Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Robert E. Sievers

Robert E. Sievers

Professor Sievers is studying analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical science, aerosols, microparticles and nanoparticles, inhalable vaccines and antibiotics, and supercritical fluids.

Fundamental and applied studies of the formation of nanoparticle and microparticle aerosols are underway. Carbon dioxide-assisted nebulization provides superior aerosols for various forms of spectroscopy, such as electro-spray ionization, mass spectrometry and atomic absorption. Sievers' students are collaborating with pharmacists and physicians in the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, to develop new methods for delivery of aerosol particles useful in direct and painless administration of therapeutic drugs and vaccines by inhalation. The drugs are dissolved or suspended in supercritical fluids, and unusually small aerosol particles are formed by rapid decompression to facilitate delivery of the aerosol particles to the most distal alveoli and to allow rapid uptake by the lungs. Formation of fine aerosols is expected to become increasingly important in the treatment or vaccination against measles, HPV, influenza, infections, cystic fibrosis, and asthma.

The simultaneous stabilization, drying, and micronization of vaccines, antibodies, proteins, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals and other products of the biotechnology revolution are under study. Two of the fourteen "Grand Challenges identified by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the NIH Foundation as critical to world health are being addressed by the Sievers group: needle-free administration of vaccines (by pulmonary or nasal aerosols), and vaccines that do not need refrigeration for long term storage. Collaborations with groups in India and South Africa have been developed.


Current Research

Development of needle-free and water-free inhalable dry powder aerosol vaccines

Inhalable dry powder aerosol vaccines require no needle, no purified water for reconstitution, and no electricity or batteries for delivery, which makes them especially useful in developing countries. Working in Prof. Sievers’ Global Health Group in CIRES, in collaboration with Aktiv-Dry LLC, in Boulder, Colorado, the Serum Institute of India, Ltd., Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, our team developed the first dry powder aerosol vaccine to complete Phase I trials without any adverse events.

To facilitate aerosol delivery, our CIRES team earlier invented the PuffHaler®, an “active” dry powder inhaler with only one moving part, a simple squeeze bulb with its pressure release valve. We also invented a special form of spray drying, Carbon Dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer (CAN-BD), that produces aerosol microparticles small enough (1-5 microns aerodynamic diameter) to be distributed throughout the moist respiratory tracts of humans and test animals in which immune responses are generated.

This dry powder aerosol vaccine has been administered to 40 human volunteers without any serious adverse events observed while following the patients 180 days after this Phase I safety clinical trial began in India. This development over the past nine years by a team of 35 chemists, engineers, physicians, immunologists, public health specialists, students, and post-doctorals has been made possible by a $20 million grant (FNIH Grant 1077) from the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health as part of the Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative created by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Publications

Click here for list of publications


Robert Sievers demonstrates easy vaccination by inhalation of dry powder aerosol vaccines in a needle-free inhaler that he co-invented. Photo credit: Glen Asakawa/CU Boulder


  • Tswett Chromatography Medallist, 1981
  • American Chemical Society Colorado Section Award, 1985
  • Dimick Award in Chromatography, 1992
  • Thomas Jefferson Award, 2001
  • Robert Stearns Award, 2003
  • Pinnacle of Inventorship Award, 2004
  • ACS Astellas Prize in Public Health, 2008
  • Governor's Award for Research Impact, 2009

View Publications

  • Manion, JR, SP Cape, DH McAdams, LG Rebits, S Evans and RE Sievers (2012), Inhalable Antibiotics Manufactured Through Use of Near-Critical or Supercritical Fluids. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 46 (4) 403-410, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 912CG, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2011.634453
  • Lin, WH, DE Griffin, PA Rota, M Papania, SP Cape, D Bennett, B Quinn, RE Sievers, C Shermer, K Powell, RJ Adams, S Godin and S Winston (2011), Successful respiratory immunization with dry powder live-attenuated measles virus vaccine in rhesus macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 108 (7) 2987-2992, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 721TB, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1017334108, PubMed ID: 21282608
  • Kisich, KO, MP Higgins, I Park, SP Cape, L Lindsay, DJ Bennett, S Winston, J Searles and RE Sievers (2011), Dry powder measles vaccine: Particle deposition, virus replication, and immune response in cotton rats following inhalation. Vaccine Version: 1 29 (5) 905-912, issn: 0264-410X, ids: 720QS, doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.020
  • Burger, JL, SP Cape, CS Braun, DH Mcadams, JA Best, P Bhagwat, P Pathak, LG Rebits and RE Sievers (2008), Stabilizing formulations for inhalable powders of live-attenuated measles virus vaccine. J. Aerosol Med. Pulm. Drug Deliv. Version: 1 21 (1) 25-34, issn: 1941-2711, ids: 329HX, doi: 10.1089/jamp.2007.0658, PubMed ID: 18518829
  • Kissmann, J, SF Ausar, A Rudolph, C Braun, SP Cape, RE Sievers, MJ Federspiel, SB Joshi and CR Middaugh (2008), Stabilization of measles virus for vaccine formulation. Hum. Vaccines Version: 1 4 (5) 350-359, issn: 1554-8619, ids: 354KK, PubMed ID: 18382143
  • Cape, SP, JA Villa, ETS Huang, TH Yang, JF Carpenter and RE Sievers (2008), Preparation of Active Proteins, Vaccines and Pharmaceuticals as Fine Powders using Supercritical or Near-Critical Fluids. Pharm. Res. Version: 1 25 (9) 1967-1990, issn: 0724-8741, ids: 337AR, doi: 10.1007/s11095-008-9575-6, PubMed ID: 18581212
  • Rebits, LG, DJ Bennett, PA Bhagwat, A Morin and RE Sievers (2007), Method for quantifying the sample collected by an Andersen Cascade Impactor using total organic carbon analysis. J. Aerosol. Sci. Version: 1 38 (12) 1197-1206, issn: 0021-8502, ids: 243MN, doi: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2007.09.005
  • Villa, JA, ETS Huang, SP Cape and RE Sievers (2005), Synthesis of composite microparticles with a mixing cross. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (6) 473-484, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 947LA, doi: 10.1080/027868290964432
  • Huang, ETS, H Chang, CD Liang and RE Sievers (2003), Fine particle pharmaceutical manufacturing using dense carbon dioxide mixed with aqueous or alcoholic solutions. Version: 1 SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE: SEPARATIONS AND PROCESSES Symposium on Separations and Processes Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide held at the 223rd American-Chemical-Society National Meeting 860 324-338, ORLANDO, FLORIDA, APR 07-11, 2002, Ed. Gopalan, AS; Wai, CM; Jacobs, HK, issn: 0097-6156, ids: BX55A, isbn: 0-8412-3836-7
  • Sievers, RE, ETS Huang, JA Villa, G Engling and PR Brauer (2003), Micronization of water-soluble or alcohol-soluble pharmaceuticals and model compounds with a low-temperature Bubble Dryer (R). J. Supercrit. Fluids Version: 1 6th Conference on Supercritical Fluids and Their Applications 26 (1) 9-16, MAIORI, ITALY, SEP 09-12, 2001, Art. No. PII S0896-8446(02)00188-2, issn: 0896-8446, ids: 675UP, doi: 10.1016/S0896-8446(02)00188-2
  • Andersen, WC, BC Noll, SP Sellers, LL Whildin and RE Sievers (2002), Characterization and structures of the 2,2,7-trimethyl-3,5-octanedionate chelates of cerium(IV) and terbium(III). Inorg. Chim. Acta Version: 1 336 105-110, issn: 0020-1693, ids: 577ZC, doi: 10.1016/S0020-1693(02)00873-3
  • Sellers, SP, GS Clark, RE Sievers and JF Carpenter (2001), Dry powders of stable protein formulations from aqueous solutions prepared using supercritical CO2-assisted aerosolization. J. Pharm. Sci. Version: 1 90 (6) 785-797, issn: 0022-3549, ids: 440ZK, doi: 10.1002/jps.1032, PubMed ID: 11357179
  • Sievers, RE, PD Milewski, SP Sellers, BA Miles, BJ Korte, KD Kusek, GS Clark, B Mioskowski and JA Villa (2000), Supercritical and near-critical carbon dioxide assisted low-temperature bubble drying. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Version: 1 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids (ISSF 2000) 39 (12) 4831-4836, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, APR, 2000, issn: 0888-5885, ids: 381GA, doi: 10.1021/ie000190m
  • Sievers, RE, U Karst, PD Milewski, SP Sellers, BA Miles, JD Schaefer, CR Stoldt and CY Xu (1999), Formation of aqueous small droplet aerosols assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 30 (1) 3-15, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 162CG, doi: 10.1080/027868299304840
  • Frazey, PA, RM Barkley and RE Sievers (1998), Solid phase microextraction with temperature-programmed desorption for the analysis of iodination disinfection byproducts. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 70 (3) 638-644, issn: Mar-00, ids: YV310, doi: 10.1021/ac970395d, PubMed ID: 9470491
  • Xu, CY, BA Watkins, RE Sievers, XP Jing, P Trowga, CS Gibbons and A Vecht (1997), Submicron-sited spherical yttrium oxide based phosphors prepared by supercritical CO2-assisted aerosolization and pyrolysis. Appl. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 71 (12) 1643-1645, issn: Mar-51, ids: XW907, doi: 10.1063/1.120004
  • Veltkamp, PR, KJ Hansen, RM Barkley and RE Sievers (1996), Chromatographic measurement of molecular markers of sources of atmospheric aerosol particles. Environ. Geochem. Health Version: 1 18 (2) 77-80, issn: 0269-4042, ids: UP496, doi: 10.1007/BF01771135, PubMed ID: 24194378
  • Veltkamp, PR, KJ Hansen, RM Barkley and RE Sievers (1996), Principal component analysis of summertime organic aerosols at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 5th International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere 101 (D14) 19495-19504, LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATL LAB, BERKELEY, CA, AUG 23-26, 1994, issn: 2169-897X, ids: VE258, doi: 10.1029/95JD01749
  • HANSEN, KJ, BN NANSEN, E CRAVENS and RE SIEVERS (1995), SUPERCRITICAL-FLUID EXTRACTION GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 67 (19) 3541-3549, issn: Mar-00, ids: RX222, doi: 10.1021/ac00115a025
  • LAGALANTE, AF, BN HANSEN, TJ BRUNO and RE SIEVERS (1995), SOLUBILITIES OF COPPER(II) AND CHROMIUM(III) BETA-DIKETONATES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON-DIOXIDE. Inorg. Chem. Version: 1 34 (23) 5781-5785, issn: 0020-1669, ids: TD990, doi: 10.1021/ic00127a015
  • BUHR, SM, MP BUHR, FC FEHSENFELD, JS HOLLOWAY, U KARST, RB NORTON, DD PARRISH and RE SIEVERS (1995), DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMICONTINUOUS METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC-ACID VAPOR AND PARTICULATE NITRATE AND SULFATE. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 29 (19) 2609-2624, issn: 1352-2310, ids: RW918, doi: 10.1016/1352-2310(95)00171-T
  • DUNHAM, AJ, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1995), AQUEOUS NITRITE ION DETERMINATION BY SELECTIVE REDUCTION AND GAS-PHASE NITRIC-OXIDE CHEMILUMINESCENCE. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 67 (1) 220-224, issn: Mar-00, ids: PZ536, doi: 10.1021/ac00097a033, PubMed ID: 11536661
  • RYERSON, TB, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1994), SELECTIVE CHEMILUMINESCENCE DETECTION OF SULFUR-CONTAINING-COMPOUNDS COUPLED WITH NITROGEN-PHOSPHORUS DETECTION FOR GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY. J. Chromatogr. A Version: 1 670 (2-Jan) 117-126, issn: 0021-9673, ids: NR679, doi: 10.1016/0021-9673(94)80286-6
  • HUANG, L, SB TURNIPSEED, RC HALTIWANGER, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1994), SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURES OF VOLATILE MONONUCLEAR AND PENTANUCLEAR CHELATES OF BARIUM. Inorg. Chem. Version: 1 33 (4) 798-803, issn: 0020-1669, ids: MX860, doi: 10.1021/ic00082a029
  • HANSEN, BN, AF LAGALANTE, RE SIEVERS and TJ BRUNO (1994), HIGH-PRESSURE EQUILIBRIUM CELL FOR SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS. Rev. Sci. Instrum. Version: 1 65 (6) 2112-2114, issn: 0034-6748, ids: NU854, doi: 10.1063/1.1144821
  • RYERSON, TB, AJ DUNHAM, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1994), SULFUR-SELECTIVE DETECTOR FOR LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY BASED ON SULFUR MONOXIDE-OZONE CHEMILUMINESCENCE. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 66 (18) 2841-2851, issn: Mar-00, ids: PG636, doi: 10.1021/ac00090a009
  • SIEVERS, RE, SB TURNIPSEED, L HUANG and AF LAGALANTE (1993), VOLATILE BARIUM BETA-DIKETONATES FOR USE AS MOCVD PRECURSORS. Coord. Chem. Rev. Version: 1 128 (2-Jan) 285-291, issn: Oct-45, ids: MD906, doi: 10.1016/0010-8545(93)80035-4
  • BROOKS, KC, SB TURNIPSEED, RM BARKLEY, RE SIEVERS, V TULCHINSKY and AE KALOYEROS (1992), SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLATILE BISMUTH BETA-DIKETONATE COMPOUNDS FOR METAL ORGANIC-CHEMICAL VAPOR-DEPOSITION OF THIN-FILMS. Chem. Mat. Version: 1 4 (4) 912-916, issn: 0897-4756, ids: JG698, doi: 10.1021/cm00022a030
  • HANSEN, BN, BM HYBERTSON, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1992), SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TRANSPORT CHEMICAL-DEPOSITION OF FILMS. Chem. Mat. Version: 1 4 (4) 749-752, issn: 0897-4756, ids: JG698, doi: 10.1021/cm00022a003
  • BUHR, MP, M TRAINER, DD PARRISH, RE SIEVERS and FC FEHSENFELD (1992), ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES BY PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENTS. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 19 (10) 1009-1012, issn: 0094-8276, ids: HW344, doi: 10.1029/92GL01020
  • MONTZKA, SA, BM HYBERTSON, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1991), LOW-TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF YBA2CU3O6.0 WITH NITROGEN-DIOXIDE. J. Mater. Res. Version: 1 6 (5) 891-894, issn: 0884-2914, ids: FK039, doi: 10.1557/JMR.1991.0891
  • HYBERTSON, BM, BN HANSEN, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1991), DEPOSITION OF PALLADIUM FILMS BY A NOVEL SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TRANSPORT-CHEMICAL DEPOSITION PROCESS. Mater. Res. Bull. Version: 1 26 (11) 1127-1133, issn: 0025-5408, ids: GM871, doi: 10.1016/0025-5408(91)90118-6
  • SIEVERS, RE and B HANSEN (1991), CHEMICAL SAFETY - SUPERCRITICAL FLUID NITROUS-OXIDE EXPLOSION. Chem. Eng. News Version: 1 69 (29) 2-2, issn: 0009-2347, ids: FX557
  • TURNIPSEED, SB, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1991), SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE-EARTH-METAL BETA-DIKETONATE COMPLEXES USED AS PRECURSORS FOR CHEMICAL VAPOR-DEPOSITION OF THIN-FILM SUPERCONDUCTORS. Inorg. Chem. Version: 1 30 (6) 1164-1170, issn: 0020-1669, ids: FD041, doi: 10.1021/ic00006a003
  • BUHR, MP, DD PARRISH, RB NORTON, FC FEHSENFELD, RE SIEVERS and JM ROBERTS (1990), CONTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC NITRATES TO THE TOTAL REACTIVE NITROGEN BUDGET AT A RURAL EASTERN UNITED-STATES SITE. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 95 (D7) 9809-9816, issn: 2169-897X, ids: DM736, doi: 10.1029/JD095iD07p09809
  • DICKINSON, PH, TH GEBALLE, A SANJURJO, D HILDENBRAND, G CRAIG, M ZISK, J COLLMAN, SA BANNING and RE SIEVERS (1989), CHEMICAL VAPOR-DEPOSITION OF YBA2CU3O7-X SUPERCONDUCTING FILMS. J. Appl. Phys. Version: 1 66 (1) 444-447, issn: 0021-8979, ids: AA256, doi: 10.1063/1.343845
  • FOREMAN, WT, CL SHELLUM, JW BIRKS and RE SIEVERS (1989), SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SULFUR CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE DETECTION. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 465 (1) 23-33, issn: 0021-9673, ids: T8065, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94939-8
  • MONTZKA, SA, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1989), CATALYZED REDOX REACTIONS OCCURRING IN A CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE DETECTOR USED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL-ANALYSIS. Version: 1 SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY 42 (2) 81-86, issn: 0379-4350, ids: AF022
  • DEANGELIS, JJ, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1988), COUPLING LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH REDOX CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE DETECTION. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 441 (1) 125-134, issn: 0021-9673, ids: N7801, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84660-4
  • MCNAMARA, EA, SA MONTZKA, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1988), SUPERCONDUCTOR METAL-OXIDE CATALYST IN A CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE CHROMATOGRAPHY DETECTOR. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 452 75-83, issn: 0021-9673, ids: Q9806, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)81438-2
  • FOREMAN, WT, RE SIEVERS and BW WENCLAWIAK (1988), SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH REDOX CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE DETECTION. Version: 1 FRESENIUS ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANALYTISCHE CHEMIE 330 (3) 231-234, issn: 0016-1152, ids: M6100, doi: 10.1007/BF00515613
  • POURREZA, N, SA MONTZKA, RM BARKLEY, RE SIEVERS and RS HUTTE (1987), CHEMISTRY OCCURRING IN REDOX CHEMILUMINESCENCE DETECTORS FOR CHROMATOGRAPHY. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 399 165-172, issn: 0021-9673, ids: J7364
  • SIEVERS, RE, RL SHEARER and RM BARKLEY (1987), GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF CARBON-MONOXIDE IN HYDROCARBON MATRICES WITH A REDOX CHEMILUMINESCENCE DETECTOR. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 395 9-17, issn: 0021-9673, ids: J1086, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94096-8, PubMed ID: 3624368
  • GREAVES, RC, RM BARKLEY, RE SIEVERS and RR MEGLEN (1987), COVARIATIONS IN THE CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH SPRINGTIME ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 21 (12) 2549-2561, issn: 1352-2310, ids: L4552, doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(87)90187-9
  • HUTTE, RS, RE SIEVERS and JW BIRKS (1986), GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY DETECTORS BASED ON CHEMILUMINESCENCE. J. Chromatogr. Sci. Version: 1 24 (11) 499-505, issn: 0021-9665, ids: E6951
  • WENZEL, TJ, EJ WILLIAMS, RC HALTIWANGER and RE SIEVERS (1985), STUDIES OF METAL-CHELATES WITH THE NOVEL LIGAND 2,2,7-TRIMETHYL-3,5-OCTANEDIONE. Polyhedron Version: 1 4 (3) 369-378, issn: 0277-5387, ids: AFX75, doi: 10.1016/S0277-5387(00)86994-6
  • WENCLAWIAK, B, RM BARKLEY, EJ WILLIAMS and RE SIEVERS (1985), GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL-ISOMERS OF TRIS(2,2,7-TRIMETHYLOCTANE-3,5-DIONATO)CHROMIUM(III) AND COBALT(III) CHELATES AND OTHER CR-BETA-DIKETONATES. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 349 (2) 469-479, issn: 0021-9673, ids: AYB23, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)83807-3
  • GREAVES, RC, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1985), RAPID SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 57 (14) 2807-2815, issn: Mar-00, ids: AVD01, doi: 10.1021/ac00291a015
  • HAWTHORNE, SB, RE SIEVERS and RM BARKLEY (1985), ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SHALE OIL WASTEWATERS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR-QUALITY. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 19 (10) 992-997, issn: 0013-936X, ids: ART38, doi: 10.1021/es00140a018
  • GILLIS, JN, RE SIEVERS and GE POLLOCK (1985), SELECTIVE RETENTION OF OXYGEN USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMNS CONTAINING METAL CHELATE POLYMERS. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 57 (8) 1572-1577, issn: Mar-00, ids: ALD42, doi: 10.1021/ac00285a017, PubMed ID: 11536562
  • SIEVERS, RE, SA NYARADY, RL SHEARER, JJ DEANGELIS, RM BARKLEY and RS HUTTE (1985), SELECTIVITY OF THE REDOX CHEMILUMINESCENCE DETECTOR FOR COMPLEX SAMPLE ANALYSIS. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 349 (2) 395-403, issn: 0021-9673, ids: AYB23, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)83797-3
  • ROBERTS, JM, RS HUTTE, FC FEHSENFELD, DL ALBRITTON and RE SIEVERS (1985), MEASUREMENTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION RATIOS IN THE RURAL TROPOSPHERE - DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN BACKGROUND AND URBAN SOURCES. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 19 (11) 1945-1950, issn: 1352-2310, ids: AVE68, doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(85)90020-4
  • NYARADY, SA, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1985), REDOX CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE DETECTOR - APPLICATION TO GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 57 (11) 2074-2079, issn: Mar-00, ids: APP67, doi: 10.1021/ac00288a016
  • GRADEFF, PS, FG SCHREIBER, KC BROOKS and RE SIEVERS (1985), SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF CERIC ALKOXIDES FROM CERIC AMMONIUM-NITRATE. Inorg. Chem. Version: 1 24 (7) 1110-1111, issn: 0020-1669, ids: AEH57, doi: 10.1021/ic00201a033
  • ROBERTS, JM, CJ HAHN, FC FEHSENFELD, JM WARNOCK, DL ALBRITTON and RE SIEVERS (1985), MONOTERPENE HYDROCARBONS IN THE NIGHTTIME TROPOSPHERE. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 19 (4) 364-369, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AEG74, doi: 10.1021/es00134a011, PubMed ID: 22283351
  • NYARADY, SA and RE SIEVERS (1985), SELECTIVE CATALYTIC-OXIDATION OF ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS BY NITROGEN-DIOXIDE. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 107 (12) 3726-3727, issn: Feb-63, ids: AKD36, doi: 10.1021/ja00298a058
  • ROBERTS, JM, FC FEHSENFELD, SC LIU, MJ BOLLINGER, C HAHN, DL ALBRITTON and RE SIEVERS (1984), MEASUREMENTS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBON RATIOS AND NOX CONCENTRATIONS IN THE RURAL TROPOSPHERE - OBSERVATION OF AIR-MASS PHOTOCHEMICAL AGING AND NOX REMOVAL. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 18 (11) 2421-2432, issn: 1352-2310, ids: TX913, doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(84)90012-X
  • WILLIAMS, EJ and RE SIEVERS (1984), SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW SORBENT FOR USE IN THE DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE, COMPLEX-FORMING ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS IN AIR. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 56 (13) 2523-2528, issn: Mar-00, ids: TP940, doi: 10.1021/ac00277a058, PubMed ID: 6517335
  • CONDITT, MK and RE SIEVERS (1984), MICROANALYSIS OF REACTION-PRODUCTS IN SEALED TUBE WET AIR OXIDATIONS BY CAPILLARY GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 56 (13) 2620-2622, issn: Mar-00, ids: TP940, doi: 10.1021/ac00277a085
  • HUTTE, RS, EJ WILLIAMS, J STAEHELIN, SB HAWTHORNE, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1984), CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS IN THE ATMOSPHERE. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 302 (OCT) 173-179, issn: 0021-9673, ids: TR983, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89009-9, PubMed ID: 6209296
  • HAWTHORNE, SB and RE SIEVERS (1984), EMISSION OF ORGANIC AIR-POLLUTANTS FROM SHALE OIL WASTEWATERS. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 18 (6) 483-490, issn: 0013-936X, ids: ST450, doi: 10.1021/es00124a016, PubMed ID: 22247953
  • BOLLINGER, MJ, RE SIEVERS, DW FAHEY and FC FEHSENFELD (1983), CONVERSION OF NITROGEN-DIOXIDE, NITRIC-ACID, AND NORMAL-PROPYL NITRATE TO NITRIC-OXIDE BY GOLD-CATALYZED REDUCTION WITH CARBON-MONOXIDE. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 55 (12) 1980-1986, issn: Mar-00, ids: RJ147, doi: 10.1021/ac00262a034
  • WENCLAWIAK, B and RE SIEVERS (1983), SEPARATION OF GEOMETRICAL-ISOMERS OF CR-BETA-DIKETONATES WITH REVERSED PHASE-HPLC. FRESENIUS ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANALYTISCHE CHEMIE Version: 1 314 (7) 682-682, issn: 0016-1152, ids: QL500, doi: 10.1007/BF00487359
  • SIEVERS, RE and KC BROOKS (1983), GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY COMBINED WITH MASS-SPECTROMETRY IN STUDIES OF COMPLEX-MIXTURES OF TRIS(BETA-DIKETONATO)CHROMIUM(III) GEOMETRICAL-ISOMERS WITH FUSED-SILICA CAPILLARY COLUMNS. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process. Version: 1 47 (JAN) 527-530, issn: 0168-1176, ids: PX384, doi: 10.1016/0020-7381(83)87250-7
  • ROBERTS, JM, FC FEHSENFELD, DL ALBRITTON and RE SIEVERS (1983), MEASUREMENT OF MONOTERPENE HYDROCARBONS AT NIWOT RIDGE, COLORADO. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES 88 (NC15) 667-678, issn: 0148-0227, ids: RV659, doi: 10.1029/JC088iC15p10667
  • WENZEL, TJ and RE SIEVERS (1982), NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE STUDIES OF TERPENES WITH CHIRAL AND ACHIRAL LANTHANIDE(III) SILVER(I) BINUCLEAR SHIFT-REAGENTS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 104 (2) 382-388, issn: Feb-63, ids: MZ487, doi: 10.1021/ja00366a003
  • WENZEL, TJ, ME ASHLEY and RE SIEVERS (1982), WATER-SOLUBLE PARAMAGNETIC RELAXATION REAGENTS FOR C-13 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROMETRY. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 54 (4) 615-621, issn: Mar-00, ids: NG788, doi: 10.1021/ac00241a004
  • WIZNER, MA, S SINGHAWANGCHA, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1982), SELECTIVE ELECTRON-CAPTURE SENSITIZATION OF WATER, PHENOLS, AMINES AND AROMATIC AND HETEROCYCLIC-COMPOUNDS. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 239 (APR) 145-157, issn: 0021-9673, ids: NP579, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81976-7
  • WENZEL, TJ and RE SIEVERS (1982), BINUCLEAR SHIFT-REAGENTS FOR NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROMETRY OF AROMATIC AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-COMPOUNDS. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 54 (9) 1602-1606, issn: Mar-00, ids: NZ573, doi: 10.1021/ac00246a032
  • PICKER, JE and RE SIEVERS (1981), LANTHANIDE METAL-CHELATES AS SELECTIVE COMPLEXING SORBENTS FOR GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 203 (JAN) 29-40, issn: 0021-9673, ids: LA421, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)80279-4
  • WENZEL, TJ and RE SIEVERS (1981), BINUCLEAR COMPLEXES OF LANTHANIDE(III) AND SILVER(I) AND THEIR FUNCTION AS SHIFT-REAGENTS FOR OLEFINS, AROMATICS, AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 53 (3) 393-399, issn: Mar-00, ids: LD777, doi: 10.1021/ac00226a005
  • PICKER, JE and RE SIEVERS (1981), APPLICATIONS OF SELECTIVE COMPLEXATION BY A EUROPIUM(III) COORDINATION POLYMER SORBENT FOR THE PRE-FRACTIONATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 217 (NOV) 275-288, issn: 0021-9673, ids: MS427, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)88082-6
  • CUNNINGHAM, JA and RE SIEVERS (1980), STRUCTURES OF EUROPIUM COMPLEXES AND IMPLICATIONS IN LANTHANIDE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SHIFT-REAGENT CHEMISTRY. Inorg. Chem. Version: 1 19 (3) 595-604, issn: 0020-1669, ids: JH255, doi: 10.1021/ic50205a005
  • GOLDAN, PD, FC FEHSENFELD, WC KUSTER, MP PHILLIPS and RE SIEVERS (1980), VINYL-CHLORIDE DETECTION AT SUB-PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS WITH A CHEMICALLY SENSITIZED ELECTRON-CAPTURE DETECTOR. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 52 (11) 1751-1754, issn: Mar-00, ids: KF129, doi: 10.1021/ac50061a048
  • WENZEL, TJ, TC BETTES, JE SADLOWSKI and RE SIEVERS (1980), NEW BINUCLEAR LANTHANIDE NMR SHIFT-REAGENTS EFFECTIVE FOR AROMATIC-COMPOUNDS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 102 (18) 5903-5904, issn: Feb-63, ids: KE710, doi: 10.1021/ja00538a032
  • PHILLIPS, MP, RE SIEVERS, PD GOLDAN, WC KUSTER and FC FEHSENFELD (1979), ENHANCEMENT OF ELECTRON-CAPTURE DETECTOR SENSITIVITY TO NONELECTRON ATTACHING COMPOUNDS BY ADDITION OF NITROUS-OXIDE TO THE CARRIER GAS. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 51 (11) 1819-1825, issn: 0003-2700, ids: HJ341, doi: 10.1021/ac50047a049
  • SIEVERS, RE, MP PHILLIPS, RM BARKLEY, MA WIZNER, MJ BOLLINGER, RS HUTTE and FC FEHSENFELD (1979), SELECTIVE ELECTRON-CAPTURE SENSITIZATION. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Version: 1 186 (DEC) 3-14, issn: 0021-9673, ids: JH849, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)95232-4
  • HALTIWANGER, RC, KJ KOLONKO, RH SHAPIRO and RE SIEVERS (1979), 1,4,5,6-TETRAHYDRO-1,5,N-TRIMETHYL-4,6-DIOXO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2-CARBOXAMIDE. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B-Struct. Commun. Version: 1 35 (JUN) 1509-1512, issn: 0108-7681, ids: HA612, doi: 10.1107/S0567740879006919
  • KOLONKO, KJ, RH SHAPIRO, RM BARKLEY and RE SIEVERS (1979), OZONATION OF CAFFEINE IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION. J. Org. Chem. Version: 1 44 (22) 3769-3778, issn: 0022-3263, ids: HS228, doi: 10.1021/jo01336a007
  • PETERSON, H, GA EICEMAN, RE SIEVERS and LR FIELD (1978), GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC INJECTOR ATTACHMENT FOR DIRECT INSERTION AND REMOVAL OF A POROUS POLYMER SORPTION TRAP. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 50 (14) 2152-2154, issn: 0003-2700, ids: FY747, doi: 10.1021/ac50036a052
  • SIEVERS, RE and JE SADLOWSKI (1978), VOLATILE METAL-COMPLEXES. Science Version: 1 201 (4352) 217-223, issn: 0036-8075, ids: FF638, doi: 10.1126/science.201.4352.217
  • NAVRATIL, JD, RE SIEVERS and HF WALTON (1977), OPEN-PORE POLYURETHANE COLUMNS FOR COLLECTION AND PRECONCENTRATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS FROM WATER. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 49 (14) 2260-2263, issn: 0003-2700, ids: EC167, doi: 10.1021/ac50022a038
  • SIEVERS, RE, RM BARKLEY, GA EICEMAN, RH SHAPIRO, HF WALTON, KJ KOLONKO and LR FIELD (1977), ENVIRONMENTAL TRACE ANALYSIS OF ORGANICS IN WATER BY GLASS CAPILLARY COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ANCILLARY TECHNIQUES - PRODUCTS OF OZONOLYSIS. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Version: 1 142 (NOV) 745-754, issn: 0021-9673, ids: EB661, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)92082-5
  • BLACK, MS, WR REHG, RE SIEVERS and JJ BROOKS (1977), GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR COMPOUND CLASS ANALYSIS OF JET ENGINE EXHAUST. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Version: 1 142 (NOV) 809-822, issn: 0021-9673, ids: EB661, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)92088-6
  • ROSS, WD, JL PYLE and RE SIEVERS (1977), ANALYSIS FOR BERYLLIUM IN AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATES BY GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 11 (5) 467-471, issn: 0013-936X, ids: DD442, doi: 10.1021/es60128a004
  • CHEN, TM, GG HESS and RE SIEVERS (1977), IMPROVEMENTS IN GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMNS FORMED BY INSITU POLYMERIZATION. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Version: 1 134 (1) 170-173, issn: 0021-9673, ids: DB731, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)82580-7
  • TESCH, JW, WR REHG and RE SIEVERS (1976), MICRODETERMINATION OF NITRATES AND NITRITES IN SALIVA, BLOOD, WATER, AND SUSPENDED PARTICULATES IN AIR BY GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Version: 1 126 (3-Nov) 743-755, issn: 0021-9673, ids: CK675, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84117-0