Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Christopher W. Fairall

Christopher W. Fairall

Dr. Fairall's current research includes air-sea-ice interactions, boundary-layer processes, clouds, optical/radio propagation in the atmosphere, and instrumentation/measurement techniques.


Current Research

Measuring, parameterizing, and modeling atmospheric surface fluxes in the Arctic; Shipboard measurements of cloud-radiative properties in the Eastern Pacific: The VOCALS2008 experiment; Toward a definitive determination of air-sea gas exchange; Air-Sea interaction in hurricanes including sea spray and waves.


  • Member of the NOAA CPPA Science Steering Committee
  • Fellow of the American Meteorological Society
  • AMS Sverdrup Gold Medal winner

View Publications

  • Grachev, AA, LS Leo, S Di Sabatino, HJS Fernando, ER Pardyjak and CW Fairall (2016), Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 159 (3) 469-494, issn: Jun-14, ids: DM5TG, doi: 10.1007/s10546-015-0034-8
  • Chen, S, M Flatau, TG Jensen, T Shinoda, J Schmidt, P May, J Cummings, M Liu, PE Ciesielski, CW Fairall, RC Lien, DB Baranowski, NH Chi, S de Szoeke and J Edson (2015), A Study of CINDY/DYNAMO MJO Suppressed Phase. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 72 (10) 3755-3779, issn: 0022-4928, ids: CT2MY, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0348.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2015), Similarity theory based on the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale. Q. J. Roy Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 141 (690A) 1845-1856, issn: 0035-9009, ids: CP9HE, doi: 10.1002/qj.2488
  • De Szoeke, SP, JB Edson, JR Marion, CW Fairall and L Bariteau (2015), The MJO and Air-Sea Interaction in TOGA COARE and DYNAMO. J. Climate Version: 1 28 (2) 597-622, issn: 0894-8755, ids: AZ4WB, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00477.1
  • Ghate, VP, MA Miller, BA Albrecht and CW Fairall (2015), Thermodynamic and Radiative Structure of Stratocumulus-Topped Boundary Layers. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 72 (1) 430-451, issn: 0022-4928, ids: AY1WA, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0313.1
  • Ghate, VP, BA Albrecht, MA Miller, A Brewer and CW Fairall (2014), Turbulence and Radiation in Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layers: A Case Study from VOCALS-REx. J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. Version: 1 53 (1) 117-135, issn: 1558-8424, ids: AA0FD, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0225.1
  • Blomquist, BW, BJ Huebert, CW Fairall, L Bariteau, JB Edson, JE Hare and WR McGillis (2014), Advances in Air-Sea CO2 Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 152 (3) 245-276, issn: Jun-14, ids: AN2JI, doi: 10.1007/s10546-014-9926-2
  • Moum, JN, SP de Szoeke, WD Smyth, JB Edson, HL DeWitt, AJ Moulin, EJ Thompson, CJ Zappa, SA Rutledge, RH Johnson and CW Fairall (2014), AirSea Interactions from Westerly Wind Bursts During the November 2011 MJO in the Indian Ocean. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Version: 1 95 (8) 1185-1199, issn: 0003-0007, ids: AQ1PD, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00225.1
  • Boylan, P, D Helmig, R Staebler, A Turnipseed, C Fairall and W Neff (2014), Boundary layer dynamics during the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Snow (OASIS) 2009 experiment at Barrow, AK. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 119 (5) 2261-2278, issn: 2169-897X, ids: AE3OL, doi: 10.1002/2013JD020299
  • Fairall, CW, S Pezoa, K Moran and D Wolfe (2014), An observation of sea-spray microphysics by airborne Doppler radar. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 41 (10) 3658-3665, issn: 0094-8276, ids: AJ4AC, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060062
  • Coburn, S, I Ortega, R Thalman, B Blomquist, CW Fairall and R Volkamer (2014), Measurements of diurnal variations and eddy covariance (EC) fluxes of glyoxal in the tropical marine boundary layer: description of the Fast LED-CE-DOAS instrument. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 7 (10) 3579-3595, issn: 1867-1381, ids: AT2AE, doi: 10.5194/amt-7-3579-2014
  • Meskhidze, N, MD Petters, K Tsigaridis, T Bates, C O'Dowd, J Reid, ER Lewis, B Gantt, MD Anguelova, PV Bhave, J Bird, AH Callaghan, D Ceburnis, R Chang, A Clarke, G de Leeuw, G Deane, PJ DeMott, S Elliot, MC Facchini, CW Fairall, L Hawkins, YX Hu, JG Hudson, MS Johnson, KC Kaku, WC Keene, DJ Kieber, MS Long, M Martensson, RL Modini, CL Osburn, KA Prather, A Pszenny, M Rinaldi, LM Russell, M Salter, AM Sayer, A Smirnov, SR Suda, TD Toth, DR Worsnop, A Wozniak and SR Zorn (2013), Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of sea spray aerosols. Atmos. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 14 (4) 207-213, issn: 1530-261X, ids: 239NV, doi: 10.1002/asl2.441
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2013), The Critical Richardson Number and Limits of Applicability of Local Similarity Theory in the Stable Boundary Layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 147 (1) 51-82, issn: Jun-14, ids: 098RX, doi: 10.1007/s10546-012-9771-0
  • Rodriguez-Alvarez, N, DM Akos, VU Zavorotny, JA Smith, A Camps and CW Fairall (2013), Airborne GNSS-R Wind Retrievals Using Delay-Doppler Maps. IEEE T Geosci. Remote Version: 1 51 Part 2 (1) 626-641, issn: 0196-2892, ids: 077IO, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2196437
  • Bourassa, MA, ST Gille, C Bitz, D Carlson, I Cerovecki, CA Clayson, MF Cronin, WM Drennan, CW Fairall, RN Hoffman, G Magnusdottir, RT Pinker, IA Renfrew, M Serreze, K Speer, LD Talley and GA Wick (2013), HIGH-LATITUDE OCEAN AND SEA ICE SURFACE FLUXES: CHALLENGES FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Version: 1 94 (3) 403-423, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 122OO, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00244.1
  • Vecherin, SN, VE Ostashev, CW Fairall, DK Wilson and L Bariteau (2013), Sonic Anemometer as a Small Acoustic Tomography Array. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 149 (2) 165-178, issn: Jun-14, ids: 228XG, doi: 10.1007/s10546-013-9843-9
  • Edson, JB, V Jampana, RA Weller, SP Bigorre, AJ Plueddemann, CW Fairall, SD Miller, L Mahrt, D Vickers and H Hersbach (2013), On the Exchange of Momentum over the Open Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 43 (8) 1589-1610, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 201JB, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0173.1
  • de Szoeke, SP, CW Fairall and S Pezoa (2009), Ship Observations of the Tropical Pacific Ocean along the Coast of South America. J. Climate Version: 1 22 (2) 458-464, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 413IN, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2555.1
  • Zuidema, P, D Painemal, S de Szoeke and C Fairall (2009), Stratocumulus Cloud-Top Height Estimates and Their Climatic Implications. J. Climate Version: 1 22 (17) 4652-4666, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 488UL, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2708.1
  • Fairall, CW, ML Banner, WL Peirson, W Asher and RP Morison (2009), Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 114 , Art. No. C10001, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 502MK, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004918
  • Ghate, VP, BA Albrecht, CW Fairall and RA Weller (2009), Climatology of Surface Meteorology, Surface Fluxes, Cloud Fraction, and Radiative Forcing over the Southeast Pacific from Buoy Observations. J. Climate Version: 1 22 (20) 5527-5540, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 510HY, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2961.1
  • Ganzeveld, L, D Helmig, CW Fairall, J Hare and A Pozzer (2009), Atmosphere-ocean ozone exchange: A global modeling study of biogeochemical, atmospheric, and waterside turbulence dependencies. Global Biogeochem Cy. Version: 1 23 , issn: 0886-6236, ids: 516YQ, doi: 10.1029/2008GB003301
  • Serpetzoglou, E, BA Albrecht, P Kollias and CW Fairall (2008), Boundary Layer, Cloud, and Drizzle Variability in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus Regime. J. Climate Version: 1 21 (23) 6191-6214, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 384OM, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2186.1
  • Fairall, CW, T Uttal, D Hazen, J Hare, MF Cronin, N Bond and DE Veron (2008), Observations of cloud, radiation, and surface forcing in the equatorial eastern Pacific. J. Climate Version: 1 21 (4) 655-673, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 263VQ, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1757.1
  • Weller, RA, EF Bradley, JB Edson, CW Fairall, I Brooks, MJ Yelland and RW Pascal (2008), Sensors for physical fluxes at the sea surface: energy, heat, water, salt. Ocean Sci. Version: 1 4 (4) 247-263, issn: 1812-0784, ids: 407RD, doi: 10.5194/os-4-247-2008
  • Wood, R, KK Comstock, CS Bretherton, C Cornish, J Tomlinson, DR Collins and C Fairall (2008), Open cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 113 (D12) , Art. No. D12207, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 321MQ, doi: 10.1029/2007JD009371
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2008), Turbulent measurements in the stable atmospheric boundary layer during SHEBA: ten years after. Acta Geophys. Version: 1 56 (1) 142-166, issn: 1895-6572, ids: 247TZ, doi: 10.2478/s11600-007-0048-9
  • Wolfe, DE, WA Brewer, SC Tucker, AB White, DE White, DC Welsh, D Ruffieux, CW Fairall, M Ratterree, JM Intrieri, BJ McCarty and DC Law (2007), Shipboard multisensor merged wind profiles from the New England Air Quality Study 2004. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D10) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 155ME, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007344
  • Fairall, CW, D Helmig, L Ganzeveld and J Hare (2007), Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 7 443-451, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 129RT
  • Cohen, L, D Helmig, WD Neff, AA Grachev and CW Fairall (2007), Boundary-layer dynamics and its influence on atmospheric chemistry at Summit, Greenland. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 41 (24) 5044-5060, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 203PL, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.068
  • Zuidema, P, C Fairall, LM Hartten, JE Hare and D Wolfe (2007), On air-sea interaction at the mouth of the Gulf of California. J. Climate Version: 1 20 (9) 1649-1661, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 167TE, doi: 10.1175/JCLI4089.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2007), SHEBA flux-profile relationships in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 124 (3) 315-333, issn: Jun-14, ids: 195MX, doi: 10.1007/s10546-007-9177-6
  • Zuidema, P, B Mapes, JL Lin, C Fairall and G Wick (2006), The interaction of clouds and dry air in the Eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate Version: 1 19 (18) 4531-4544, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 090XI, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3836.1
  • Fairall, CW, L Bariteau, AA Grachev, RJ Hill, DE Wolfe, WA Brewer, SC Tucker, JE Hare and WM Angevine (2006), Turbulent bulk transfer coefficients and ozone deposition velocity in the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research into Transport and Transformation. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D23) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 118LD, doi: 10.1175/MWR-2845.1
  • Zilitinkevich, SS, JCR Hunt, IN Esau, AA Grachev, DP Lalas, E Akylas, M Tombrou, CW Fairall, HJS Fernando, AA Baklanov and SM Joffre (2006), The influence of large convective eddies on the surface-layer turbulence. Q. J. Roy Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 132 (618) 1423-1456, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 087ST, doi: 10.1256/qj.05.79
  • Zuidema, P, ER Westwater, C Fairall and D Hazen (2005), Ship-based liquid water path estimates in marine stratocumulus. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D20) , issn: 2169-897X, ids: 981RT, doi: 10.1029/2005JD005833
  • Grachev, AA, CW Fairall, POG Persson, EL Andreas and PS Guest (2005), Stable boundary-layer scaling regimes: The Sheba data. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 116 (2) 201-235, issn: Jun-14, ids: 969AA, doi: 10.1007/s10546-004-2729-0
  • Persson, POG, JE Hare, CW Fairall and WD Ott (2005), Air-sea interaction processes in warm and cold sectors of extratropical cyclonic storms observed during FASTEX. Q. J. Roy Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 131 (607) 877-912, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 924FK, doi: 10.1256/qj.03.181
  • Hare, JE, CW Fairall, WR McGillis, JB Edson, B Ward and R Wanninkhof (2004), Evaluation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Coupled-Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment (NOAA/COARE) air-sea gas transfer parameterization using GasEx data. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 109 (C8) , issn: 2169-9275, ids: 839QC, doi: 10.1029/2003JC001831
  • Kollias, P, CW Fairall, P Zuidema, J Tomlinson and GA Wick (2004), Observations of marine stratocumulus in SE Pacific during the PACS 2003 cruise. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (22) , issn: 0094-8276, ids: 877PR, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020751
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, CJ Zappa, JD Ware, SP McKenna, EA Terray, JE Hare, CW Fairall, W Drennan, M Donelan, MD DeGrandpre, R Wanninkhof and RA Feely (2004), Air-sea CO2 exchange in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 109 (C8) , issn: 2169-9275, ids: 850MR, doi: 10.1029/2003JC002256
  • Huebert, BJ, BW Blomquist, JE Hare, CW Fairall, JE Johnson and TS Bates (2004), Measurement of the sea-air DMS flux and transfer velocity using eddy correlation. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (23) , issn: 0094-8276, ids: 881QC, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021567
  • Andreas, EL, CW Fairall, POG Persson and PS Guest (2003), Probability distributions for the inner scale and the refractive index structure parameter and their implications for flux averaging. J. Appl. Meteorol. Version: 1 42 (9) 1316-1329, issn: 0894-8763, ids: 717KR, doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1316:PDFTIS>2.0.CO;2
  • Fairall, CW, EF Bradley, JE Hare, AA Grachev and JB Edson (2003), Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: Updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. J. Climate Version: 1 16 (4) 571-591, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 644HP, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0571:BPOASF>2.0.CO;2
  • Grachev, AA, CW Fairall, JE Hare, JB Edson and SD Miller (2003), Wind stress vector over ocean waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 33 (11) 2408-2429, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 735GF, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<2408%3AWSVOOW>2.0.CO%3B2
  • Persson, POG, CW Fairall, EL Andreas, PS Guest and DK Perovich (2002), Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 107 (C10) , issn: 0148-0227, ids: 638JN, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000705
  • Andreas, EL, PS Guest, POG Persson, CW Fairall, TW Horst, RE Moritz and SR Semmer (2002), Near-surface water vapor over polar sea ice is always near ice saturation. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 107 (C10) , issn: 0148-0227, ids: 633YD, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000411
  • Intrieri, JM, CW Fairall, MD Shupe, POG Persson, EL Andreas, PS Guest and RE Moritz (2002), An annual cycle of Arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 107 (C10) , issn: 0148-0227, ids: 638JN, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000439
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, JD Ware, JWH Dacey, JE Hare, CW Fairall and R Wanninkhof (2001), Carbon dioxide flux techniques performed during GasEx-98. Mar. Chem. Version: 1 75 (4) 267-280, issn: 0304-4203, ids: 470CP, doi: 10.1016/S0304-4203(01)00042-1
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, JE Hare and CW Fairall (2001), Direct covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 106 (C8) 16729-16745, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 460UB, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000506
  • Grachev, AA and CW Fairall (2001), Upward momentum transfer in the marine boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 31 (7) 1698-1711, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 450ZM, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<1698%3AUMTITM>2.0.CO%3B2
  • Zilitinkevich, SS, AA Grachev and CW Fairall (2001), Scaling reasoning and field data on the sea surface roughness lengths for scalars. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 58 (3) 320-325, issn: 0022-4928, ids: 393BT, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0320:NACRAF>2.0.CO;2
  • Fairall, CW, POG Persson, EF Bradley, RE Payne and SP Anderson (1998), A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. Version: 1 15 (6) 1229-1242, issn: 0739-0572, ids: 165LM, doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<1229:ANLACA>2.0.CO;2
  • Frisch, AS, G Feingold, CW Fairall, T Uttal and JB Snider (1998), On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 103 (D18) 23195-23197, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 126PT, doi: 10.1029/98JD01827
  • Post, MJ, CW Fairall, JB Snider, Y Han, AB White, WL Ecklund, KM Weickmann, PK Quinn, DI Cooper, SM Sekelsky, RE McIntosh, P Minnett and RO Knuteson (1997), The Combined Sensor Program: An air-sea science mission in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Version: 1 78 (12) 2797-2815, issn: 0003-0007, ids: YZ885, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2797:TCSPAA>2.0.CO;2
  • CHERTOCK, B, CW FAIRALL and AB WHITE (1993), SURFACE-BASED MEASUREMENTS AND SATELLITE RETRIEVALS OF BROKEN CLOUD PROPERTIES IN THE EQUATORIAL PACIFIC. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 98 (D10) 18489-18500, issn: 0148-0227, ids: MD722, doi: 10.1029/93JD01737