Tolbert and K Drdla (1996), Evaporation studies of model polar stratospheric cloud films. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 23 (16) 2145-2148, issn: 0094-8276, ids: VA620, doi: 10.1029/96GL01962
  • Disselkamp, RS, SE Anthony, AJ Prenni, TB Onasch and MA Tolbert (1996), Crystallization kinetics of nitric acid dihydrate aerosols. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 100 (21) 9127-9137, issn: 0022-3654, ids: UM677, doi: 10.1021/jp953608g
  • Berland, BS, KL Foster, MA Tolbert and SM George (1996), UV absorption spectra of H2O/HNO3 films. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 23 (20) 2757-2760, issn: 0094-8276, ids: VL370, doi: 10.1029/96GL02610
  • Tolbert, M. A. (1996), Laboratory studies of polar stratospheric cloud formation. Version: 1 Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society 211th American Chemical Society National Meeting211th American Chemical Society National Meeting 211 (2-Jan) 142-ANYL 142, New Orleans, Louisiana, USANew Orleans, Louisiana, USA, March 24-28, 1996March 24-28, 1996, issn: 0065-7727
  • TOON, OB and MA TOLBERT (1995), SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE AGAINST NITRIC-ACID TRIHYDRATE IN POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS. Nat. Version: 1 375 (6528) 218-221, issn: 0028-0836, ids: QY881, doi: 10.1038/375218a0
  • ANTHONY, SE, RT TISDALE, RS DISSELKAMP, MA TOLBERT and JC WILSON (1995), FTIR STUDIES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE SULFURIC-ACID AEROSOLS. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 22 (9) 1105-1108, issn: 0094-8276, ids: QW543, doi: 10.1029/95GL01031
  • Berland, BS, DE Brown, MA Tolbert and SM George (1995), Refractive index and density of vapor-deposited ice. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 22 (24) 3493-3496, issn: 0094-8276, ids: TM728, doi: 10.1029/95GL03504
  • IRACI, LT, AM MIDDLEBROOK and MA TOLBERT (1995), LABORATORY STUDIES OF THE FORMATION OF POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS - NITRIC-ACID CONDENSATION ON THIN SULFURIC-ACID FILMS. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 100 (D10) 20969-20977, issn: 2169-897X, ids: TD507, doi: 10.1029/95JD02267
  • MANION, JA, CM FITTSCHEN, DM GOLDEN, LR WILLIAMS and MA TOLBERT (1994), HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS OF CHLORINE NITRATE AND DINITROGEN PENTOXIDE ON SULFURIC-ACID SURFACES REPRESENTATIVE OF GLOBAL STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOL-PARTICLES. Isr. J. Chem. Version: 1 34 (4-Mar) 355-363, issn: 0021-2148, ids: QF903
  • TOON, OB, MA TOLBERT, BG KOEHLER, AM MIDDLEBROOK and J JORDAN (1994), INFRARED OPTICAL-CONSTANTS OF H2O ICE, AMORPHOUS NITRIC-ACID SOLUTIONS, AND NITRIC-ACID HYDRATES. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 99 (D12) 25631-25654, issn: 2169-897X, ids: PY229, doi: 10.1029/94JD02388
  • IRACI, LT, AM MIDDLEBROOK, MA WILSON and MA TOLBERT (1994), GROWTH OF NITRIC-ACID HYDRATES ON THIN SULFURIC-ACID FILMS. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 21 (10) 867-870, issn: 0094-8276, ids: NM103, doi: 10.1029/94GL00916
  • BERLAND, BS, DR HAYNES, KL FOSTER, MA TOLBERT, SM GEORGE and OB TOON (1994), REFRACTIVE-INDEXES OF AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE HNO3/H2O FILMS REPRESENTATIVE OF POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 98 (16) 4358-4364, issn: 0022-3654, ids: NH490, doi: 10.1021/j100067a024
  • MIDDLEBROOK, AM, BS BERLAND, SM GEORGE, MA TOLBERT and OB TOON (1994), REAL REFRACTIVE-INDEXES OF INFRARED-CHARACTERIZED NITRIC-ACID ICE FILMS - IMPLICATIONS FOR OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS OF POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 99 (D12) 25655-25666, issn: 2169-897X, ids: PY229, doi: 10.1029/94JD02391
  • WILLIAMS, LR, JA MANION, DM GOLDEN and MA TOLBERT (1994), LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS ON SULFURIC-ACID SURFACES. J. Appl. Meteorol. Version: 1 33 (7) 785-790, issn: 0894-8763, ids: NT669, doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1994)033<0785:LMOHRO>2.0.CO;2
  • MIDDLEBROOK, AM, LT IRACI, LS MCNEILL, BG KOEHLER, MA WILSON, OW SAASTAD, MA TOLBERT and DR HANSON (1993), FOURIER TRANSFORM-INFRARED STUDIES OF THIN H2SO4/H2O FILMS - FORMATION, WATER-UPTAKE, AND SOLID-LIQUID PHASE-CHANGES. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 98 (D11) 20473-20481, issn: 2169-897X, ids: MJ298, doi: 10.1029/93JD02454
  • KOEHLER, BG, LS MCNEILL, AM MIDDLEBROOK and MA TOLBERT (1993), FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED STUDIES OF THE INTERACTION OF HCL WITH MODEL POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD FILMS. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 98 (D6) 10563-10571, issn: 0148-0227, ids: LJ840, doi: 10.1029/93JD00586
  • TOLBERT, MA, J PFAFF, I JAYAWEERA and MJ PRATHER (1993), UPTAKE OF FORMALDEHYDE BY SULFURIC-ACID-SOLUTIONS - IMPACT ON STRATOSPHERIC OZONE. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 98 (D2) 2957-2962, issn: 0148-0227, ids: KN689, doi: 10.1029/92JD02386
  • KOEHLER, BG, AM MIDDLEBROOK and MA TOLBERT (1992), CHARACTERIZATION OF MODEL POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD FILMS USING FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY AND TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMED DESORPTION. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 97 (D8) 8065-8074, issn: 0148-0227, ids: HY079
  • MIDDLEBROOK, AM, BG KOEHLER, LS MCNEILL and MA TOLBERT (1992), FORMATION OF MODEL POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD FILMS. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 19 (24) 2417-2420, issn: 0094-8276, ids: KG677, doi: 10.1029/92GL02635
  • TOLBERT, MA, BG KOEHLER and AM MIDDLEBROOK (1992), SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MODEL POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD FILMS. Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 48 (9) 1303-1313, issn: 0584-8539, ids: JP756, doi: 10.1016/0584-8539(92)80267-Z
  • TOLBERT, MA and AM MIDDLEBROOK (1990), FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED STUDIES OF MODEL POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD SURFACES - GROWTH AND EVAPORATION OF ICE AND NITRIC-ACID ICE. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 95 (D13) 22423-22431, issn: 0148-0227, ids: EQ840, doi: 10.1029/JD095iD13p22423
  • REIHS, CM, DM GOLDEN and MA TOLBERT (1990), NITRIC-ACID UPTAKE BY SULFURIC-ACID-SOLUTIONS UNDER STRATOSPHERIC CONDITIONS - DETERMINATION OF HENRY LAW SOLUBILITY. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 95 (D10) 16545-16550, issn: 0148-0227, ids: EB202, doi: 10.1029/JD095iD10p16545
  • TOLBERT, MA, DL HUESTIS and MJ ROSSI (1988), HIGH-TEMPERATURE DECOMPOSITION OF TETRAMETHYLDIOXETANE - MEASUREMENTS OF GAS-PHASE CHEMIEXCITATION YIELDS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (14) 4094-4099, issn: 0022-3654, ids: P3198, doi: 10.1021/j100325a022
  • TOLBERT, MA, MJ ROSSI and DM GOLDEN (1988), HETEROGENEOUS INTERACTIONS OF CHLORINE NITRATE, HYDROGEN-CHLORIDE, AND NITRIC-ACID WITH SULFURIC-ACID SURFACES AT STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 15 (8) 847-850, issn: 0094-8276, ids: P5074, doi: 10.1029/GL015i008p00847
  • TOLBERT, MA, MJ ROSSI and DM GOLDEN (1988), ANTARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION CHEMISTRY - REACTIONS OF N2O5 WITH H2O AND HCL ON ICE SURFACES. Sci. Version: 1 240 (4855) 1018-1021, issn: 0036-8075, ids: N4529, doi: 10.1126/science.240.4855.1018
  • TOLBERT, MA, MN SPENCER, DL HUESTIS and MJ ROSSI (1988), HIGH-DENSITY CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE STUDIES - EXPLOSIVE DECOMPOSITION OF SOLID-PHASE TETRAMETHYLDIOXETANE. J. Photoch. Photobio. A Version: 1 42 (1) 73-85, issn: 1010-6030, ids: M4803, doi: 10.1016/1010-6030(88)80050-9
  • TOLBERT, MA, MJ ROSSI, R MALHOTRA and DM GOLDEN (1987), REACTION OF CHLORINE NITRATE WITH HYDROGEN-CHLORIDE AND WATER AT ANTARCTIC STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES. Sci. Version: 1 238 (4831) 1258-1260, issn: 0036-8075, ids: K9813, doi: 10.1126/science.238.4831.1258
  • TOLBERT, MA, ML MANDICH, LF HALLE and JL BEAUCHAMP (1986), ACTIVATION OF ALKANES BY RUTHENIUM, RHODIUM, AND PALLADIUM IONS IN THE GAS-PHASE - STRIKING DIFFERENCES IN REACTIVITY OF 1ST-ROW AND 2ND-ROW METAL-IONS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 108 (19) 5675-5683, issn: 0002-7863, ids: E0584, doi: 10.1021/ja00279a003
  • TOLBERT, MA and JL BEAUCHAMP (1986), MECHANISTIC AND KINETIC-STUDY OF ALKANE ACTIVATION BY TI+ AND V+ IN THE GAS-PHASE - LIFETIMES OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 108 (24) 7509-7517, issn: 0002-7863, ids: F0090, doi: 10.1021/ja00284a012
  • TOLBERT, MA and JL BEAUCHAMP (1986), HOMOLYTIC AND HETEROLYTIC BOND-DISSOCIATION ENERGIES OF THE 2ND-ROW GROUP-8, GROUP-9, AND GROUP-10 DIATOMIC TRANSITION-METAL HYDRIDES - CORRELATION WITH ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 90 (21) 5015-5022, issn: 0022-3654, ids: E3471, doi: 10.1021/j100412a029
  • TOLBERT, MA and JL BEAUCHAMP (1984), ACTIVATION OF CARBON HYDROGEN AND CARBON CARBON BONDS BY TRANSITION-METAL IONS IN THE GAS-PHASE - EXHIBITION OF UNIQUE REACTIVITY BY SCANDIUM IONS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 106 (26) 8117-8122, issn: 0002-7863, ids: TY647, doi: 10.1021/ja00338a019
  • WEBB, SP, SW YEH, LA PHILIPS, MA TOLBERT and JH CLARK (1984), ULTRAFAST EXCITED-STATE PROTON-TRANSFER IN 1-NAPHTHOL. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 106 (23) 7286-7288, issn: 0002-7863, ids: TS617, doi: 10.1021/ja00335a093
  • SCOTT, GW, JH CLARK, MA TOLBERT, SP WEBB, AJ COX and G RENZ (1983), SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF THE SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL PROPERTIES OF TUNABLE, SINGLE, PICOSECOND PULSES FROM A SHORT CAVITY DYE-LASER. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. Version: 1 19 (4) 544-550, issn: 0018-9197, ids: QR367, doi: 10.1109/JQE.1983.1071892
  • CHI, IC, LE LAUFE, SD GARDNER and MA TOLBERT (1980), EPIDEMIOLOGIC-STUDY OF RISK-FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY FOLLOWING FEMALE STERILIZATION. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Version: 1 136 (6) 768-773, issn: 0002-9378, ids: JK531