Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Margaret A. Tolbert

Margaret A. Tolbert

Atmospheric chemistry; heterogeneous reactions, polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds, nucleation, and planetary atmospheres.


Current Research

Water uptake and loss by salt particles: Application to Mars

Research in the Tolbert Group is focused on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, specifically determining the chemical, physical, and optical properties of atmospheric particulate. Along with fundamental studies of particles, we are exploring how atmospheric particulate impacts current problems such as stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change, urban smog, and visibility degradation. As well as studies of atmospheric aerosols on Earth, we are also probing particles present on other worlds including Titan and Mars. Here we highlight recent results relevant to possible liquid water on present-day Mars.

A surprising discovery made by the Phoenix Lander’s Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) in the Martian arctic plains was the presence of 0.5 percent by weight perchlorate (ClO4 -). Perchlorate’s presence is interesting due to its impact on the soil’s ability to retain water, thus influencing the water cycle and habitability. Perchlorate salts are known to readily absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and deliquesce into aqueous solution. Perchlorates, like most salts, also tend to remain in a supersaturated aqueous phase instead of efflorescing back into a solid crystal. This hysteresis behavior allows liquid brine solutions to exist at low relative humidity (RH) values. Such brines may explain observations of residual slope lineae, resembling running water, that appear on Mars today. Work in our group recently reported the deliquescence and efflorescence RH values of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature and applied the results to Martian surface and subsurface conditions. To characterize the deliquescence and efflorescence of Ca(ClO4)2, we studied changes in salt phase and hydration state, using Raman and optical microscopy. To probe phase state and morphology of individual Ca(ClO4)2 droplets free from substrate, we levitated droplets in an optical trap recently developed in our lab. The figure shows optical images of a Ca(ClO4)2 particle during a deliquescence experiment in which RH was raised. It shows the initially dry particle at 0 percent RH underwent a hydration phase transition at 15 percent RH, followed by deliquescence at 26 percent RH, and growth at higher RH values. Experiments with increasing and decreasing RH, combined with martian temperatures and RH values, allow us to suggest that calcium perchlorate could be aqueous for several hours per day on Mars’ surface, and for more than half a day in the subsurface.

 


Recurring slope lineae (RSL) on Mars may indicate subsurface water flow. The image was taken by an instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Image credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


  • CU Distinguished Professor, 2010 Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology
  • 2009 Hazel Barnes Prize
  • 2007 Guggenheim Fellowship
  • 2005 National Academy of Sciences Member
  • 2004 NASA Group Achievement Award
  • Crystal-Face Science Team
  • 2003 NASA Group Achievement Award SOLVE Experiment
  • 2001 BFA Award for Excellence in Research
  • Scholarly and Creative Work, 2001

View Publications

  • Davis, RD, S Lance, JA Gordon and MA Tolbert (2015), Long Working-Distance Optical Trap for in Situ Analysis of Contact-Induced Phase Transformations. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (12) 6186-6194, issn: Mar-00, ids: CL2DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00809, PubMed ID: 25961113
  • Nuding, DL, RD Davis, RV Gough and MA Tolbert (2015), The aqueous stability of a Mars salt analog: Instant Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 120 (3) 588-598, issn: 2169-9097, ids: CF9AY, doi: 10.1002/2014JE004722
  • Schill, GP, K Genareau and MA Tolbert (2015), Deposition and immersion-mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (13) 7523-7536, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CM8UT, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-7523-2015
  • Hiranuma, N, S Augustin-Bauditz, H Bingemer, C Budke, J Curtius, A Danielczok, K Diehl, K Dreischmeier, M Ebert, F Frank, N Hoffmann, K Kandler, A Kiselev, T Koop, T Leisner, O Mohler, B Nillius, A Peckhaus, D Rose, S Weinbruch, H Wex, Y Boose, PJ DeMott, JD Hader, TCJ Hill, ZA Kanji, G Kulkarni, EJT Levin, CS McCluskey, M Murakami, BJ Murray, D Niedermeier, MD Petters, D O'Sullivan, A Saito, GP Schill, T Tajiri, MA Tolbert, A Welti, TF Whale, TP Wright and K Yamashita (2015), A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (5) 2489-2518, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CC7PE, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015
  • Hicks, RK, DA Day, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2015), Elemental Analysis of Complex Organic Aerosol Using Isotopic Labeling and Unit-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (5) 2741-2747, issn: Mar-00, ids: CC8IM, doi: 10.1021/ac504014g, PubMed ID: 25645140
  • Sihvonen, SK, GP Schill, NA Lyktey, DP Veghte, MA Tolbert and MA Freedman (2014), Chemical and Physical Transformations of Aluminosilicate Clay Minerals Due to Acid Treatment and Consequences for Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 118 (38) 8787-8796, issn: 1089-5639, ids: AP9JM, doi: 10.1021/jp504846g, PubMed ID: 25211030
  • Thalman, R, KJ Zarzana, MA Tolbert and R Volkamer (2014), Rayleigh scattering cross-section measurements of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and air. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. Version: 1 147 171-177, issn: 0022-4073, ids: AN6GY, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.05.030
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2014), Formation of aqueous solutions on Mars via deliquescence of chloride-perchlorate binary mixtures. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 393 73-82, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AG0KG, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.002
  • Yoon, YH, SM Horst, RK Hicks, R Li, JA de Gouw and MA Tolbert (2014), The role of benzene photolysis in Titan haze formation. Icarus Version: 1 233 233-241, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AE1KX, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.02.006
  • Schill, GP, DO De Haan and MA Tolbert (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Secondary Organic Aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (3) 1675-1682, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AA3TL, doi: 10.1021/es4046428, PubMed ID: 24410444
  • Hawkins, LN, MJ Baril, N Sedehi, MM Galloway, DO De Haan, GP Schill and MA Tolbert (2014), Formation of Semisolid, Oligomerized Aqueous SOA: Lab Simulations of Cloud Processing. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (4) 2273-2280, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AB4QD, doi: 10.1021/es4049626, PubMed ID: 24428707
  • Zarzana, KJ, CD Cappa and MA Tolbert (2014), Sensitivity of Aerosol Refractive Index Retrievals Using Optical Spectroscopy. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (11) 1133-1144, issn: 0278-6826, ids: AR7OL, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2014.963498
  • Horst, SM and MA Tolbert (2014), The Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Planetary Haze Formation. Astrophys. J. Version: 1 781 (1) , issn: 0004-637X, ids: 286AE, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/53
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Sea-Spray Aerosol Using Raman Microscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 118 (50) 29234-29241, issn: 1932-7447, ids: AX2FP, doi: 10.1021/jp505379j
  • Nuding, DL, EG Rivera-Valentin, RD Davis, RV Gough, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2014), Deliquescence and efflorescence of calcium perchlorate: An investigation of stable aqueous solutions relevant to Mars. Icarus Version: 1 243 420-428, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AT0OO, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.036
  • Cable, ML, SM Horst, C He, AM Stockton, MF Mora, MA Tolbert, MA Smith and PA Willis (2014), Identification of primary amines in Titan tholins using microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 403 99-107, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AP7GZ, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.028
  • Robinson, CB, GP Schill and MA Tolbert (2014), Optical growth of highly viscous organic/sulfate particles. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 71 (2) 145-156, issn: 0167-7764, ids: AO6ZM, doi: 10.1007/s10874-014-9287-8
  • Baustian, KJ, ME Wise, EJ Jensen, GP Schill, MA Freedman and MA Tolbert (2013), State transformations and ice nucleation in amorphous (semi-)solid organic aerosol. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (11) 5615-5628, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 164AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-5615-2013
  • Robinson, CB, GP Schill, KJ Zarzana and MA Tolbert (2013), Impact of Organic Coating on Optical Growth of Ammonium Sulfate Particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (23) 13339-13346, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 266CH, doi: 10.1021/es4023128, PubMed ID: 24144443
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2013), Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (9) 4681-4695, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 144LR, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-4681-2013
  • Trainer, MG, JA Sebree, YH Yoon and MA Tolbert (2013), THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 766 (1) , issn: 2041-8205, ids: 103WH, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/766/1/L4
  • Horst, SM and MA Tolbert (2013), IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 770 (1) , issn: 2041-8205, ids: 155CR, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/770/1/L10
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2012), Depositional Ice Nucleation on Monocarboxylic Acids: Effect of the O:C Ratio. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (25) 6817-6822, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 965LR, doi: 10.1021/jp301772q, PubMed ID: 22646721
  • Zarzana, KJ, DO De Haan, MA Freedman, CA Hasenkopf and MA Tolbert (2012), Optical Properties of the Products of alpha-Dicarbonyl and Amine Reactions in Simulated Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 46 (9) 4845-4851, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 933GO, doi: 10.1021/es2040152, PubMed ID: 22515474
  • Trainer, MG, JL Jimenez, YL Yung, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2012), Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N-2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation. Astrobiology Version: 1 12 (4) 315-326, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 929LK, doi: 10.1089/ast.2011.0754, PubMed ID: 22519972
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian, T Koop, MA Freedman, EJ Jensen and MA Tolbert (2012), Depositional ice nucleation onto crystalline hydrated NaCl particles: a new mechanism for ice formation in the troposphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 12 (2) 1121-1134, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 892YL, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-1121-2012
  • Baustian, KJ, DJ Cziczo, ME Wise, KA Pratt, G Kulkarni, AG Hallar and MA Tolbert (2012), Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 918GK, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016784
  • Connelly, BM, DO De Haan and MA Tolbert (2012), Heterogeneous Glyoxal Oxidation: A Potential Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 6180-6187, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp211502e, PubMed ID: 22510110
  • Hasenkopf, CA, MA Freedman, MR Beaver, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2011), Potential Climatic Impact of Organic Haze on Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 11 (2) 135-149, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 739DJ, doi: 10.1089/ast.2010.0541, PubMed ID: 21417943
  • De Haan, DO, LN Hawkins, JA Kononenko, JJ Turley, AL Corrigan, MA Tolbert and JL Jimenez (2011), Formation of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers by Methylglyoxal and Amines in Simulated Evaporating Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 45 (3) 984-991, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 711HG, doi: 10.1021/es102933x, PubMed ID: 21171623
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier, KJ Baustian, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2011), Laboratory studies of perchlorate phase transitions: Support for metastable aqueous perchlorate solutions on Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 312 (4-Mar) 371-377, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 880ID, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.10.026
  • Gough, RV, JJ Turley, GR Ferrell, KE Cordova, SE Wood, DO DeHaan, CP Mckay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2011), Can rapid loss and high variability of Martian methane be explained by surface H2O2?. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 59 (3-Feb) 238-246, issn: 0032-0633, ids: 724AP, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.09.018
  • Gough, RV, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and OB Toon (2010), Methane adsorption on a martian soil analog: An abiogenic explanation for methane variability in the martian atmosphere. Icarus Version: 1 207 (1) 165-174, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 584KJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.030
  • DeWitt, HL, CA Hasenkopf, MG Trainer, DK Farmer, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2010), The Formation of Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Aerosols under Varying Laboratory Conditions: Implications for Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 10 (8) 773-781, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 682JL, doi: 10.1089/ast.2009.9455, PubMed ID: 21087157
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian and MA Tolbert (2010), Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Version: 1 107 (15) 6693-6698, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0913018107, PubMed ID: 20388912
  • Trainer, MG, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and OB Toon (2010), Limits on the trapping of atmospheric CH4 in martian polar ice analogs. Icarus Version: 1 208 (1) 192-197, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 611RJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.02.006
  • Beaver, MR, MA Freedman, CA Hasenkopf and MA Tolbert (2010), Cooling Enhancement of Aerosol Particles Due to Surfactant Precipitation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 114 (26) 7070-7076, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 617LO, doi: 10.1021/jp102437q, PubMed ID: 20536216
  • Hasenkopf, CA, MR Beaver, MG Trainer, HL Dewitt, MA Freedman, OB Toon, CP McKay and MA Tolbert (2010), Optical properties of Titan and early Earth haze laboratory analogs in the mid-visible. Icarus Version: 1 207 (2) 903-913, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 597VS, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.015
  • Freedman, MA, KJ Baustian, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2010), Characterizing the Morphology of Organic Aerosols at Ambient Temperature and Pressure. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 82 (19) 7965-7972, issn: Mar-00, ids: 655NT, doi: 10.1021/ac101437w, PubMed ID: 20726528
  • Connelly, BM and MA Tolbert (2010), Reaction of Isoprene on Thin Sulfuric Acid Films: Kinetics, Uptake, and Product Analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (12) 4603-4608, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 608WP, doi: 10.1021/es100708b, PubMed ID: 20499904
  • Baustian, KJ, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2010), Depositional ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 10 (5) 2307-2317, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 568ER
  • Trainer, MG, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2009), Measurements of Depositional Ice Nucleation on Insoluble Substrates at Low Temperatures: Implications for Earth and Mars. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 113 (6) 2036-2040, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 404EW, doi: 10.1021/jp805140p
  • De Haan, DO, AL Corrigan, MA Tolbert, JL Jimenez, SE Wood and JJ Turley (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Self-Reactions of Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal in Evaporating Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (21) 8184-8190, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 510QT, doi: 10.1021/es902152t, PubMed ID: 19924942
  • Freedman, MA, CA Hasenkopf, MR Beaver and MA Tolbert (2009), Optical Properties of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Composed of Dicarboxylic Acids and Ammonium Sulfate. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (48) 13584-13592, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 522ZE, doi: 10.1021/jp906240y, PubMed ID: 19877658
  • DeWitt, HL, MG Trainer, AA Pavlov, CA Hasenkopf, AC Aiken, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2009), Reduction in Haze Formation Rate on Prebiotic Earth in the Presence of Hydrogen. Astrobiology Version: 1 9 (5) 447-453, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 464TB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2008.0289, PubMed ID: 19566425
  • De Haan, DO, MA Tolbert and JL Jimenez (2009), Atmospheric condensed-phase reactions of glyoxal with methylamine. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L11819, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 458FN, doi: 10.1029/2009GL037441
  • De Haan, DO, AL Corrigan, KW Smith, DR Stroik, JJ Turley, FE Lee, MA Tolbert, JL Jimenez, KE Cordova and GR Ferrell (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol-Forming Reactions of Glyoxal with Amino Acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (8) 2818-2824, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 432ZK, doi: 10.1021/es803534f, PubMed ID: 19475956
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian and MA Tolbert (2009), Laboratory studies of ice formation pathways from ammonium sulfate particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (5) 1639-1646, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 418FA
  • Hatch, CD, RV Gough, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2008), Heterogeneous nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate on clay minerals: Relevance to Type Ia polar stratospheric clouds. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 112 (2) 612-620, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 250GE, doi: 10.1021/jp075828n, PubMed ID: 18052146
  • Curtis, DB, CD Hatch, CA Hasenkopf, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and BN Khare (2008), Laboratory studies of methane and ethane adsorption and nucleation onto organic particles: Application to Titan's clouds. Icarus Version: 1 195 (2) 792-801, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 304SD, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.02.003
  • Beaver, MR, RM Garland, CA Hasenkopf, T Baynard, AR Ravishankara and MA Tolbert (2008), A laboratory investigation of the relative humidity dependence of light extinction by organic compounds from lignin combustion. Environ. Res. Lett. Version: 1 3 (4) , issn: 1748-9326, ids: 442YW, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045003
  • Shilling, JE, BM Connelly and MA Tolbert (2006), Uptake of small oxygenated organic molecules onto ammonium nitrate under upper tropospheric conditions. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (21) 6687-6695, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 046SO, doi: 10.1021/jp055940q, PubMed ID: 16722684
  • Shilling, JE, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray and AK Bertram (2006), Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (17) , issn: 0094-8276, ids: 081QH, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026671
  • Mashburn, CD, EK Frinak and MA Tolbert (2006), Heterogeneous uptake of nitric acid on Na-montmorillonite clay as a function of relative humidity. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D15) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 074BK, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006525
  • Beaver, MR, MJ Elrod, RM Garland and MA Tolbert (2006), Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 6 3231-3242, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 070KC
  • Garland, RM, MJ Elrod, K Kincaid, MR Beaver, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2006), Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 40 (35) 6863-6878, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 099PH, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.009
  • Shilling, JE, TJ Fortin and MA Tolbert (2006), Depositional ice nucleation on crystalline organic and inorganic solids. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D12) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 057BT, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006664
  • Trainer, MG, AA Pavlov, HL DeWitt, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2006), Organic haze on Titan and the early Earth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Version: 1 103 (48) 18035-18042, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 111PJ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0608561103, PubMed ID: 17101962
  • Baynard, T, RM Garland, AR Ravishankara, MA Tolbert and ER Lovejoy (2006), Key factors influencing the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (6) , issn: 0094-8276, ids: 026NG, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024898
  • Gamblin, B, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, Y Kondo, N Takegawa, H Irie, M Koike, JO Ballenthin, DE Hunton, TM Miller, AA Viggiano, BE Anderson, M Avery, GW Sachse, JR Podolske, K Guenther, C Sorenson and MJ Mahoney (2006), Nitric acid condensation on ice: 1. Non-HNO3 constituent of NOY condensing cirrus particles on upper tropospheric. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D21) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 104UF, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006048
  • Frinak, EK, CD Mashburn, MA Tolbert and OB Toon (2005), Infrared characterization of water uptake by low-temperature Na-montmorillonite: Implications for Earth and Mars. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D9) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 927QN, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005647
  • Garland, RM, ME Wise, MR Beaver, HL DeWitt, AC Aiken, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2005), Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 5 1951-1961, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 950GN
  • Curtis, DB, B Rajaram, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2005), Measurement of the temperature-dependent optical constants of water ice in the 15-200 mu m range. Appl. Optics Version: 1 44 (19) 4102-4118, issn: 1559-128X, ids: 940OM, doi: 10.1364/AO.44.004102, PubMed ID: 16004058
  • Curtis, DB, DL Glandorf, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and BN Khare (2005), Laboratory studies of butane nucleation on organic haze particles: Application to Titan's clouds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 109 (7) 1382-1390, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 898XC, doi: 10.1021/jp045596h, PubMed ID: 16833455
  • Trainer, MG, AA Pavlov, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, DR Worsnop, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2004), Chemical composition of Titan's haze: Are PAHs present?. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (17) , Art. No. L17S08, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 846UP, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019859
  • Gao, RS, PJ Popp, DW Fahey, TP Marcy, RL Herman, EM Weinstock, DG Baumgardner, TJ Garrett, KH Rosenlof, TL Thompson, PT Bui, BA Ridley, SC Wofsy, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, B Karcher, T Peter, PK Hudson, AJ Weinheimer and AJ Heymsfield (2004), Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Science Version: 1 303 (5657) 516-520, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 765XM, doi: 10.1126/science.1091255, PubMed ID: 14739457
  • Shilling, JE and MA Tolbert (2004), Uptake of acetic acid on thin ammonium nitrate films as a function of temperature and relative humidity. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 108 (51) 11314-11320, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 880OK, doi: 10.1021/jp046135z
  • Trainer, MG, AA Pavlov, DB Curtis, CP McKay, DR Worsnop, AE Delia, DW Toohey, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2004), Haze aerosols in the atmosphere of early earth: Manna from heaven. Astrobiology Version: 1 4 (4) 409-419, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 880NZ, doi: 10.1089/ast.2004.4.409, PubMed ID: 15684721
  • Wise, ME, RM Garland and MA Tolbert (2004), Ice nucleation in internally mixed ammonium sulfate/dicarboxylic acid particles. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 109 (D19) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 861PR, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004313
  • Frinak, EK, SJ Wermeille, CD Mashburn, MA Tolbert and CJ Pursell (2004), Heterogeneous reaction of gaseous nitric acid on gamma-phase iron(III) oxide. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 108 (9) 1560-1566, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 800IG, doi: 10.1021/jp030807o
  • Brooks, SD, OB Toon, MA Tolbert, D Baumgardner, BW Gandrud, EV Browell, H Flentje and JC Wilson (2004), Polar stratospheric clouds during SOLVE/THESEO: Comparison of lidar observations with in situ measurements. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 109 (D2) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 772XE, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003463
  • Kondo, Y, OB Toon, H Irie, B Gamblin, M Koike, N Takegawa, MA Tolbert, PK Hudson, AA Viggiano, LM Avallone, AG Hallar, BE Anderson, GW Sachse, SA Vay, DE Hunton, JO Ballenthin and TM Miller (2003), Uptake of reactive nitrogen on cirrus cloud particles in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 30 (4) , issn: 0094-8276, ids: 663AN, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016539
  • Wise, ME, JD Surratt, DB Curtis, JE Shilling and MA Tolbert (2003), Hygroscopic growth of ammonium sulfate/dicarboxylic acids. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D20) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 736XN, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003775
  • Brooks, SD, RM Garland, ME Wise, AJ Prenni, M Cushing, E Hewitt and MA Tolbert (2003), Phase changes in internally mixed maleic acid/ammonium sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D15) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 713PZ, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003204
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