Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Roger Bilham

Roger Bilham

Research Interests

Bilham's research includes: Application of space geodesy and strain and tilt instrumentation to monitor deformation of the Earth at plate boundaries, mostly in southern Asia and western North America; Design and operation of new geophysical instruments to monitor strain and tilt in the Earth; Archival research into historical earthquakes; Statistics of urban earthquakes and global seismic hazards.

Current Research

CIRES prepares to monitor slip in the forthcoming Bay Area earthquake

Earthquakes are the result of the rapid release of accumulated strain on a fault. In a few seconds, strain energy that has been developing for hundreds or thousands of years can manifest as meters of violent fault rupture. A special class of creeping faults, however, slip slowly, releasing strain before it amounts to dangerous levels. Few such faults slip entirely by creep, but numerous vertical faults in California do both, releasing strain in the form of viscous creep in the uppermost 5 kilometers of a fault and in the form of seismic rupture at deeper depths.

The Hayward Fault in San Francisco’s East Bay area is one such fault. It last slipped in 1868, and experiences major earthquakes (6.5-7.1 moment-magnitude) every 161 ± 65 years, yet the surface fault slips steadily at 3 to 9 millimeters per year. Much of the surface fault has slipped 1 meter since 1868. For the past two decades, CIRES, with funding from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), has been monitoring surface creep at five locations on the Hayward Fault. Steady slip in Fremont at 6.9 millimeters per year occurs at rates of less than 1 micrometer per hour in the uppermost hundred meters of the fault, interrupted at several-month intervals by approximately 1.5-millimeter amplitude creep-events, each lasting a few hours, signifying slip in the uppermost 3 to 5 kilometers of the fault. Fluctuations in rate in the past two decades have been caused by local earthquakes (Lienkaemper et al, 2013).

Realizing that a magnitude 7 earthquake will soon occur on the fault, we have devised a new sensor designed to capture both slow slip and catastrophic rupture. A tensioned flexible wire fastened obliquely across the fault is wrapped around a 30-centimer circumference wheel. Slip on the fault pulls the cable and rotates the wheel whose angular position is monitored by a Hall effect sensor. The sensor has a sub-millimeter resolution per turn, and 10 turns realizes a range of up to 3 meters—more than adequate to capture the 1 to 2 meters of slip anticipated on the Hayward Fault during the forthcoming earthquake. Cumulative slip is telemetered

View Publications

  • England, P and R Bilham (2015), The Shillong Plateau and the great 1897 Assam earthquake. Tectonics Version: 1 34 (9) 1792-1812, issn: 0278-7407, ids: CV7YH, doi: 10.1002/2015TC003902
  • Amoruso, A, L Crescentini, R Scarpa, R Bilham, AT Linde and IS Sacks (2015), Abrupt magma chamber contraction and microseismicity at Campi Flegrei, Italy: Cause and effect determined from strainmeters and tiltmeters. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (8) 5467-5478, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CS6WN, doi: 10.1002/2015JB012085
  • Wei, M, YJ Liu, Y Kaneko, JJ McGuire and R Bilham (2015), Dynamic triggering of creep events in the Salton Trough, Southern California by regional M >= 5.4 earthquakes constrained by geodetic observations and numerical simulations. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 427 1-10, Art. No. EARTH PLANET SC LETT, issn: 0012-821X, ids: CO7HS, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.06.044
  • Bendick, R, SF Khan, R Burgmann, F Jouanne, P Banerjee, MA Khan and R Bilham (2015), Postseismic relaxation in Kashmir and lateral variations in crustal architecture and materials. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 42 (11) 4375-4383, issn: 0094-8276, ids: CM2LI, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064670
  • Vernant, P, R Bilham, W Szeliga, D Drupka, S Kalita, AK Bhattacharyya, VK Gaur, P Pelgay, R Cattin and T Berthet (2014), Clockwise rotation of the Brahmaputra Valley relative to India: Tectonic convergence in the eastern Himalaya, Naga Hills, and Shillong Plateau. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (8) 6558-6571, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AQ1AD, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011196
  • Bilham, R and BS Bali (2014), A ninth century earthquake-induced landslide and flood in the Kashmir Valley, and earthquake damage to Kashmir's Medieval temples. Bull. Earthq. Eng. Version: 1 12 (1) 79-109, issn: 1570-761X, ids: AB3RJ, doi: 10.1007/s10518-013-9504-x
  • Barnhart, WD, GP Hayes, RW Briggs, RD Gold and R Bilham (2014), Ball-and-socket tectonic rotation during the 2013 M(w)7.7 Balochistan earthquake. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 403 210-216, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AP7GZ, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.07.001
  • Lindsey, EO, Y Fialko, Y Bock, DT Sandwell and R Bilham (2014), Localized and distributed creep along the southern San Andreas Fault. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (10) 7909-7922, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AU1GH, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011275
  • Bilham, R (2013), Societal and observational problems in earthquake risk assessments and their delivery to those most at risk. Tectonophysics Version: 1 584 SI 166-173, issn: 0040-1951, ids: 099IC, doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.03.023
  • Bilham, R (2013), Nicholas Neocles Ambraseys 1929-2012 In Memoriam. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 84 (2) 173-176, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 101AP, doi: 10.1785/0220130007
  • Hauksson, E, J Stock, R Bilham, M Boese, XW Chen, EJ Fielding, J Galetzka, KW Hudnut, K Hutton, LM Jones, H Kanamori, PM Shearer, J Steidl, J Treiman, SJ Wei and WZ Yang (2013), Report on the August 2012 Brawley Earthquake Swarm in Imperial Valley, Southern California. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 84 (2) 177-189, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 101AP, doi: 10.1785/0220120169
  • Schiffman, C, BS Bali, W Szeliga and R Bilham (2013), Seismic slip deficit in the Kashmir Himalaya from GPS observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 40 (21) 5642-5645, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 263LT, doi: 10.1002/2013GL057700
  • He, JK, P Vernant, J Chery, WM Wang, SJ Lu, WF Ku, WH Xia and R Bilham (2013), Nailing down the slip rate of the Altyn Tagh fault. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 40 (20) 5382-5386, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 301DY, doi: 10.1002/2013GL057497
  • Gaur, VK and R Bilham (2012), Discussion of seismicity near Jaitapur. Curr. Sci. Version: 1 103 (11) 1273-1278, issn: Nov-91, ids: 067TR
  • Szeliga, W, R Bilham, DM Kakar and SH Lodi (2012), Interseismic strain accumulation along the western boundary of the Indian subcontinent. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 117 , Art. No. B08404, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 988DS, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008822
  • Satyabala, SP, ZH Yang and R Bilham (2012), Stick-slip advance of the Kohat Plateau in Pakistan. Nat. Geosci. Version: 1 5 (2) 147-150, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 893ZU, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1373
  • Wei, M, D Sandwell, Y Fialko and R Bilham (2011), Slip on faults in the Imperial Valley triggered by the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake revealed by InSAR. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 38 , Art. No. L01308, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 707XC, doi: 10.1029/2010GL045235
  • Perez, OJ, R Bilham, M Sequera, L Molina, P Gavotti, H Codallo, C Moncayo, C Rodriguez, R Velandia, M Guzman and P Molnar (2011), GPS DERIVED VELOCITY FIELD IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: DEXTRAL SHEAR COMPONENT ASSOCIATED TO THE BOCONO FAULT AND CONVERGENT COMPONENT NORMAL TO THE ANDES. Interciencia Version: 1 36 (1) 39-44, issn: 0378-1844, ids: 711DV
  • Szeliga, W, S Hough, S Martin and R Bilham (2010), Intensity, Magnitude, Location, and Attenuation in India for Felt Earthquakes since 1762. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 100 (2) 570-584, issn: 0037-1106, ids: 569LB, doi: 10.1785/0120080329
  • Mohadjer, S, R Bendick, A Ischuk, S Kuzikov, A Kostuk, U Saydullaev, S Lodi, DM Kakar, A Wasy, MA Khan, P Molnar, R Bilham and AV Zubovich (2010), Partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence in the Pamir-Hindu Kush from GPS measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L04305, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 562FO, doi: 10.1029/2009GL041737
  • Hough, S, R Bilham and I Bhat (2009), Kashmir Valley Megaearthquakes Estimates of the magnitudes of past seismic events foretell a very shaky future for this pastoral valley. Am. Scientist Version: 1 97 (1) 42-49, issn: 0003-0996, ids: 384QM
  • Bilham, R (2009), The seismic future of cities. Bull. Earthq. Eng. Version: 1 7 (4) 839-887, issn: 1570-761X, ids: 515OL, doi: 10.1007/s10518-009-9147-0
  • Szeliga, W, R Bilham, D Schelling, DM Kakar and S Lodi (2009), Fold and thrust partitioning in a contracting fold belt: Insights from the 1931 Mach earthquake in Baluchistan. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC5019, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 513LZ, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002265
  • Clark, MK and R Bilham (2008), Miocene rise of the Shillong Plateau and the beginning of the end for the Eastern Himalaya. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 269 (4-Mar) 336-350, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 312YX, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.045
  • Hough, SE and R Bilham (2008), Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic, observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra, and 1934 Nepal earthquakes. J. Earth Syst. Sci. Version: 1 117 773-782, issn: 0253-4126, ids: 404QE
  • Paul, J, AR Lowry, R Bilham, S Sen and R Smalley (2007), Postseismic deformation of the Andaman Islands following the 26 December, 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 34 (19) , Art. No. L19309, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 221HO, doi: 10.1029/2007GL031024
  • Bendick, R, R Bilham, MA Khan and SF Khan (2007), Slip on an active wedge thrust from geodetic observations of the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Geology Version: 1 35 (3) 267-270, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 184FY, doi: 10.1130/G23158A.1
  • Bilham, R, S Lodi, S Hough, S Bukharyl, AM Khan and SFA Rafeeqi (2007), Seismic hazard in Karachi, Pakistan: Uncertain past, uncertain future. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 78 (6) 601-613, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 232LY, doi: 10.1785/gssrl.78.6.601
  • Wallace, K, R Bilham, F Blume, VK Gaur and V Gahalaut (2006), Geodetic constraints on the Bhuj 2001 earthquake and surface deformation in the Kachchh Rift Basin. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (10) , Art. No. L10301, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 049DT, doi: 10.1029/2006GL025775
  • Satyabala, SP and R Bilham (2006), Surface deformation and subsurface slip of the 28 March 1999 Mw=6.4 west Himalayan Chamoli earthquake from InSAR analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (23) , Art. No. L23305, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 115RW, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027422
  • Feldl, N and R Bilham (2006), Great Himalayan earthquakes and the Tibetan plateau. Nature Version: 1 444 (7116) 165-170, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 103DZ, doi: 10.1038/nature05199, PubMed ID: 17093444
  • Bilham, R (2005), Coseismic strain and the transition to surface afterslip recorded by creepmeters near the 2004 Parkfield epicenter. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 76 (1) 49-57, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 898KR
  • Wallace, K, R Bilham, F Blume, VK Gaur and V Gahalaut (2005), Surface deformation in the region of the 1905 Kangra Mw=7.8 earthquake in the period 1846-2001. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 32 (15) , Art. No. L15307, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 954GI, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022906
  • Schulte-Pelkum, V, G Monsalve, A Sheehan, MR Pandey, S Sapkota, R Bilham and F Wu (2005), Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya. Nature Version: 1 435 (7046) 1222-1225, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 940JJ, doi: 10.1038/nature03678, PubMed ID: 15988523
  • Bilham, R and N Ambraseys (2005), Apparent Himalayan slip deficit from the summation of seismic moments for Himalayan earthquakes, 1500-2000. Curr. Sci. Version: 1 88 (10) 1658-1663, issn: Nov-91, ids: 934TG
  • Hough, SE, R Bilham, N Ambraseys and N Feldl (2005), Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site response, Moho reflections and a triggered earthquake. Curr. Sci. Version: 1 88 (10) 1632-1638, issn: 0011-3891, ids: 934TG
  • Hough, SE, R Bilham, K Mueller, W Stephenson, R Williams and J Odum (2005), Wagon loads of sand blows in White County Illinois. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 76 (3) 373-386, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 929VX
  • Bilham, R, R Engdahl, N Feldl and SP Satyabala (2005), Partial and complete rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 76 (3) 299-311, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 929VX
  • Mueller, K, SE Hough and R Bilham (2004), Analysing the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes with recent instrumentally recorded aftershocks. Nature Version: 1 429 (6989) 284-288, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 822AO, doi: 10.1038/nature02557, PubMed ID: 15152249
  • Bilham, R (2004), Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history. Ann. Geophys. Version: 1 Meeting on Virtual Astrophysical Jets 47 (3-Feb) 839-858, Dogliani, ITALY, OCT 02-04, 2003, issn: 1593-5213, ids: 857QB
  • Wallace, K, GH Yin and R Bilham (2004), Inescapable slow slip on the Altyn Tagh fault. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (9) , Art. No. L09613, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 821PH, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019724
  • Bilham, R, N Suszek and S Pinkney (2004), California creepmeters. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 75 (4) 481-492, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 876VT
  • Kostoglodov, V, SK Singh, JA Santiago, SI Franco, KM Larson, AR Lowry and R Bilham (2003), A large silent earthquake in the Guerrero seismic gap, Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 30 (15) , Art. No. 1807, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 712NZ, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017219
  • Bilham, R, R Bendick and K Wallace (2003), Flexure of the Indian plate and intraplate earthquakes. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.-Earth Planet. Sci Version: 1 International Conference on Seismic Hazard 112 (3) 315-329, NEW DELHI, INDIA, OCT 03-05, 2001, issn: 0253-4126, ids: 722VL
  • Ambraseys, N and R Bilham (2003), Reevaluated intensities for the great Assam Earthquake of 12 June 1897, Shillong, India. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 93 (2) 655-673, issn: 0037-1106, ids: 677LX, doi: 10.1785/0120020093
  • Ambraseys, N and R Bilham (2003), Earthquakes and associated deformation in northern Baluchistan 1892-2001. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 93 (4) 1573-1605, issn: 0037-1106, ids: 721NP, doi: 10.1785/0120020038
  • Jade, S, M Mukul, IA Parvez, MB Ananda, PD Kumar, VK Gaur, R Bendick, R Bilham, F Blume, K Wallace, IA Abbasi, MA Khan and S Ulhadi (2003), Pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic displacements associated with the Bhuj 2001 earthquake derived from recent and historic geodetic data. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.-Earth Planet. Sci Version: 1 International Conference on Seismic Hazard 112 (3) 331-345, NEW DELHI, INDIA, OCT 03-05, 2001, issn: 0253-4126, ids: 722VL
  • Ortiz, M and R Bilham (2003), Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 M-w=7.9 Car Nicobar earthquake estimated from tsunamis recorded in the Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 108 (B4) , Art. No. 2215, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 678BM, doi: 10.1029/2002JB001941
  • Hough, SE, S Martin, R Bilham and GM Atkinson (2002), The 26 January 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake: Observed and predicted ground motions. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 92 (6) 2061-2079, issn: 0037-1106, ids: 611NT, doi: 10.1785/0120010260
  • Wang, Q, PZ Zhang, ZJ Niu, JT Freymueller, X Lai, YX Li, WY Zhu, JN Liu, R Bilham and KM Larson (2002), Present-day crustal movement and tectonic deformation in China continent. Sci. China Ser. D-Earth Sci. Version: 1 45 (10) 865-874, issn: 1006-9313, ids: 595UT, doi: 10.1360/02yd9085
  • Bilham, R (2001), Slow tilt reversal of the Lesser Himalaya between 1862 and 1992 at 78 degrees E, and bounds to the southeast rupture of the 1905 Kangra earthquake. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 144 (3) 713-728, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 414RU, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-246x.2001.01365.x
  • Perez, OJ, R Bilham, R Bendick, N Hernandez, M Hoyer, JR Velandia, C Moncayo and M Kozuch (2001), Relative velocity between the Caribbean and South American plates from GPS observations in northern Venezuela. Interciencia Version: 1 26 (2) 69-74, issn: 0378-1844, ids: 414XB
  • Weber, JC, TH Dixon, C DeMets, WB Ambeh, P Jansma, G Mattioli, J Saleh, G Sella, R Bilham and O Perez (2001), GPS estimate of relative motion between the Caribbean and South American plates, and geologic implications for Trinidad and Venezuela. Geology Version: 1 29 (1) 75-78, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 392ZA, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0075:GEORMB>2.0.CO;2
  • Paul, J, R Burgmann, VK Gaur, R Bilham, KM Larson, MB Ananda, S Jade, M Mukal, TS Anupama, G Satyal and D Kumar (2001), The motion and active deformation of India. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 28 (4) 647-650, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 401MX, doi: 10.1029/2000GL011832
  • Bilham, R and P England (2001), Plateau 'pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake. Nature Version: 1 410 (6830) 806-809, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 420TT, doi: 10.1038/35071057, PubMed ID: 11298446
  • Perez, OJ, R Bilham, R Bendick, JR Velandia, N Hernandez, C Moncayo, M Hoyer and M Kozuch (2001), Velocity field across the southern Caribbean plate boundary and estimates of Caribbean/South-American plate motion using GPS geodesy 1994-2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 28 (15) 2987-2990, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 457VK, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013183
  • Bendick, R and R Bilham (2001), How perfect is the Himalayan arc?. Geology Version: 1 29 (9) 791-794, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 470GR, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0791:HPITHA>2.0.CO;2
  • Lowry, AR, KM Larson, V Kostoglodov and R Bilham (2001), Transient fault slip in Guerrero, southern Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 28 (19) 3753-3756, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 476GF, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013238
  • Wang, Q, PZ Zhang, JT Freymueller, R Bilham, KM Larson, X Lai, XZ You, ZJ Niu, JC Wu, YX Li, JN Liu, ZQ Yang and QZ Chen (2001), Present-day crustal deformation in China constrained by global positioning system measurements. Science Version: 1 294 (5542) 574-577, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 484NC, doi: 10.1126/science.1063647, PubMed ID: 11641493
  • Bendick, R, R Bilham, J Freymueller, K Larson and GH Yin (2000), Geodetic evidence for a low slip rate in the Altyn Tagh fault system. Nature Version: 1 404 (6773) 69-72, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 292BW
  • Ambraseys, N and R Bilham (2000), A note on the kangra M-s=7.8 earthquake of 4 April 1905. Curr. Sci. Version: 1 79 (1) 45-50, issn: Nov-91, ids: 335QR
  • Acton, GD, A Tessema, M Jackson and R Bilham (2000), The tectonic and geomagnetic significance of paleomagnetic observations from volcanic rocks from central Afar, Africa. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 180 (4-Mar) 225-241, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 344AT, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00173-4
  • Bilham, R and VK Gaur (2000), Geodetic contributions to the study of seismotectonics in India. Curr. Sci. Version: 1 79 (9) 1259-1269, issn: Nov-91, ids: 386QP
  • Bilham, R and TT Yu (2000), The morphology of thrust faulting in the 21 September 1999, Chichi, Taiwan earthquake. J. Asian Earth Sci. Version: 1 18 (3) 351-367, issn: 1367-9120, ids: 296ZY, doi: 10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00071-1
  • DeMets, C, PE Jansma, GS Mattioli, TH Dixon, F Farina, R Bilham, E Calais and P Mann (2000), GPS geodetic constraints on Caribbean-North America plate motion. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 27 (3) 437-440, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 282EY, doi: 10.1029/1999GL005436
  • Larson, KM, R Burgmann, R Bilham and JT Freymueller (1999), Kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision zone from GPS measurements. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 104 (B1) 1077-1093, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 159FV, doi: 10.1029/1998JB900043
  • Bilham, R, R Bendick, K Larson, P Mohr, J Braun, S Tesfaye and L Asfaw (1999), Secular and tidal strain across the main Ethiopian rift. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 26 (18) 2789-2792, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 237WV, doi: 10.1029/1998GL005315
  • Bilham, R, F Blume, R Bendick and VK Gaur (1998), Geodetic constraints on the translation and deformation of India: Implications for future great Himalayan earthquakes. Curr. Sci. Version: 1 74 (3) 213-229, issn: Nov-91, ids: YZ702
  • Bilham, R (1998), Death toll from earthquakes. Geotimes Version: 1 43 (7) 4-4, issn: 0016-8556, ids: ZY046
  • Bilham, R, K Larson, J Freymueller, F Jouanne, P LeFort, P Leturmy, JL Mugnier, JF Gamond, JP Glot, J Martinod, NL Chaudury, GR Chitrakar, UP Gautam, BP Koirala, MR Pandey, R Ranabhat, SN Sapkota, PL Shrestha, MC Thakuri, UR Timilsina, DR Tiwari, G Vidal, C Vigny, A Galy and B deVoogd (1997), GPS measurements of present-day convergence across the Nepal Himalaya. Nature Version: 1 386 (6620) 61-64, issn: 0028-0836, ids: WL746, doi: 10.1038/386061a0
  • Bilham, R and S Whitehead (1997), Subsurface creep on the Hayward fault, Fremont, California. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (11) 1307-1310, issn: 0094-8276, ids: XD217, doi: 10.1029/97GL01244
  • Freymueller, J, R Bilham, R Burgmann, KM Larson, J Paul, S Jade and V Gaur (1996), Global positioning system measurements of Indian plate motion and convergence across the Lesser Himalaya. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 23 (22) 3107-3110, issn: 0094-8276, ids: VQ924, doi: 10.1029/96GL02518
  • Robertson, D, G Sasagawa, F Klopping and R Bilham (1996), The use of differencing to eliminate environmental effects in the intercomparison of absolute gravity meters. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 23 (3) 245-248, issn: 0094-8276, ids: TU593, doi: 10.1029/96GL00014
  • HILL, DP, MJS JOHNSTON, JO LANGBEIN and R BILHAM (1995), RESPONSE OF LONG-VALLEY CALDERA TO THE M(W)=7.3 LANDERS, CALIFORNIA, EARTHQUAKE. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 100 (B7) 12985-13005, issn: 0148-0227, ids: RH812, doi: 10.1029/95JB00860
  • SIGMUNDSSON, F, P EINARSSON, R BILHAM and E STURKELL (1995), RIFT-TRANSFORM KINEMATICS IN SOUTH ICELAND - DEFORMATION FROM GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS, 1986 TO 1992. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 100 (B4) 6235-6248, issn: 2169-9313, ids: QT248, doi: 10.1029/95JB00155
  • PAUL, J, F BLUME, S JADE, V KUMAR, PS SWATHI, MB ANANDA, VK GAUR, R BURGMANN, R BILHAM, B NAMBOODRI and D MENCIN (1995), MICROSTRAIN STABILITY OF PENINSULAR INDIA 1864-1994. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.-Earth Planet. Sci Version: 1 104 (1) 131-146, issn: 0253-4126, ids: RJ701
  • BILHAM, R (1994), THE 1737 CALCUTTA EARTHQUAKE AND CYCLONE EVALUATED. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 84 (5) 1650-1657, issn: 0037-1106, ids: QW649
  • BODIN, P and R BILHAM (1994), 3D GEOMETRY OF THE STRAIN-FIELD AT TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES - IMPLICATIONS FOR SEISMIC RUPTURE. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 21 (23) 2523-2526, issn: 0094-8276, ids: PT474, doi: 10.1029/94GL02279
  • JACKSON, M and R BILHAM (1994), CONSTRAINTS ON HIMALAYAN DEFORMATION INFERRED FROM VERTICAL VELOCITY-FIELDS IN NEPAL AND TIBET. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 99 (B7) 13897-13912, issn: 2169-9313, ids: NW515, doi: 10.1029/94JB00714
  • BEHR, J, R BILHAM, P BODIN and S GROSS (1994), EUREKA-PEAK FAULT AFTERSLIP FOLLOWING THE 28 JUNE 1992 LANDERS EARTHQUAKE. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 84 (3) 826-834, issn: 0037-1106, ids: NQ993
  • BODIN, P, R BILHAM, J BEHR, J GOMBERG and KW HUDNUT (1994), SLIP TRIGGERED ON SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FAULTS BY THE 1992 JOSHUA-TREE, LANDERS, AND BIG-BEAR EARTHQUAKES. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 84 (3) 806-816, issn: 0037-1106, ids: NQ993
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Each line represents the slip at 15-km intervals along the Hayward Fault in California, in the past two decades: from south (Fremont 12 cm) to north (Pinole 8 cm). The creepmeters register small annual variations caused by seasonal temperature changes, but accelerated creep near Oakland and Temescal followed small (magnitude 4) local earthquakes. Creep events occur several times each year at Fremont. The sensors are now supplemented with 3-m range sensors to capture co-seismic