Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Timothy J. Fuller-Rowell

Timothy J. Fuller-Rowell

Research Interests

The dynamics, energetics, chemistry, and electrodynamics of the thermosphere and ionosphere.


Current Research

How waves from the lower atmosphere drive space weather

CIRES’ broad sphere of science also includes “space weather.” The term “space weather” refers to the variable conditions on the Sun, throughout space, and in Earth’s magnetic field and upper atmosphere that can influence the performance of space-borne and ground-based technological systems. Near Earth, space weather impacts satellite drag and orbit prediction, as well as communication and navigation systems, which in extreme cases can endanger human life.
The Atmosphere-Ionosphere Modeling (AIM) Group in CIRES targets the near-Earth response to solar variability, and also investigates the connections between terrestrial weather and space weather. When the Sun is active, the impact of solar variability, such as flares or coronal mass ejections, dominates space weather. Recently we have become increasingly aware of the impact of lower-atmospheric processes on space weather: A whole spectrum of waves is continually bombarding the upper atmosphere, and they originate from tropospheric convection, absorption of radiation by ozone and water vapor, sudden stratospheric warmings, jet stream adjustment, and ocean waves. To quantify the impact of this lower-atmosphere spectrum of waves, we have been working with our NOAA partners to build a whole atmosphere model (WAM). WAM can now simulate a large part of this neutral atmosphere wave spectrum.

One of the impacts of these waves is on satellite drag. Most of the drag on a satellite in low-Earth orbit, such as the International Space Station (ISS), 250 miles above Earth, comes from the tenuous atmospheric gas it flies through, which is more than 1 billion times less dense than at sea level, yet is enough to perturb the ISS orbit. The figure shows neutral density measured at these altitudes from the German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. The episodic spikes of density come from increases in energy deposition from geomagnetic storms when the Sun suddenly becomes more active; these are superimposed on a longer-term seasonal modulation. Attempts to model the changes through the year using an upper atmosphere model by itself are good at capturing the spikes in density, but are not good at capturing the seasonal changes. The model underestimates the density at both equinoxes. When we used the WAM spectrum of waves from the lower atmosphere to force the upper atmosphere in addition to solar and geomagnetic forcing, we were able to capture a large part of the semi-annual variation and improve orbit prediction.

Variation of orbit-averaged neutral density near 400 km altitude from observations on the German CHAMP satellite (shown in black) during 2007. Simulation using an upper atmosphere model by itself (shown in blue) falls short of predicting the density during both equinoxes. When the spectrum of waves from WAM is used to drive the upper atmosphere (shown in green), the semi-annual variation is captured, and orbit prediction is improved. Figure courtesy of Mariangel Fedrizzi

View Publications

  • Maruyama, N, YY Sun, PG Richards, J Middlecoff, TW Fang, TJ Fuller-Rowell, RA Akmaev, JY Liu and CE Valladares (2016), A new source of the midlatitude ionospheric peak density structure revealed by a new Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 43 (6) 2429-2435, issn: 0094-8276, ids: DK1TM, doi: 10.1002/2015GL067312
  • Connor, HK, E Zesta, M Fedrizzi, Y Shi, J Raeder, MV Codrescu and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2016), Modeling the ionosphere-thermosphere response to a geomagnetic storm using physics-based magnetospheric energy input: OpenGGCM-CTIM results. J. Space Weather Space Clim. Version: 1 6 (A25) , issn: 2115-7251, ids: DN4WC, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2016019
  • Fong, WC, XZ Chu, X Lu, C Chen, TJ Fuller-Rowell, M Codrescu and AD Richmond (2015), Lidar and CTIPe model studies of the fast amplitude growth with altitude of the diurnal temperature "tides" in the Antarctic winter lower thermosphere and dependence on geomagnetic activity. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 42 (3) 697-704, issn: 0094-8276, ids: CD8OT, doi: 10.1002/2014GL062784
  • Pedatella, NM, T Fuller-Rowell, H Wang, H Jin, Y Miyoshi, H Fujiwara, H Shinagawa, HL Liu, F Sassi, H Schmidt, V Matthias and L Goncharenko (2014), The neutral dynamics during the 2009 sudden stratosphere warming simulated by different whole atmospheremodels. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 119 (2) 1306-1324, issn: 2169-9380, ids: AD2CP, doi: 10.1002/2013JA019421
  • Wang, H, RA Akmaev, TW Fang, TJ Fuller-Rowell, F Wu, N Maruyama and MD Iredell (2014), First forecast of a sudden stratospheric warming with a coupled whole-atmosphere/ionosphere model IDEA. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 119 (3) 2079-2089, issn: 2169-9380, ids: AH6CM, doi: 10.1002/2013JA019481
  • Fang, TW, T Fuller-Rowell, HJ Wang, R Akmaev and F Wu (2014), Ionospheric response to sudden stratospheric warming events at low and high solar activity. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 119 (9) , issn: 2169-9380, ids: AT3BN, doi: 10.1002/2014JA020142
  • Fong, WC, X Lu, XZ Chu, TJ Fuller-Rowell, ZB Yu, BR Roberts, C Chen, CS Gardner and AJ McDonald (2014), Winter temperature tides from 30 to 110 km at McMurdo (77.8 degrees S, 166.7 degrees E), Antarctica: Lidar observations and comparisons with WAM. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 119 (6) 2846-2863, issn: 2169-897X, ids: AH3SV, doi: 10.1002/2013JD020784
  • Lieberman, RS, RA Akmaev, TJ Fuller-Rowell and E Doornbos (2013), Thermospheric zonal mean winds and tides revealed by CHAMP. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 40 (10) 2439-2443, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 277SS, doi: 10.1002/grl.50481
  • Deng, Y, TJ Fuller-Rowell, AJ Ridley, D Knipp and RE Lopez (2013), Theoretical study: Influence of different energy sources on the cusp neutral density enhancement. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 118 (5) 2340-2349, issn: 2169-9380, ids: 228UF, doi: 10.1002/jgra.50197
  • Lu, X, XZ Chu, T Fuller-Rowell, LR Chang, WC Fong and ZB Yu (2013), Eastward propagating planetary waves with periods of 1-5 days in the winter Antarctic stratosphere as revealed by MERRA and lidar. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (17) 9565-9578, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 232JH, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50717
  • Fang, TW, R Akmaev, T Fuller-Rowell, F Wu, N Maruyama and G Millward (2013), Longitudinal and day-to-day variability in the ionosphere from lower atmosphere tidal forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 40 (11) 2523-2528, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 175VL, doi: 10.1002/grl.50550
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, D Buresova, DJ Fuller-Rowell and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2013), Initial results of the evaluation of IRI hmF2 performance for minima 22-23 and 23-24. Adv. Space Res. Version: 1 51 (4) 630-638, issn: 0273-1177, ids: 090YI, doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2012.02.010
  • Yizengaw, E, P Doherty and T Fuller-Rowell (2013), Is Space Weather Different Over Africa, and If So, Why? An AGU Chapman Conference Report. Space Weather Version: 1 11 (7) 389-391, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 231MR, doi: 10.1002/swe.20063
  • Negrea, C, MV Codrescu and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2012), On the validation effort of the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics model. Space Weather Version: 1 10 , Art. No. S08010, issn: 1539-4956, ids: 999KN, doi: 10.1029/2012SW000818
  • Fedrizzi, M, TJ Fuller-Rowell and MV Codrescu (2012), Global Joule heating index derived from thermospheric density physics-based modeling and observations. Space Weather Version: 1 10 , Art. No. S03001, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 903QX, doi: 10.1029/2011SW000724
  • Woods, TN, FG Eparvier, R Hock, AR Jones, D Woodraska, D Judge, L Didkovsky, J Lean, J Mariska, H Warren, D McMullin, P Chamberlin, G Berthiaume, S Bailey, T Fuller-Rowell, J Sojka, WK Tobiska and R Viereck (2012), Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments. Sol. Phys. Version: 1 275 (2-Jan) 115-143, issn: 0038-0938, ids: 878YT, doi: 10.1007/s11207-009-9487-6
  • Shim, J. S., M. Kuznetsova, L. Rastatter, D. Bilitza, M. Butala, M. Codrescu, B. A. Emery, B. Foster, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, J Huba, A. J. Mannucci, X. Pi, A. Ridley, L. Scherliess, R. W. Schunk, J. .J Sojka, P. Stephens, D. C. Thompson, D Weimer, L. Zhu, and E. Sutton (2012), CEDAR Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere (ETI) Challenge for systematic assessment of ionosphere/thermosphere models: Electron density, neutral density, NmF2, and hmF2 using space based observations. Space Weather Version: 1 10 , Art. No. S10004, issn: 1539-4956, ids: 023XP, doi: 10.1029/2012SW000851
  • Matsuo, T, M Fedrizzi, TJ Fuller-Rowell and MV Codrescu (2012), Data assimilation of thermospheric mass density. Space Weather Version: 1 10 , Art. No. S05002, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 942AS, doi: 10.1029/2012SW000773
  • Codrescu, MV, C Negrea, M Fedrizzi, TJ Fuller-Rowell, A Dobin, N Jakowsky, H Khalsa, T Matsuo and N Maruyama (2012), A real-time run of the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) model. Space Weather Version: 1 10 , Art. No. S02001, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 891SK, doi: 10.1029/2011SW000736
  • Fang, TW, T Fuller-Rowell, R Akmaev, F Wu, HJ Wang and D Anderson (2012), Longitudinal variation of ionospheric vertical drifts during the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. A03324, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 914GX, doi: 10.1029/2011JA017348
  • Bilitza, D, LA McKinnell, B Reinisch and T Fuller-Rowell (2011), The international reference ionosphere today and in the future. J. Geodesy Version: 1 85 (12) 909-920, issn: 0949-7714, ids: 869HB, doi: 10.1007/s00190-010-0427-x
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, R Redmon, M Fedrizzi, R Viereck and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2011), Some Characteristics of the Ionospheric Behavior During the Solar Cycle 23-24 Minimum. Sol. Phys. Version: 1 274 (2-Jan) 439-456, issn: 0038-0938, ids: 873ER, doi: 10.1007/s11207-011-9728-3
  • Wang, H, TJ Fuller-Rowell, RA Akmaev, M Hu, DT Kleist and MD Iredell (2011), First simulations with a whole atmosphere data assimilation and forecast system: The January 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 116 , Art. No. A12321, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 868SV, doi: 10.1029/2011JA017081
  • Fuller-Rowell, T, R Akmaev, F Wu, M Fedrizzi, RA Viereck and HJ Wang (2011), Did the January 2009 sudden stratospheric warming cool or warm the thermosphere?. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 38 , Art. No. L18104, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 825ML, doi: 10.1029/2011GL048985
  • Fuller-Rowell, T, HJ Wang, R Akmaev, F Wu, TW Fang, M Iredell and A Richmond (2011), Forecasting the dynamic and electrodynamic response to the January 2009 sudden stratospheric warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 38 , Art. No. L13102, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 790SG, doi: 10.1029/2011GL047732
  • Shim, JS, M Kuznetsova, L Rastatter, M Hesse, D Bilitza, M Butala, M Codrescu, B Emery, B Foster, T Fuller-Rowell, J Huba, AJ Mannucci, X Pi, A Ridley, L Scherliess, RW Schunk, P Stephens, DC Thompson, L Zhu, D Anderson, JL Chau, JJ Sojka and B Rideout (2011), CEDAR Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere (ETI) Challenge for systematic assessment of ionosphere/thermosphere models: NmF2, hmF2, and vertical drift using ground-based observations. Space Weather Version: 1 9 , Art. No. S12003, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 871TH, doi: 10.1029/2011SW000727
  • Deng, Y, TJ Fuller-Rowell, RA Akmaev and AJ Ridley (2011), Impact of the altitudinal Joule heating distribution on the thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 116 , Art. No. A05313, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 767RV, doi: 10.1029/2010JA016019
  • Maruyama, N, TJ Fuller-Rowell, MV Codrescu, D Anderson, AD Richmond, A Maute, S Sazykin, FR Toffoletto, RW Spiro, RA Wolf and GH Millward (2011), Modeling the Storm Time Electrodynamics. Version: 1 AERONOMY OF THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE AND IONOSPHERE 2 455-464, Ed. Abdu, MA; Pancheva, D; Bhattacharyya, A, ids: BUW26, isbn: 978-94-007-0325-4, doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0326-1_35
  • Akmaev, RA, F Wu, TJ Fuller-Rowell, H Wang and MD Iredell (2010), Midnight density and temperature maxima, and thermospheric dynamics in Whole Atmosphere Model simulations. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 115 , Art. No. A08326, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 644YI, doi: 10.1029/2010JA015651
  • Fuller-Rowell, T, F Wu, R Akmaev, TW Fang and E Araujo-Pradere (2010), A whole atmosphere model simulation of the impact of a sudden stratospheric warming on thermosphere dynamics and electrodynamics. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 115 , Art. No. A00G08, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 666EW, doi: 10.1029/2010JA015524
  • Amory-Mazaudier, C, S Basu, O Bock, A Combrink, K Groves, T Fuller Rowell, P Lassudrie-Duchesne, M Petitdidier and E Yizengaw (2009), International Heliophysical Year: GPS Network in Africa. Earth Moon Planets Version: 1 European General Assembly on International Heliophysics Year 104 (4-Jan) 263-270, Torino, ITALY, JUN, 2007, issn: 0167-9295, ids: 414MX, doi: 10.1007/s11038-008-9273-8
  • Akmaev, RA, F Wu, TJ Fuller-Rowell and H Wang (2009), Midnight temperature maximum (MTM) in Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L07108, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 435EW, doi: 10.1029/2009GL037759
  • Fedrizzi, M, TJ Fuller-Rowell, N Maruyama, M Codrescu and H Khalsa (2008), Sources of F-Region Height Changes During Geomagnetic Storms at Mid Latitudes. Version: 1 MIDLATITUDE IONOSPHERIC DYNAMICS AND DISTURBANCES 181 247-258, Ed. Kintner, PM; Coster, AJ; FullerRowell, T; Mannucci, AJ; Mendillo, M; Heelis, R, issn: 0065-8448, ids: BJY19, isbn: 978-0-87590-446-7, doi: 10.1029/181GM22
  • Smith, DA, EA Araujo-Pradere, C Minter and T Fuller-Rowell (2008), A comprehensive evaluation of the errors inherent in the use of a two-dimensional shell for modeling the ionosphere. Radio Sci. Version: 1 43 (6) , Art. No. RS6008, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 388UM, doi: 10.1029/2007RS003769
  • Raeder, J, D Larson, WH Li, EL Kepko and T Fuller-Rowell (2008), OpenGGCM Simulations for the THEMIS Mission. Space Sci. Rev. Version: 1 141 (4-Jan) 535-555, issn: 0038-6308, ids: 389JP, doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9421-5
  • Codrescu, MV, TJ Fuller-Rowell, V Munteanu, CF Minter and GH Millward (2008), Validation of the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics model: CTIPE-Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter temperature comparison. Space Weather Version: 1 6 (9) , Art. No. S09005, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 353ZR, doi: 10.1029/2007SW000364
  • Akmaev, RA, TJ Fuller-Rowell, F Wu, JM Forbes, X Zhang, AF Anghel, MD Iredell, S Moorthi and HM Juang (2008), Tidal variability in the lower thermosphere: Comparison of Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) simulations with observations from TIMED. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 35 (3) , Art. No. L03810, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 263QL, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032584
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, RA Akmaev, F Wu, A Anghel, N Maruyama, DN Anderson, MV Codrescu, M Iredell, S Moorthi, HM Juang, YT Hou and G Millward (2008), Impact of terrestrial weather on the upper atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 35 (9) , Art. No. L09808, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 300LN, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032911
  • Fuller-Rowell, T, M Codrescu, N Maruyama, M Fedrizzi, E Araujo-Pradere, S Sazykin and G Bust (2007), Observed and modeled thermosphere and ionosphere response to superstorms. Radio Sci. Version: 1 42 (4) , Art. No. RS4S90, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 193QQ, doi: 10.1029/2005RS003392
  • Maruyama, N, S Sazykin, RW Spiro, D Anderson, A Anghel, RA Wolf, FR Toffoletto, TJ Fuller-Rowell, MV Codrescu, AD Richmond and GH Millward (2007), Modeling storm-time electrodynamics of the low-latitude ionosphere-thermo sphere system: Can long lasting disturbance electric fields be accounted for?. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. Version: 1 Symposium on Penetration Electric Fields and Their Effects in the Inner Magnetosphere and Ionosphere 69 (11-Oct) 1182-1199, MIT Haystack Observ, Westford, MA, NOV 07-09, 2005, issn: 1364-6826, ids: 202HR, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2006.08.020
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, TJ Fuller-Rowell, PSJ Spencer and CF Minter (2007), Differential validation of the US-TEC model. Radio Sci. Version: 1 42 (3) , Art. No. RS3016, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 180NN, doi: 10.1029/2006RS003459
  • Minter, CF, DS Robertson, PSJ Spencer, AR Jacobson, TJ Fuller-Rowell, EA Araujo-Pradere and RW Moses (2007), A comparison of Magic and FORTE ionosphere measurements. Radio Sci. Version: 1 42 (3) , Art. No. RS3026, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 185EW, doi: 10.1029/2006RS003460
  • Lyakhov, AN, YI Zetser and T Fuller-Rowell (2006), Possible consequences of the displacement of magnetic poles on the structure and dynamics of the earth's upper atmosphere. Dokl. Earth Sci. Version: 1 409 (6) 978-980, issn: 1028-334X, ids: 141KR, doi: 10.1134/S1028334X06060328
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, MV Codrescu, CF Minter and D Strickland (2006), Application of thermospheric general circulation models for space weather operations. Version: 1 THERMOSPHERIC-IONOSPHERIC-GEOSPHERIC (TIGER) SYMPOSIUM 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 37 (2) 401-408, Paris, FRANCE, JUL 18-25, 2004, Ed. Schmidtke, G, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BEG35, doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2005.12.020
  • Tsurutani, BT, FL Guarnieri, T Fuller-Rowell, AJ Mannucci, B Iijima, WD Gonzalez, DL Judge, P Gangopadhyay, A Saito, T Tsuda, OP Verkhoglyadova and GA Zambon (2006), Extreme solar EUV flares and ICMEs and resultant extreme ionospheric effects: Comparison of the Halloween 2003 and the Bastille Day events. Radio Sci. Version: 1 41 (5) , Art. No. RS5S07, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 062KS, doi: 10.1029/2005RS003331
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, TJ Fuller-Rowell and PSJ Spencer (2006), Consistent features of TEC changes during ionospheric storms. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. Version: 1 68 (16) 1834-1842, issn: 1364-6826, ids: 112LV, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2006.06.004
  • Fuller-Rowell, T, E Araujo-Pradere, C Minter, M Codrescu, P Spencer, D Robertson and AR Jacobson (2006), US-TEC: A new data assimilation product from the Space Environment Center characterizing the ionospheric total electron content using real-time GPS data. Radio Sci. Version: 1 41 (6) , Art. No. RS6003, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 115UE, doi: 10.1029/2005RS003393
  • Maruyama, N, AD Richmond, TJ Fuller-Rowell, MV Codrescu, S Sazykin, FR Toffoletto, RW Spiro and GH Millward (2005), Interaction between direct penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields in the storm-time equatorial ionosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 32 (17) , Art. No. L17105, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 963SY, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023763
  • Minter, CF, TJ Fuller-Rowell and MV Codrescu (2005), The potential of remote sensing for neutral atmospheric density estimation in a data assimilation system. J. Astronaut. Sci. Version: 1 53 (4) 445-463, issn: 0021-9142, ids: 072ZI
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, TJ Fuller-Rowell and MV Codrescu (2005), Characteristics of the ionospheric variability as a function of season, latitude, local time, and geomagnetic activity. Radio Sci. Version: 1 40 (5) , Art. No. RS5009, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 978DF, doi: 10.1029/2004RS003179
  • Codrescu, MV, TJ Fuller-Rowell and CF Minter (2004), An ensemble-type Kalman filter for neutral thermospheric composition during geomagnetic storms. Space Weather Version: 1 2 (11) , Art. No. S11002, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 909IG, doi: 10.1029/2004SW000088
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, CF Minter and MV Codrescu (2004), Data assimilation for neutral thermospheric species during geomagnetic storms. Radio Sci. Version: 1 39 (1) , Art. No. RS1S03, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 775RD, doi: 10.1029/2002RS002835
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, TJ Fuller-Rowell and D Bilitza (2004), Ionospheric variability for quiet and perturbed conditions. Version: 1 IRI: QUANTIFYING IONOSPERIC VARIABILITY Annual Workshop of the International-Reference-Ionosphere-Working-Group 34 (9) 1914-1921, Rhodes Univ, Grahamstown, SOUTH AFRICA, OCT 06-10, 2003, Ed. Reinisch, BW; Bilitza, DK; McKinnell, LA, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BBN80, doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2004.06.007
  • Minter, CF, TJ Fuller-Rowell and MV Codrescu (2004), Estimating the state of the thermospheric composition using Kalman filtering. Space Weather Version: 1 2 (4) , Art. No. S04002, issn: 1542-7390, ids: 908VD, doi: 10.1029/2003SW000006
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, TJ Fuller-Rowell and D Bilitza (2003), Validation of the STORM response in IRI2000. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. Version: 1 108 (A3) , Art. No. 1120, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 667BV, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009720
  • Maruyama, N, S Watanabe and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2003), Dynamic and energetic coupling in the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 108 (A11) , Art. No. 1396, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 744XM, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009599
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2002), STORM: An empirical storm-time ionospheric correction model - 2. Validation. Radio Sci. Version: 1 37 (5) , Art. No. 1071, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 635KD, doi: 10.1029/2002RS002620
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, GH Millward, AD Richmond and MV Codrescu (2002), Storm-time changes in the upper atmosphere at low latitudes. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. Version: 1 10th International Symposium on Equatorial Aeronomy (ISEA) 64 (14-Dec) 1383-1391, ANTALYA, TURKEY, MAY 17-24, 2000, Art. No. PII S1364-6826(02)00101-3, issn: 1364-6826, ids: 589EN, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(02)00101-3
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA, TJ Fuller-Rowell and MV Codrescu (2002), STORM: An empirical storm-time ionospheric correction model - 1. Model description. Radio Sci. Version: 1 37 (5) , Art. No. 1070, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 635KD, doi: 10.1029/2001RS002467
  • Codrescu, MV, KL Beierle, TJ Fuller-Rowell, SE Palo and XL Zhang (2001), More total electron content climatology from TOPEX/Poseidon measurements. Radio Sci. Version: 1 Ionospheric Effect Symposium (IES 99) 36 (2) 325-333, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA, MAY 04-06, 1999, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 415VR, doi: 10.1029/1999RS002407
  • Muller-Wodarg, ICF, AD Aylward and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2001), Tidal oscillations in the thermosphere: a theoretical investigation of their sources. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. Version: 1 Meeting of the International-Union-of-Geodesy-and-Geophysics (IUGG) 63 (9) 899-914, UNIV BIRMINGHAM, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND, JUL 27-28, 1999, issn: 1364-6826, ids: 440KK, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00202-9
  • Millward, GH, ICF Muller-Wodarg, AD Aylward, TJ Fuller-Rowell, AD Richmond and RJ Moffett (2001), An investigation into the influence of tidal forcing on F region equatorial vertical ion drift using a global ionosphere-thermosphere model with coupled electrodynamics. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 106 (A11) 24733-24744, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 490JT, doi: 10.1029/2000JA000342
  • Araujo-Pradere, EA and TJ Fuller-Rowell (2001), Evaluation of the STORM-time ionospheric empirical model for the Bastille Day event. Sol. Phys. Version: 1 204 (2-Jan) 317-324, issn: 0038-0938, ids: 524BU
  • Rishbeth, H, ICF Muller-Wodarg, L Zou, TJ Fuller-Rowell, GH Millward, RJ Moffett, DW Idenden and AD Aylward (2000), Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion. Ann. Geophys.-Atmos. Hydrospheres Space Sci. Version: 1 18 (8) 945-956, issn: 0992-7689, ids: 349ZC, doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-0945-6
  • Zou, L, H Rishbeth, ICF Muller-Wodarg, AD Aylward, GH Millward, TJ Fuller-Rowell, DW Idenden and RJ Moffett (2000), Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling. Ann. Geophys.-Atmos. Hydrospheres Space Sci. Version: 1 18 (8) 927-944, issn: 0992-7689, ids: 349ZC, doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-0927-8
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, MC Codrescu and P Wilkinson (2000), Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity. Ann. Geophys.-Atmos. Hydrospheres Space Sci. Version: 1 18 (7) 766-781, issn: 0992-7689, ids: 338BB, doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-0766-7
  • Codrescu, MV, TJ Fuller-Rowell, JC Foster, JM Holt and SJ Cariglia (2000), Electric field variability associated with the Millstone Hill electric field model. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 105 (A3) 5265-5273, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 288TY, doi: 10.1029/1999JA900463
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, E Araujo-Pradere and MV Codrescu (2000), An empirical ionospheric storm-time correction model. Version: 1 LOWER IONOSPHERE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELS C4 1 Symposium of COSPAR Scientific Commission C Held at the 32nd COSPAR Scientific Assembly 25 (1) 139-146, NAGOYA, JAPAN, JUL 12-19, 1998, Ed. Rawer, KM; Bilitza, DK; Oyama, KI; Singer, W, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BP43G, doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(99)00911-4
  • Codrescu, MV, SE Palo, X Zhang, TJ Fuller-Rowell and C Poppe (1999), TEC climatology derived from TOPEX/POSEIDON measurements. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. Version: 1 61 (4-Mar) 281-298, issn: 1364-6826, ids: 181UQ, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(98)00132-1
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ, T Matsuo, MV Codrescu and FA Marcos (1999), Modeling thermospheric neutral density waves and holes in response to high latitude forcing. Version: 1 IONOSPHERIC/THERMOSPHERIC/MESOSPHERIC COUPLING C1 1 and C1 2 Symposia of COSPAR Scientific Commission C Held at the 32nd COSPAR Scientific Assembly 24 (11) 1447-1458, NAGOYA, JAPAN, JUL 12-19, 1998, Ed. Burns, A; Killeen, T; Rees, D, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BP27H, doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(99)00705-X
  • Field, PR, H Rishbeth, RJ Moffett, DW Idenden, TJ Fuller-Rowell, GH Millward and AD Aylward (1998), Modelling composition changes in F-layer storms. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. Version: 1 60 (5) 523-543, issn: 1364-6826, ids: ZV282, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(97)00074-6
  • Fuller-Rowell, TJ (1998), The "thermospheric spoon": A mechanism for the semiannual density variation. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 103 (A3) 3951-3956, ids: ZA782, doi: 10.1029/97JA03335
  • Prolss, GW, S Werner, MV Codrescu, TJ Fuller-Rowell, AG Burns and TL Killeen (1998), The thermospheric-ionospheric storm of Dec 8, 1982: Model predictions and observations. Version: 1 SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RELATIONS: PREDICTING THE EFFECTS ON THE NEAR- EARTH ENVIRONMENT DO 7 Symposium of COSPAR Scientific-Commission-D on Solar-Terrestrial Relations - Predicting the Effects on the Near-Earth Environment at the 31st COSPAR Sci Assembly 22 (1) 123-128, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND, JUL 14-21, 1996, Ed. Strangeway, RJ, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BL44W, isbn: 0-08-043465-7, doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(97)01111-3
  • Wells, GD, AS Rodger, RJ Moffett, GJ Bailey and TJ FullerRowell (1997), The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen on the thermosphere/ionosphere system over the Argentine Islands. Ann. Geophys.-Atmos. Hydrospheres Space Sci. Version: 1 15 (3) 355-365, issn: 0992-7689, ids: WM891, doi: 10.1007/s005850050449
  • Buonsanto, MJ, G Bust, R Clark, M Codrescu, G Crowley, BA Emery, TJ Fuller-Rowell, G Hoogeveen, A Jacobson, D Knipp, S Maurits, PG Richards, JR Taylor and BJ Watkins (1997), Recent results of the cedar storm study. Version: 1 QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF IONOSPHERIC STORM EFFECTS AND IRREGULARITIES C4.2 Symposium on Quantitative Description of Ionospheric Storm Effects and Irregularities, at the 31st COSPAR Scientific Assembly 20 (9) 1655-1664, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND, JUL 14-21, 1996, Ed. Rawer, K; Bilitza, D, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BK38K, isbn: 0-08-043306-5, doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00569-3
  • Fujiwara, H, S Maeda, H Fukunishi, TJ Fuller-Rowell and DS Evans (1996), Global variations of thermospheric winds and temperatures caused by substorm energy injection. J. Geophys. Res-Space Phys. Version: 1 101 (A1) 225-239, issn: 0148-0227, ids: TP710, doi: 10.1029/95JA01157
  • Moffett, RJ, GH Millward, S Quegan, AD Aylward and TJ FullerRowell (1996), Results from a coupled model of the thermosphere, ionosphere and plasmasphere (CTIPM). Version: 1 THERMOSPHERE-IONOSPHERE-MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE COUPLING AND DYNAMICS C1.2 Symposium of COSPAR Scientific Commission C on Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Middle Atmosphere Coupling and Dynamics, at the 30th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 18 (3) 33-39, HAMBURG, GERMANY, JUL 11-21, 1994, Ed. Rottger, J; Wickwar, VB, issn: 0273-1177, ids: BE40X, isbn: 0-08-042667-0, doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(95)00833-Z
  • Idenden, DW, RJ Moffett, S Quegan and TJ FullerRowell (1996), Time-dependent convection at high latitudes. Ann. Geophys.-Atmos. Hydrospheres Space Sci. Version: 1 14 (11) 1159-1169, issn: 0992-7689, ids: VT490, doi: 10.1007/s005850050378
  • KILLEEN, TL, B NARDI, PN PURCELL, RG ROBLE, TJ FULLERROWELL and D REES (1992), NEUTRAL WINDS IN THE LOWER THERMOSPHERE FROM DYNAMICS EXPLORER-2. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 19 (11) 1093-1096, issn: 0094-8276, ids: HX652, doi: 10.1029/92GL01023