Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

R. Steven Nerem

R. Steven Nerem

Research Interests

Satellite altimetry, sea level change, Earth gravity field determination, time variations of the Earth's gravity field, planetary geodesy, precision orbit determination, astrodynamics.


Current Research

The impact of changes in terrestrial water storage on global mean sea level variations

During the satellite radar altimeter era (1993 to present), global mean sea level has been increasing at a rate of 3.2 millimeters per year. However, there is considerable year-to-year variation (Figure 1). Much of this variability is understood to be due to changes in land/ ocean precipitation patterns in response to climate variability (El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO, etc.). The launch of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission in 2002 gave us an additional tool with which to study these variations. GRACE allows us to track changes in land/ ocean water storage, and determine where on the land the water is being stored or lost. In addition, GRACE can tell us how the mass of the water in the oceans is changing due to changes in land water storage (Figure 1).

In the last few years, we have examined these interannual sea level variations by using a combination of tide gauge measurements, satellite radar altimeter measurements, and satellite gravity measurements. In particular, we examined the drop of global mean sea level during the 2011 La Niña by using GRACE estimates of land water storage (Boening et al., 2012; see Figure 2) and found a large water storage signal, driven mainly by Australia (Fasullo et al., 2013). The Australia event was rather unique in the satellite record (Fasullo et al., 2013), but in general, there tends to be more precipitation over land during La Niña events and more precipitation over the oceans during El Niño events.

We also examined PDO’s influence on global mean sea level changes. Hamlington et al. (2013) found that the PDO may have contributed as much as 0.5 millimeters per year to the 3.2 millimeter- per-year trend in global mean sea level since 1993. This means the anthropogenic component of sea level rise may be somewhat smaller than previously thought.

It is important to understand the causes of changes in global mean sea level so we can better isolate the anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic climate signals. The former is likely accelerating, but detecting this acceleration is difficult with the short 21-year satellite record. ENSO and PDO also have significant impacts on regional sea level, which is an important consideration when studying the regional impacts of sea level change.

Boening, C, JK Willis, FW Landerer, RS Nerem, and J Fasullo. 2012. The 2011 La Niña: So strong, the oceans fell. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39:L18607.

 


View Publications

  • Hamlington, BD, RR Leben, KY Kim, RS Nerem, LP Atkinson and PR Thompson (2015), The effect of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation on US regional and coastal sea level. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 120 (6) 3970-3986, issn: 2169-9275, ids: CN0SP, doi: 10.1002/2014JC010602
  • Wahr, J, RS Nerem and SV Bettadpur (2015), The pole tide and its effect on GRACE time-variable gravity measurements: Implications for estimates of surface mass variations. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (6) 4597-4615, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CM8ZG, doi: 10.1002/2015JB011986
  • Hamlington, BD, MW Strassburg, RR Leben, W Han, RS Nerem and KY Kim (2014), Uncovering an anthropogenic sea-level rise signal in the Pacific Ocean. Nat. Clim. Chang. Version: 1 4 (9) 782-785, issn: 1758-678X, ids: AO7YS, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2307
  • Gregory, JM, JA Church, PU Clark, AJ Payne, MA Merrifield, RS Nerem, PD Nunn, WT Pfeffer and D Stammer (2014), Comment on . Quat. Sci. Rev. Version: 1 97 193-194, issn: 0277-3791, ids: AM2RX, doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.05.024
  • Church, JA, PU Clark, A Cazenave, JM Gregory, S Jevrejeva, A Levermann, MA Merrifield, GA Milne, RS Nerem, PD Nunn, AJ Payne, WT Pfeffer, D Stammer and AS Unnikrishnan (2013), Sea-Level Rise by 2100. Science Version: 1 342 (6165) 1445-1445, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 274ZI
  • Fasullo, JT, C Boening, FW Landerer and RS Nerem (2013), Australia's unique influence on global sea level in 2010-2011. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 40 (16) 4368-4373, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 219SI, doi: 10.1002/grl.50834
  • Hamlington, BD, RR Leben, MW Strassburg, RS Nerem and KY Kim (2013), Contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to global mean sea level trends. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 40 (19) 5171-5175, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 243JB, doi: 10.1002/grl.50950
  • Blunden, J, DS Arndt, C Achberger, SA Ackerman, A Albanil, P Alexander, EJ Alfaro, R Allan, LM Alves, JA Amador, P Ambenje, S Andrianjafinirina, J Antonov, JA Aravequia, A Arendt, J Arevalo, I Ashik, Z Atheru, V Banzon, MO Baringer, S Barreira, DE Barriopedro, G Beard, A Becker, MJ Behrenfeld, GD Bell, A Benedetti, G Bernhard, P Berrisford, DI Berry, U Bhatt, M Bidegain, N Bindoff, P Bissolli, ES Blake, R Booneeady, M Bosilovich, JE Box, T Boyer, GO Braathen, DH Bromwich, R Brown, L Brown, L Bruhwiler, ON Bulygina, D Burgess, J Burrows, B Calderon, SJ Camargo, J Campbell, Y Cao, J Cappelen, G Carrasco, DP Chambers, L Chang'a, P Chappell, W Chehade, M Cheliah, HH Christiansen, JR Christy, P Ciais, CAS Coelho, JG Cogley, S Colwell, JN Cross, J Crouch, SA Cunningham, M Dacic, RAM De Jeu, FS Dekaa, M Demircan, C Derksen, HJ Diamond, EJ Dlugokencky, K Dohan, AJ Dolman, CM Domingues, SF Dong, WA Dorigo, DS Drozdov, CR Duguay, RJH Dunn, AM Duran-Quesada, GS Dutton, C Ehmann, JW Elkins, C Euscategui, JS Famiglietti, F Fang, N Fauchereau, RA Feely, BM Fekete, C Fenimore, VE Fioletov, CT Fogarty, RL Fogt, CK Folland, MJ Foster, E Frajka-Williams, BA Franz, SH Frith, I Frolov, C Ganter, S Garzoli, ML Geai, S Gerland, W Gitau, KL Gleason, N Gobron, SB Goldenberg, G Goni, SA Good, J Gottschalck, MC Gregg, G Griffiths, JU Grooss, C Guard, SK Gupta, BD Hall, MS Halpert, Y Harada, C Hauri, AK Heidinger, A Heikkila, RR Heim, P Heimbach, HG Hidalgo, K Hilburn, SP Ho, WR Hobbs, Holgate, A Hovsepyan, ZZ Hu, P Hughes, DF Hurst, R Ingvaldsen, A Inness, E Jaimes, M Jakobsson, AI James, MO Jeffries, WE Johns, B Johnsen, GC Johnson, B Johnson, LT Jones, G Jumaux, K Kabidi, JW Kaiser, A Kamga, KK Kang, TO Kanzow, HY Kao, LM Keller, JJ Kennedy, J Key, S Khatiwala, HK Pour, AL Kholodov, M Khoshkam, A Kijazi, T Kikuchi, BM Kim, SJ Kim, TB Kimberlain, JA Knaff, NN Korshunova, T Koskela, VE Kousky, N Kramarova, DP Kratz, R Krishfield, A Kruger, MC Kruk, A Kumar, GSE Lagerloef, K Lakkala, MA Lander, CW Landsea, M Lankhorst, T Laurila, MA Lazzara, C Lee, E Leuliette, S Levitus, M L'Heureux, J Lieser, II Lin, YY Liu, Y Liu, HX Liu, YJ Liu, R Lobato-Sanchez, R Locarnini, NG Loeb, H Loeng, CS Long, AM Lorrey, P Luhunga, R Lumpkin, JJ Luo, JM Lyman, AM Macdonald, BC Maddux, C Malekela, G Manney, SS Marchenko, JA Marengo, J Marotzke, JJ Marra, R Martinez-Guingla, RA Massom, JT Mathis, C McBride, G McCarthy, TR McVicar, C Mears, W Meier, CS Meinen, M Menendez, MA Merrifield, E Mitchard, GT Mitchum, SA Montzka, JJ Morcrette, T Mote, J Muhle, B Muhr, AB Mullan, R Muller, ER Nash, RS Nerem, ML Newlin, PA Newman, H Ng'ongolo, JJ Nieto, S Nishino, H Nitsche, J Noetzli, NG Oberman, A Obregon, LA Ogallo, CS Oludhe, MI Omar, J Overland, L Oyunjargal, RM Parinussa, GH Park, EH Park, D Parker, RJ Pasch, R Pascual-Ramirez, MS Pelto, O Penalba, L Peng, DK Perovich, AB Pezza, D Phillips, R Pickart, B Pinty, MC Pitts, SG Purkey, S Quegan, J Quintana, B Rabe, F Rahimzadeh, N Raholijao, I Raiva, M Rajeevan, V Ramiandrisoa, A Ramos, S Ranivoarissoa, NA Rayner, D Rayner, VN Razuveav, J Reagan, P Reid, J Renwick, J Revedekar, J Richter-Menge, IL Rivera, DA Robinson, M Rodell, VE Romanovsky, J Ronchail, KH Rosenlof, CL Sabine, MA Salvador, A Sanchez-Lugo, ML Santee, I Sasgen, P Sawaengphokhai, A Sayouri, TA Scambos, U Schauer, J Schemm, P Schlosser, C Schmid, C Schreck, I Semiletov, U Send, S Sensoy, A Setzer, J Severinghaus, N Shakhova, M Sharp, NI Shiklomanov, DA Siegel, VBS Silva, FDS Silva, F Sima, P Simeonov, I Simmonds, A Simmons, M Skansi, DA Smeed, WM Smethie, AB Smith, C Smith, SL Smith, TM Smith, V Sokolov, AK Srivastava, Stackhouse PW Jr, S Stammerjohn, M Steele, K Steffen, W Steinbrecht, T Stephenson, J Su, T Svendby, W Sweet, T Takahashi, RM Tanabe, MA Taylor, M Tedesco, WL Teng, JN Thepaut, WM Thiaw, R Thoman, P Thompson, PW Thorne, ML Timmermans, S Tobin, J Toole, BC Trewin, RM Trigo, A Trotman, M Tschudi, RSW van de Wal, GR Van der Werf, R Vautard, JL Vazquez, G Vieira, L Vincent, RS Vose, WW Wagner, J Wahr, J Walsh, JH Wang, CZ Wang, M Wang, SH Wang, L Wang, R Wanninkhof, S Weaver, M Weber, PJ Werdell, R Whitewood, S Wijffels, AC Wilber, JD Wild, KM Willett, W Williams, JK Willis, G Wolken, T Wong, R Woodgate, D Worthy, B Wouters, AJ Wovrosh, Y Xue, R Yamada, ZG Yin, LS Yu, LY Zhang, PQ Zhang, L Zhao, J Zhao, W Zhong, J Ziemke and S Zimmermann (2013), State of the Climate in 2012. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Version: 1 94 (8) S1-S238, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 304EZ
  • Berglund, HT, AF Sheehan, MH Murray, M Roy, AR Lowry, RS Nerem and F Blume (2012), Distributed deformation across the Rio Grande Rift, Great Plains, and Colorado Plateau. Geology Version: 1 40 (1) 23-26, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 866VK, doi: 10.1130/G32418.1
  • Wiese, DN, RS Nerem and FG Lemoine (2012), Design considerations for a dedicated gravity recovery satellite mission consisting of two pairs of satellites. J. Geodesy Version: 1 86 (2) 81-98, issn: 0949-7714, ids: 881XH, doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0493-8
  • Phillips, T, RS Nerem, B Fox-Kemper, JS Famiglietti and B Rajagopalan (2012), The influence of ENSO on global terrestrial water storage using GRACE. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 39 , Art. No. L16705, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 995JM, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052495
  • Chambers, DP, MA Merrifield and RS Nerem (2012), Is there a 60-year oscillation in global mean sea level?. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 39 , Art. No. L18607, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 011BH, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052885
  • Boening, C, JK Willis, FW Landerer, RS Nerem and J Fasullo (2012), The 2011 La Nina: So strong, the oceans fell. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 39 , Art. No. L19602, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 017QT, doi: 10.1029/2012GL053055
  • Masters, D, RS Nerem, C Choe, E Leuliette, B Beckley, N White and M Ablain (2012), Comparison of Global Mean Sea Level Time Series from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2. Mar. Geod. Version: 1 35 (1) 20-41, issn: 0149-0419, ids: 066RT, doi: 10.1080/01490419.2012.717862
  • Loomis, BD, RS Nerem and SB Luthcke (2012), Simulation study of a follow-on gravity mission to GRACE. J. Geodesy Version: 1 86 (5) 319-335, issn: 0949-7714, ids: 934PA, doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0521-8
  • Woodworth, PL, WR Gehrels and RS Nerem (2011), Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Changes in Sea Level. Oceanography Version: 1 24 (2) 80-93, issn: 1042-8275, ids: 787AC
  • Hamlington, BD, RR Leben, RS Nerem and KY Kim (2011), The Effect of Signal-to-Noise Ratio on the Study of Sea Level Trends. J. Climate Version: 1 24 (5) 1396-1408, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 743NQ, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3531.1
  • Nerem, RS and J Wahr (2011), Recent changes in the Earth's oblateness driven by Greenland and Antarctic ice mass loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 38 , Art. No. L13501, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 793PB, doi: 10.1029/2011GL047879
  • Wiese, DN, P Visser and RS Nerem (2011), Estimating low resolution gravity fields at short time intervals to reduce temporal aliasing errors. Adv. Space Res. Version: 1 48 (6) 1094-1107, issn: 0273-1177, ids: 809EK, doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2011.05.027
  • Wiese, DN, RS Nerem and SC Han (2011), Expected improvements in determining continental hydrology, ice mass variations, ocean bottom pressure signals, and earthquakes using two pairs of dedicated satellites for temporal gravity recovery. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 116 , Art. No. B11405, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 851HB, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008375
  • Hamlington, BD, RR Leben, RS Nerem, W Han and KY Kim (2011), Reconstructing sea level using cyclostationary empirical orthogonal functions. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 116 , Art. No. C12015, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 864PR, doi: 10.1029/2011JC007529
  • Chambers, DP, J Wahr, ME Tamisiea and RS Nerem (2010), Ocean mass from GRACE and glacial isostatic adjustment. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 115 , Art. No. B11415, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 690QW, doi: 10.1029/2010JB007530
  • White, JWC, RB Alley, J Brigham-Grette, JJ Fitzpatrick, AE Jennings, SJ Johnsen, GH Miller, RS Nerem and L Polyak (2010), Past rates of climate change in the Arctic. Quat. Sci. Rev. Version: 1 29 (15-16) 1716-1727, issn: 0277-3791, ids: 623RB, doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.04.025
  • Yuan, WP, YQ Luo, AD Richardson, R Oren, S Luyssaert, IA Janssens, R Ceulemans, XH Zhou, T Grunwald, M Aubinet, C Berhofer, DD Baldocchi, JQ Chen, AL Dunn, JL Deforest, D Dragoni, AH Goldstein, E Moors, JW Munger, RK Monson, AE Suyker, G Star, RL Scott, J Tenhunen, SB Verma, T Vesala and SC Wofsy (2009), Latitudinal patterns of magnitude and interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange regulated by biological and environmental variables. Glob. Change Biol. Version: 1 15 (12) 2905-2920, issn: 1354-1013, ids: 518RH, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01870.x
  • Wiese, DN, WM Folkner and RS Nerem (2009), Alternative mission architectures for a gravity recovery satellite mission. J. Geodesy Version: 1 83 (6) 569-581, issn: 0949-7714, ids: 448FV, doi: 10.1007/s00190-008-0274-1
  • Lei, JH, JP Thayer, JM Forbes, EK Sutton, RS Nerem, M Temmer and AM Veronig (2008), Global thermospheric density variations caused by high-speed solar wind streams during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 113 (A11) , Art. No. A11303, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 370TO, doi: 10.1029/2008JA013433
  • Pierce, R, J Leitch, M Stephens, P Bender and R Nerem (2008), Intersatellite range monitoring using optical interferometry. Appl. Optics Version: 1 47 (27) 5007-5018, issn: 0003-6935, ids: 362JN, doi: 10.1364/AO.47.005007
  • Guo, JP, WX Wan, JM Forbes, E Sutton, RS Nerem and S Bruinsma (2008), Interannual and latitudinal variability of the thermosphere density annual harmonics. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 113 (A8) , Art. No. A08301, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 333MO, doi: 10.1029/2008JA013056
  • Thayer, JP, JH Lei, JM Forbes, EK Sutton and RS Nerem (2008), Thermospheric density oscillations due to periodic solar wind highspeed streams. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 113 (A6) , Art. No. A06307, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 321OC, doi: 10.1029/2008JA013190
  • Willis, JK, DP Chambers and RS Nerem (2008), Assessing the globally averaged sea level budget on seasonal to interannual timescales. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 113 (C6) , Art. No. C06015, issn: 2169-9275, ids: 314MH, doi: 10.1029/2007JC004517
  • Lei, JH, JP Thayer, JM Forbes, EK Sutton and RS Nerem (2008), Rotating solar coronal holes and periodic modulation of the upper atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 35 (10) , Art. No. L10109, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 307ZK, doi: 10.1029/2008GL033875
  • Guo, J, W Wan, JM Forbes, E Sutton, RS Nerem, TN Woods, S Bruinsma and L Liu (2007), Effects of solar variability on thermosphere density from CHAMP accelerometer data. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 112 (A10) , Art. No. A10308, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 225NF, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012409
  • Chambers, DP, ME Tamisiea, RS Nerem and JC Ries (2007), Effects of ice melting on GRACE observations of ocean mass trends. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 34 (5) , Art. No. L05610, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 147PY, doi: 10.1029/2006GL029171
  • Fuentes, JD, D Wang, DR Bowling, M Potosnak, RK Monson, WS Goliff and WR Stockwell (2007), Biogenic hydrocarbon chemistry within and above a mixed deciduous forest. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 56 (2) 165-185, issn: 0167-7764, ids: 135XN, doi: 10.1007/s10874-006-9048-4
  • Sacks, WJ, DS Schimel, RK Monson and BH Braswell (2006), Model-data synthesis of diurnal and seasonal CO2 fluxes at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. Glob. Change Biol. Version: 1 12 (2) 240-259, issn: 1354-1013, ids: 007MX, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01059.x
  • Scott-Denton, LE, TN Rosenstiel and RK Monson (2006), Differential controls by climate and substrate over the heterotrophic and rhizospheric components of soil respiration. Glob. Change Biol. Version: 1 12 (2) 205-216, issn: 1354-1013, ids: 007MX, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01064.x
  • Monson, RK, DL Lipson, SP Burns, AA Turnipseed, AC Delany, MW Williams and SK Schmidt (2006), Winter forest soil respiration controlled by climate and microbial community composition. Nature Version: 1 439 (7077) 711-714, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 010KH, doi: 10.1038/nature04555
  • Monson, RK, TN Rosenstiel, TA Forbis, DA Lipson and CH Jaeger (2006), Nitrogen and carbon storage in alpine plants. Integr. Comp. Biol. Version: 1 Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology 46 (1) 35-48, San Diego, CA, JAN 04-08, 2005, issn: 1540-7063, ids: 012KC, doi: 10.1093/icb/icj006, PubMed ID: 21672721
  • Bruinsma, S, JM Forbes, RS Nerem and XL Zhang (2006), Thermosphere density response to the 20-21 November 2003 solar and geomagnetic storm from CHAMP and GRACE accelerometer data. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 111 (A6) , Art. No. A06303, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 052GU, doi: 10.1029/2005JA011284
  • Kucharik, CJ, CC Barford, M El Maayar, SC Wofsy, RK Monson and DD Baldocchi (2006), A multiyear evaluation of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model at three AmeriFlux forest sites: Vegetation structure, phenology, soil temperature, and CO2 and H2O vapor exchange. Ecol. Model. Version: 1 196 (2-Jan) 1-31, issn: 0304-3800, ids: 058BK, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.11.031
  • Luthcke, SB, HJ Zwally, W Abdalati, DD Rowlands, RD Ray, RS Nerem, FG Lemoine, JJ McCarthy and DS Chinn (2006), Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations. Science Version: 1 314 (5803) 1286-1289, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 108BR, doi: 10.1126/science.1130776, PubMed ID: 17053112
  • Monson, RK, SP Burns, MW Williams, AC Delany, M Weintraub and DA Lipson (2006), The contribution of beneath-snow soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a high-elevation, subalpine forest. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle Version: 1 20 (3) , Art. No. GB3030, issn: 0886-6236, ids: 090IS, doi: 10.1029/2005GB002684
  • Sutton, EK, JM Forbes, RS Nerem and TN Woods (2006), Neutral density response to the solar flares of October and November, 2003. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (22) , Art. No. L22101, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 107MH, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027737
  • Lombard, A, A Cazenave, K DoMinh, C Cabanes and RS Nerem (2005), Thermosteric sea level rise for the past 50 years; comparison with tide gauges and inference on water mass contribution. Global Planet Change Version: 1 48 (4) 303-312, issn: 0921-8181, ids: 978AR, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.02.007
  • Sutton, EK, JM Forbes and RS Nerem (2005), Global thermospheric neutral density and wind response to the severe 2003 geomagnetic storms from CHAMP accelerometer data. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 110 (A9) , Art. No. A09S40, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 968SP, doi: 10.1029/2004JA010985
  • Cazenave, A and RS Nerem (2004), Present-day sea level change: Observations and causes. Rev. Geophys. Version: 1 42 (3) , Art. No. RG3001, issn: 8755-1209, ids: 844XB, doi: 10.1029/2003RG000139
  • Chambers, DP, J Wahr and RS Nerem (2004), Preliminary observations of global ocean mass variations with GRACE. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (13) , Art. No. L13310, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 839PK, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020461
  • Park, KD, RS Nerem, MS Schenewerk and JL Davis (2004), Site-specific multipath characteristics of global IGS and CORS GPS sites. J. Geodesy Version: 1 77 (12) 799-803, issn: 0949-7714, ids: 827FO, doi: 10.1007/s00190-003-0359-9
  • Nerem, RS, JM Wahr and EW Leuliette (2003), Measuring the distribution of ocean mass using GRACE. Space Sci. Rev. Version: 1 Workshop on the Earths Gravity Field 108 (2-Jan) 331-344, BERN, SWITZERLAND, MAR 11-15, 2002, issn: 0038-6308, ids: 732AM, doi: 10.1023/A:1026275310832
  • Bender, PL, RS Nerem and JM Wahr (2003), Possible future use of laser gravity gradiometers. Space Sci. Rev. Version: 1 Workshop on the Earths Gravity Field 108 (2-Jan) 385-392, BERN, SWITZERLAND, MAR 11-15, 2002, issn: 0038-6308, ids: 732AM, doi: 10.1023/A:1026100130397
  • Nerem, RS and GT Mitchum (2002), Estimates of vertical crustal motion derived from differences of TOPEX/POSEIDON and tide gauge sea level measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 29 (19) , Art. No. 1934, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 638ZQ, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015037
  • Leuliette, EW, RS Nerem and GL Russell (2002), Detecting time variations in gravity associated with climate change. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 107 (B6) , Art. No. 2112, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 610YZ, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000404
  • Park, KD, RS Nerem, JL Davis, MS Schenewerk, GA Milne and JX Mitrovica (2002), Investigation of glacial isostatic adjustment in the northeast US using GPS measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 29 (11) , Art. No. 1509, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 610MN, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013782
  • Chambers, DP, CA Mehlhaff, TJ Urban, D Fujii and RS Nerem (2002), Low-frequency variations in global mean sea level: 1950-2000. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 107 (C4) , Art. No. 3026, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 609UU, doi: 10.1029/2001JC001089
  • Bills, BG and RS Nerem (2001), Mars topography: Lessons learned from spatial and spectral domain comparisons of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter and US Geological Survey data. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 106 (E12) 32915-32925, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 515GX, doi: 10.1029/2000JE001279
  • Nerem, RS, BJ Haines, J Hendricks, JF Minster, GT Mitchum and WB White (1997), Improved determination of global mean sea level variations using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (11) 1331-1334, issn: 0094-8276, ids: XD217, doi: 10.1029/97GL01288
  • CHRISTENSEN, EJ, BJ HAINES, SJ KEIHM, CS MORRIS, RA NORMAN, GH PURCELL, BG WILLIAMS, BD WILSON, GH BORN, ME PARKE, SK GILL, CK SHUM, BD TAPLEY, R KOLENKIEWICZ and RS NEREM (1994), CALIBRATION OF TOPEX/POSEIDON AT PLATFORM HARVEST. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 99 (C12) 24465-24485, issn: 0148-0227, ids: PX773, doi: 10.1029/94JC01641

Global mean sea level variations from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2) and global ocean mass variations from GRACE. Note the decrease in both during the 2011 La Niña event. http://sealevel.colorado.edu.

Change in water mass from beginning of 2010 (JFM average) to mid 2011 (MAM average). Blue colors indicate an increase in water mass over the continents.

The evolution of detrended GRACE land mass anomalies is shown for the globe and for continents with substantial contribution to the 2011 global mass increase including Australia (AUS), South America (SA), and North America (NA). The multi-estimate range is shaded. The 2010 minimum and 2011 maximum are highlighted, as are related deficits (red) and excesses (blue). Also shown are the runoff ratio (RR) and contribution to the global change from the 2010 minimum to the 2011 peak. [Fasullo et al., 2013]