Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Paul Ziemann

Paul Ziemann

The primary focus of our group's research is to elucidate mechanisms by which volatile organic compounds emitted from biogenic and anthropogenic sources react in the atmosphere to form products that can create submicron-size organic aerosol particles. These reactions are complex and include photochemistry, gas-phase oxidation, and heterogeneous/multiphase reactions. The resulting particles affect global climate, visibility, and human health. We conduct experiments in large-volume environmental chambers under simulated atmospheric conditions and then identify and quantify organic gas and aerosol reaction products using a variety of analytical instruments and methods. This information is used to develop detailed, quantitative chemical reaction mechanisms for predicting organic aerosol formation, which can be used to improve air quality and global climate models.


Current Research

Atmospheric chemistry of organic aerosols

My research group and I conduct experimental studies of the atmospheric chemistry of submicron organic aerosol particles. These small particles are usually formed by combustion or by a process referred to as gas-to-particle conversion, in which atmospheric reactions involving volatile organic compounds, oxidants, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur produce low-volatility oxidized organic species that condense to form particles. In urban-influenced areas, these particles affect human health and visibility, whereas globally they exert a major influence on Earth’s radiation balance, climate, and hydrologic cycle by scattering and absorbing light and by acting as seeds for the formation of clouds. The chemistry of organic aerosol particles and the processes that determine their composition and distribution in the atmosphere are still poorly understood.

We conduct laboratory experiments in large environmental chambers under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate fundamental processes responsible for gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere. In particular, our work is aimed at elucidating the mechanisms by which volatile organic compounds emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources react with the atmospheric oxidants OH, O3, and NO3 to form oxidized low-volatility compounds that condense to form particulate material. We analyze the composition of particles and gases by using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer my team developed in our laboratory, as well as gas and liquid chromatography, chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and spectrophotometry. We use information on the chemical composition and volatility of the products formed to develop mechanisms of reactions of gaseous and particle-phase organic species. The results of these studies improve our understanding of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and aid in the development of air-quality models for predicting the formation and properties of organic aerosol particles and the impact of human activities on the atmospheric environment.


Organic aerosol particles under scrutiny in Paul Ziemann's laboratory play important roles in urban and regional smog formation processes and can affect human health and visibility as well as global climate. Photo credit: David Oonk/CIRES


  • 2001 Kenneth T. Whitby Award, American Association for Aerosol Research

View Publications

  • Petters, MD, SM Kreidenweis and PJ Ziemann (2016), Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods. Geosci. Model Dev. Version: 1 9 (1) 111-124, issn: 1991-959X, ids: DN2ZX, doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-111-2016
  • Yeh, GK, MS Claflin and PJ Ziemann (2015), Products and Mechanism of the Reaction of 1-Pentadecene with NO3 Radicals and the Effect of a -ONO2 Group on Alkoxy Radical Decomposition. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 119 (43) 10684-10696, issn: 1089-5639, ids: CV1DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b07468, PubMed ID: 26436557
  • Waxman, EM, J Elm, T Kurten, KV Mikkelsen, PJ Ziemann and R Vokamer (2015), Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 49 (19) 11500-11508, issn: 0013-936X, ids: CT2JZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02782, PubMed ID: 26335375
  • Bilde, M, K Barsanti, M Booth, CD Cappa, NM Donahue, EU Emanuelsson, G McFiggans, UK Krieger, C Marcolli, D Tropping, P Ziemann, M Barley, S Clegg, B Dennis-Smither, M Hallquist, AM Hallquist, A Khlystov, M Kulmala, D Mogensen, CJ Percival, F Pope, JP Reid, MAVR da Silva, T Rosenoern, K Salo, VP Soonsin, T Yli-Juuti, NL Prisle, J Pagels, J Rarey, AA Zardini and I Riipinen (2015), Saturation Vapor Pressures and Transition Enthalpies of Low-Volatility Organic Molecules of Atmospheric Relevance: From Dicarboxylic Acids to Complex Mixtures. Chem. Rev. Version: 1 115 (10) 4115-4156, issn: Sep-65, ids: CJ3KZ, doi: 10.1021/cr5005502, PubMed ID: 25929792
  • Strollo, CM and PJ Ziemann (2013), Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH radicals in the presence of NOx. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 77 534-543, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 223YN, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.033
  • Aimanant, S and PJ Ziemann (2013), Development of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Analysis of Functional Groups in Oxidized Organic Aerosol. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (6) 581-591, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 122BQ, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2013.773579
  • Shiraiwa, M, LD Yee, KA Schilling, CL Loza, JS Craven, A Zuend, PJ Ziemann and JH Seinfeld (2013), Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Version: 1 110 (29) 11746-11750, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 187AB, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307501110
  • Aimanant, S and PJ Ziemann (2013), Chemical Mechanisms of Aging of Aerosol Formed from the Reaction of n-Pentadecane with OH Radicals in the Presence of NOx. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (9) 979-990, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 222IZ, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2013.804621
  • Yee, LD, JS Craven, CL Loza, KA Schilling, NL Ng, MR Canagaratna, PJ Ziemann, RC Flagan and JH Seinfeld (2013), Effect of chemical structure on secondary organic aerosol formation from C-12 alkanes. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (21) 11121-11140, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 253PP, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-11121-2013
  • Yee, LD, JS Craven, CL Loza, KA Schilling, NL Ng, MR Canagaratna, PJ Ziemann, RC Flagan and JH Seinfeld (2012), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Low-NOx Photooxidation of Dodecane: Evolution of Multigeneration Gas-Phase Chemistry and Aerosol Composition. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 6211-6230, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp211531h
  • Suda, SR, MD Petters, A Matsunaga, RC Sullivan, PJ Ziemann and SM Kreidenweis (2012), Hygroscopicity frequency distributions of secondary organic aerosols. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. D04207, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 899DU, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016823
  • Craven, JS, LD Yee, NL Ng, MR Canagaratna, CL Loza, KA Schilling, RLN Yatavelli, JA Thornton, PJ Ziemann, RC Flagan and JH Seinfeld (2012), Analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging using positive matrix factorization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra: application to the dodecane low-NOx system. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 12 (24) 11795-11817, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 058WR, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-11795-2012
  • Docherty, KS, AC Aiken, JA Huffman, IM Ulbrich, PF DeCarlo, D Sueper, DR Worsnop, DC Snyder, RE Peltier, RJ Weber, BD Grover, DJ Eatough, BJ Williams, AH Goldstein, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2011), The 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR-1): instrumental intercomparisons and fine particle composition. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (23) 12387-12420, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 863AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-12387-2011
  • Russell, LM, R Bahadur and PJ Ziemann (2011), Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Version: 1 108 (9) 3516-3521, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 728AD, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1006461108
  • Vicars, WC, JO Sickman and PJ Ziemann (2010), Atmospheric phosphorus deposition at a montane site: Size distribution, effects of wildfire, and ecological implications. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 44 (24) 2813-2821, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 630MP, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.04.055
  • Matsunaga, A and PJ Ziemann (2010), Yields of beta-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, and trihydroxynitrates formed from OH radical-initiated reactions of 2-methyl-1-alkenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Version: 1 107 (15) 6664-6669, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910585107
  • Farmer, DK, A Matsunaga, KS Docherty, JD Surratt, JH Seinfeld, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2010), Response of an aerosol mass spectrometer to organonitrates and organosulfates and implications for atmospheric chemistry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6670-6675, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912340107, PubMed ID: 20194777
  • Matsunaga, A and PJ Ziemann (2010), Gas-Wall Partitioning of Organic Compounds in a Teflon Film Chamber and Potential Effects on Reaction Product and Aerosol Yield Measurements. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (10) 881-892, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 668WS, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2010.501044
  • Day, DA, S Liu, LM Russell and PJ Ziemann (2010), Organonitrate group concentrations in submicron particles with high nitrate and organic fractions in coastal southern California. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 44 (16) 1970-1979, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 599RR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.02.045
  • Faulhaber, AE, BM Thomas, JL Jimenez, JT Jayne, DR Worsnop and PJ Ziemann (2009), Characterization of a thermodenuder-particle beam mass spectrometer system for the study of organic aerosol volatility and composition. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 2 (1) 15-31, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 601TA
  • Volkamer, R, PJ Ziemann and MJ Molina (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2): seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (6) 1907-1928, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 425GQ
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2009), Effects of Molecular Structure on Aerosol Yields from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Alkanes in the Presence of NOx. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (7) 2328-2334, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 427DI, doi: 10.1021/es803389s
  • Matsunaga, A and PJ Ziemann (2009), Yields of beta-Hydroxynitrates and Dihydroxynitrates in Aerosol Formed from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Linear Alkenes in the Presence of NOx. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (3) 599-606, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 395KF, doi: 10.1021/jp807764d
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2009), Chemistry of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Alkanes in the Presence of NOx. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (6) 604-619, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 434JV, doi: 10.1080/02786820902802567
  • Huffman, JA, KS Docherty, C Mohr, MJ Cubison, IM Ulbrich, PJ Ziemann, TB Onasch and JL Jimenez (2009), Chemically-Resolved Volatility Measurements of Organic Aerosol from Different Sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (14) 5351-5357, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 472NE, doi: 10.1021/es803539d, PubMed ID: 19708365
  • Dzepina, K, RM Volkamer, S Madronich, P Tulet, IM Ulbrich, Q Zhang, CD Cappa, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2009), Evaluation of recently-proposed secondary organic aerosol models for a case study in Mexico City. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (15) 5681-5709, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 482HW
  • Bin Lim, Y and PJ Ziemann (2009), Kinetics of the heterogeneous conversion of 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls to cyclic hemiacetals and dihydrofurans on organic aerosol particles. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (36) 8029-8039, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 491AD, doi: 10.1039/b904333k
  • Petters, MD, SM Kreidenweis, AJ Prenni, RC Sullivan, CM Carrico, KA Koehler and PJ Ziemann (2009), Role of molecular size in cloud droplet activation. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L22801, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 522JW, doi: 10.1029/2009GL040131
  • Huffman, JA, KS Docherty, AC Aiken, MJ Cubison, IM Ulbrich, PF DeCarlo, D Sueper, JT Jayne, DR Worsnop, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2009), Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (18) 7161-7182, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 525ZW
  • Matsunaga, A, KS Docherty, YB Lim and PJ Ziemann (2009), Composition and yields of secondary organic aerosol formed from OH radical-initiated reactions of linear alkenes in the presence of NOx: Modeling and measurements. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 43 (6) 1349-1357, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 408HR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.004
  • Prenni, AJ, MD Petters, A Faulhaber, CM Carrico, PJ Ziemann, SM Kreidenweis and PJ DeMott (2009), Heterogeneous ice nucleation measurements of secondary organic aerosol generated from ozonolysis of alkenes. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L06808, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 426AF, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036957
  • Huffman, JA, PJ Ziemann, JT Jayne, DR Worsnop and JL Jimenez (2008), Development and characterization of a fast-stepping/scanning thermodenuder for chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 42 (5) 395-407, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 318LF, doi: 10.1080/02786820802104981
  • Jordan, CE, PJ Ziemann, RJ Griffin, YB Lim, R Atkinson and J Arey (2008), Modeling SOA formation from OH reactions with C-8-C-17 n-alkanes. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 42 (34) 8015-8026, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 372ZO, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.06.017
  • Aiken, AC, PF Decarlo, JH Kroll, DR Worsnop, JA Huffman, KS Docherty, IM Ulbrich, C Mohr, JR Kimmel, D Sueper, Y Sun, Q Zhang, A Trimborn, M Northway, PJ Ziemann, MR Canagaratna, TB Onasch, MR Alfarra, ASH Prevot, J Dommen, J Duplissy, A Metzger, U Baltensperger and JL Jimenez (2008), O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 42 (12) 4478-4485, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 312XL, doi: 10.1021/es703009q, PubMed ID: 18605574
  • Prenni, AJ, MD Petters, SM Kreidenweis, PJ DeMott and PJ Ziemann (2007), Cloud droplet activation of secondary organic aerosol. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D10) , Art. No. D10223, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 173AV, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007963
  • Dick, WD, PJ Ziemann and PH McMurry (2007), Multiangle light-scattering measurements of refractive index of submicron atmospheric particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 41 (5) 549-569, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 164AI, doi: 10.1080/02786820701272012
  • Petters, MD, AJ Prenni, SM Kreidenweis, PJ DeMott, A Matsunaga, YB Lim and PJ Ziemann (2006), Chemical aging and the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of carbonaceous aerosol. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (24) , Art. No. L24806, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 120SH, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027249
  • Docherty, KS and PJ Ziemann (2006), Reaction of oleic acid particles with NO3 radicals: Products, mechanism, and implications for radical-initiated organic aerosol oxidation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (10) 3567-3577, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 022SV, doi: 10.1021/jp0582383
  • Docherty, KS, W Wu, YB Lim and PJ Ziemann (2005), Contributions of organic peroxides to secondary aerosol formed from reactions of monoterpenes with O-3. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (11) 4049-4059, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 933VY, doi: 10.1021/es050228s
  • Ziemann, PJ (2005), Aerosol products, mechanisms, and kinetics of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with oleic acid in pure and mixed particles. Faraday Discuss. Version: 1 130 469-490, issn: 1364-5498, ids: 963KV, doi: 10.1039/b417502f
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2005), Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of n-alkanes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (23) 9229-9236, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 989ZK, doi: 10.1021/es051447g
  • Chattopadhyay, S and PJ Ziemann (2005), Vapor pressures of substituted and unsubstituted monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids measured using an improved thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry method. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (11) 1085-1100, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 992SZ, doi: 10.1080/02786820500421547
  • Gong, HM, A Matsunaga and PJ Ziemann (2005), Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of linear alkenes with NO3 radicals. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 109 (19) 4312-4324, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 926PE, doi: 10.1021/jo0580241
  • Docherty, KS, K Kumboonlert, IJ Lee and PJ Ziemann (2004), Gas chromatography of trimethylsilyl derivatives of alpha-methoxyalkyl hydroperoxides formed in alkene-O-3 reactions. J. Chromatogr. A Version: 1 1029 (2-Jan) 205-215, issn: 0021-9673, ids: 775TD, doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2003.12.014
  • Pui, DYH, RC Flagan, SL Kaufman, AD Maynard, JF de la Mora, SV Hering, JL Jimenez, KA Prather, AS Wexler and PJ Ziemann (2004), Experimental methods and instrumentation. J. Nanopart. Res. Version: 1 Workshop on Emerging Issues in Nanoparticle Aerosol Science and Technology 6 (3-Feb) 314-315, Los Angeles, CA, JUN 27-28, 2003, issn: 1388-0764, ids: 837EF
  • Sakurai, H, K Park, PH McMurry, DD Zarling, DB Kittelson and PJ Ziemann (2003), Size-dependent mixing characteristics of volatile and nonvolatile components in diesel exhaust aerosols. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 37 (24) 5487-5495, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 753UB, doi: 10.1021/es034362t
  • Docherty, KS and PJ Ziemann (2003), Effects of stabilized Criegee intermediate and OH radical scavengers on aerosol formation from reactions of beta-pinene with O-3. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 37 (11) 877-891, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 706MH, doi: 10.1080/02786820390228364
  • Sakurai, H, HJ Tobias, K Park, D Zarling, KS Docherty, DB Kittelson, PH McMurry and PJ Ziemann (2003), On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 37 (10-Sep) 1199-1210, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 659LA, doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)01017-8
  • Ziemann, PJ (2003), Formation of alkoxyhydroperoxy aldehydes and cyclic peroxyhemiacetals from reactions of cyclic alkenes with O-3 in the presence of alcohols. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 107 (12) 2048-2060, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 658JH, doi: 10.1021/jp022114y
  • Ziemann, PJ (2002), Evidence for low-volatility diacyl peroxides as a nucleating agent and major component of aerosol formed from reactions of O-3 with cyclohexene and homologous compounds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 106 (17) 4390-4402, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 547WW, doi: 10.1021/jp012925m
  • Docherty, KS and PJ Ziemann (2001), On-line, inlet-based trimethylsilyl derivatization for gas chromatography of mono- and dicarboxylic acids. J. Chromatogr. A Version: 1 921 (2) 265-275, issn: 0021-9673, ids: 448VT, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00864-0
  • Chattopadhyay, S, HJ Tobias and PJ Ziemann (2001), A method for measuring vapor pressures of low-volatility organic aerosol compounds using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 73 (16) 3797-3803, issn: Mar-00, ids: 463NT, doi: 10.1021/ac010304j
  • Tobias, HJ and PJ Ziemann (2001), Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and water with the C13 stabilized Criegee intermediate formed from ozonolysis of 1-tetradecene. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 105 (25) 6129-6135, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 446VJ, doi: 10.1021/jp004631r
  • Tobias, HJ, DE Beving, PJ Ziemann, H Sakurai, M Zuk, PH McMurry, D Zarling, R Waytulonis and DB Kittelson (2001), Chemical analysis of diesel engine nanoparticles using a nano-DMA/thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 35 (11) 2233-2243, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 438KQ, doi: 10.1021/es0016654
  • Tobias, HJ, PM Kooiman, KS Docherty and PJ Ziemann (2000), Real-time chemical analysis of organic aerosols using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 33 (2-Jan) 170-190, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 330HM, doi: 10.1080/027868200410912
  • Tobias, HJ, KS Docherty, DE Beving and PJ Ziemann (2000), Effect of relative humidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol formed from reactions of 1-tetradecene and O-3. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 34 (11) 2116-2125, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 320GX, doi: 10.1021/es991057s
  • Tobias, HJ and PJ Ziemann (2000), Thermal desorption mass spectrometric analysis of organic aerosol formed from reactions of 1-tetradecene and O-3 in the presence of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 34 (11) 2105-2115, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 320GX, doi: 10.1021/es9907156
  • Tobias, HJ and PJ Ziemann (1999), Compound identification in organic aerosols using temperature-programmed thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 71 (16) 3428-3435, issn: Mar-00, ids: 227HM, doi: 10.1021/ac990056f
  • Dick, WD, PJ Ziemann, PF Huang and PH McMurry (1998), Optical shape fraction measurements of submicrometre laboratory and atmospheric aerosols. Meas. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 9 (2) 183-196, issn: 0957-0233, ids: YW938, doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/9/2/006
  • Ziemann, PJ (1998), Particle mass and size measurement using mass spectrometry. Trac-Trends Anal. Chem. Version: 1 17 (6) 322-328, issn: 0165-9936, ids: ZX453, doi: 10.1016/S0165-9936(98)00036-3
  • Ziemann, PJ and PH McMurry (1998), Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 28 (1) 77-90, issn: 0278-6826, ids: YQ056, doi: 10.1080/02786829808965513
  • Jefferson, A, FL Eisele, PJ Ziemann, RJ Weber, JJ Marti and PH McMurry (1997), Measurements of the H2SO4 mass accommodation coefficient onto polydisperse aerosol. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (D15) 19021-19028, issn: 2169-897X, ids: XT101, doi: 10.1029/97JD01152
  • Ziemann, PJ and PH McMurry (1997), Spatial distribution of chemical components in aerosol particles as determined from secondary electron yield measurements: Implications for mechanisms of multicomponent aerosol crystallization. J. Colloid Interface Sci. Version: 1 193 (2) 250-258, issn: 0021-9797, ids: YE457, doi: 10.1006/jcis.1997.5075
  • Ziemann, PJ, DB Kittelson and PH McMurry (1996), Effects of particle shape and chemical composition on the electron impact charging properties of submicron inorganic particles. J. Aerosol. Sci. Version: 1 27 (4) 587-&, issn: 0021-8502, ids: UT314, doi: 10.1016/0021-8502(96)00010-9
  • ZIEMANN, PJ, P LIU, NP RAO, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), PARTICLE-BEAM MASS-SPECTROMETRY OF SUBMICRON PARTICLES CHARGED TO SATURATION IN AN ELECTRON-BEAM. J. Aerosol. Sci. Version: 1 26 (5) 745-756, issn: 0021-8502, ids: RM409, doi: 10.1016/0021-8502(95)00009-2
  • ZIEMANN, PJ, P LIU, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), ELECTRON-IMPACT CHARGING PROPERTIES OF SIZE-SELECTED, SUBMICROMETER ORGANIC PARTICLES. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 99 (14) 5126-5138, issn: 0022-3654, ids: QR228, doi: 10.1021/j100014a037
  • LIU, P, PJ ZIEMANN, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), GENERATING PARTICLE BEAMS OF CONTROLLED DIMENSIONS AND DIVERGENCE .1. THEORY OF PARTICLE MOTION IN AERODYNAMIC LENSES AND NOZZLE EXPANSIONS. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 22 (3) 293-313, issn: 0278-6826, ids: QU242, doi: 10.1080/02786829408959748
  • LIU, P, PJ ZIEMANN, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), GENERATING PARTICLE BEAMS OF CONTROLLED DIMENSIONS AND DIVERGENCE .2. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF PARTICLE MOTION IN AERODYNAMIC LENSES AND NOZZLE EXPANSIONS. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 22 (3) 314-324, issn: 0278-6826, ids: QU242, doi: 10.1080/02786829408959749
  • FARLEY, RW, PJ ZIEMANN, RG KEESEE and AW CASTLEMAN (1993), KINETIC-STUDY OF NEUTRAL LEAD CLUSTER REACTIONS. Z. Phys. D-Atoms Mol. Clusters Version: 1 25 (3) 267-273, issn: 0178-7683, ids: KM773
  • ZIEMANN, PJ and AW CASTLEMAN (1992), MASS-SPECTROMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE STABILITIES AND STRUCTURES OF MN-O AND MN-MG-O CLUSTERS. Phys. Rev. B Version: 1 46 (20) 13480-13486, issn: 1098-0121, ids: KA577, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.13480
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