Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Veronica Vaida

Veronica Vaida

Research Interests

Building Chemical Complexity with Sunlight: Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Molecules, Radicals, and Their Complexes. Professor Vaida's research interest focuses on issues of photoreactivity in planetary atmospheres, including the contemporary and ancient Earth. The approach employed to obtain the structure and dynamics of molecules, radicals, and their complexes involves a combination of spectroscopic, photofragment and theoretical techniques. Aqueous environments, especially water-air interfaces as available at the sea surface and on atmospheric aerosols are special reaction environments investigated by surface reflection spectroscopy.

Current Research

Atmospheric Photochemistry of Organic Molecules. Our program explores water- and sunlight-mediated processes in planetary atmospheres including the contemporary and prebiotic Earth. My approach aims to provide new input for models of atmospheric chemistry and climate, using fundamental chemical physics to address complex multiphase chemistry. Current research has used oxoacids in aqueous environments to exemplify the environmental chemistry that generates complex self-assembled organic aggregates. The Earth’s ocean-atmosphere, a sunlight-driven photochemical reactor, is a large and complex system, but has been altered over its existence through both natural and anthropogenic events. In this global reactor, chemistry occurs in all phases, although gas phase chemistry has received the most attention. It has long been established, however, that heterogeneous and multiphase reactions can be extremely important for a fundamental understanding of environmental chemical reactions, which affect chemical processing, air quality, and ultimately visibility, human health, and the planet’s temperature. Starlight provides energy capable of driving planetary processes, which increase a system’s chemical complexity. Starlight-initiated reactions generate high-energy molecules that are precursors to metabolism as it has evolved in life on Earth. Our experiments are designed to investigate the photochemical synthesis and reactivity of such model organic systems under conditions representative of exoplanet Earth analogues, as well as the effect of water on reactivity. Based on this photochemistry, potential spectroscopic probes will be designed for the identification of high-energy species and consequently of potentially habitable environments.

Collaboration within CIRES allowed analysis of the importance of the aqueous phase photolysis of pyruvic acid in the atmosphere. Our laboratory measurements of the rate of the photochemical reaction in solution were used as input for an atmospheric model that compared the loss of pyruvic acid through aqueous photolysis to the loss from the gas-phase photochemistry and oxidative processes. Results indicated that in an acidic environment, the aqueous photolysis is equally as important as the gas-phase photolysis, emphasizing the importance of developing a mechanistic understanding of aqueous-phase photochemical processes.

We have scaled the fundamental experimental work with pyruvic acid to realistic atmospheric conditions by using environmental chamber studies. Specifically we are using the CESAM (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) at the Université Paris–Est Créteil Val de Marne (UPEC) in collaboration with UPEC Professor Jean-François Doussin. By combining these laboratory and chamber studies, we connect our understanding of the photolysis of pyruvic acid to mechanisms for aerosol nucleation and growth.

 

Schematic of the life cycle of aqueous atmospheric aerosols

Schematic of the life cycle of aqueous atmospheric aerosols (orange areas represent surface-active organics, and light blue represents the aqueous core of the particle), highlighting the ocean-atmosphere interactions. From Rapf and Vaida (2016).


Honors and Awards

  • Fellow of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1981-83
  • Camille and Henrey Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award
  • Dr. Vaida is a professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

View Publications

  • Rapf, RJ, RJ Perkins, HS Yang, G Miyake, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2017), Photochemical Synthesis of Oligomeric Amphiphiles from Alkyl Oxoacids in Aqueous Environments. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 139 (20) 6946-6959, issn: Feb-63, ids: EW4VH, doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b01707, PubMed ID: 28481114
  • Rapf, RJ, RJ Perkins, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2017), Mechanistic Description of Photochemical Oligomer Formation from Aqueous Pyruvic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (22) 4272-4282, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EX4GK, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b03310, PubMed ID: 28510434
  • Reed Harris, AE, A Pajunoja, M Cazaunau, A Gratien, E Pangui, A Monod, EC Griffith, A Virtanen, JF Doussin and V Vaida (2017), Multiphase Photochemistry of Pyruvic Acid under Atmospheric Conditions. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (18) 3327-3339, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EV0BG, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b01107, PubMed ID: 28388049
  • Perkins, RJ, A Kukharchuk, P Delcroix, RK Shoemaker, M Roeselova, L Cwiklik and V Vaida (2016), The Partitioning of Small Aromatic Molecules to Air-Water and Phospholipid Interfaces Mediated by Non-Hydrophobic Interactions. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 120 (30) 7408-7422, issn: 1520-6106, ids: DT1IV, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b05084, PubMed ID: 27399964
  • Reed Harris, AE, JF Doussin, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2016), Gas-Phase Photolysis of Pyruvic Acid: The Effect of Pressure on Reaction Rates and Products. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 120 (51) 10123-10133, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EG6MI, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.6b09058, PubMed ID: 27992197
  • Rapf, RJ and V Vaida (2016), Sunlight as an energetic driver in the synthesis of molecules necessary for life. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 18 (30) 20067-20084, issn: 1463-9076, ids: DT4CV, doi: 10.1039/c6cp00980h, PubMed ID: 27193698
  • Perkins, RJ, RK Shoemaker, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2016), Chemical Equilibria and Kinetics in Aqueous Solutions of Zymonic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 120 (51) 10096-10107, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EG6MI, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.6b10526
  • Donaldson, DJ, JA Kroll and V Vaida (2016), Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation. Scientific Reports Version: 1 6 , Art. No. 30000, issn: 2045-2322, ids: DR2JP, doi: 10.1038/srep30000, PubMed ID: 27417675
  • Schroder, SD, JH Wallberg, JA Kroll, Z Maroun, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2015), Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Methyl Lactate. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 70th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 119 (37) 9692-9702, Champaign, IL, JUN 22-26, 2015, issn: 1089-5639, ids: CS1ZL, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b04812, PubMed ID: 26296230
  • Griffith, EC, RJ Perkins, DM Telesford, EM Adams, L Cwiklik, HC Allen, M Roeseova and V Vaida (2015), Interaction of L-Phenylalanine with a Phospholipid Monolayer at the Water-Air Interface. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 119 (29) 9038-9048, issn: 1520-6106, ids: CN7OM, doi: 10.1021/jp508473w, PubMed ID: 25549016
  • George, C, B DAnna, H Herrmann, C Weller, V Vaida, DJ Donaldson, T Bartels-Rausch and M Ammann (2014), Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Top. Curr. Chem. Version: 1 339 1-53, Ed. McNeill, VF; Ariya, PA, issn: 0340-1022, ids: BA0BQ, isbn: 978-3-642-41215-8; 978-3-642-41214-1, doi: 10.1007/128_2012_393, PubMed ID: 23247500
  • Renard, P, AER Harris, RJ Rapf, S Ravier, C Demelas, B Coulomb, E Quivet, V Vaida and A Monod (2014), Aqueous Phase Oligomerization of Methyl Vinyl Ketone by Atmospheric Radical Reactions. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 118 (50) 29421-29430, issn: 1932-7447, ids: AX2FP, doi: 10.1021/jp5065598
  • Reed Harris, AE, B Ervens, RK Shoemaker, JA Kroll, RJ Rapf, EC Griffith, A Monod and V Vaida (2014), Photochemical Kinetics of Pyruvic Acid in Aqueous Solution. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 118 (37) 8505-8516, issn: 1089-5639, ids: AP5KV, doi: 10.1021/jp502186q, PubMed ID: 24725260
  • Vaida, V and DJ Donaldson (2014), Red-light initiated atmospheric reactions of vibrationally excited molecules. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 16 (3) 827-836, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 274ZE, doi: 10.1039/c3cp53543f, PubMed ID: 24281304
  • Griffith, EC, RJ Rapf, RK Shoemaker, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2014), Photoinitiated Synthesis of Self-Assembled Vesicles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 136 (10) 3784-3787, issn: Feb-63, ids: AD0KJ, doi: 10.1021/ja5006256, PubMed ID: 24559493
  • Griffith, EC, TRC Guizado, AS Pimentel, GS Tyndall and V Vaida (2013), Oxidized Aromatic-Aliphatic Mixed Films at the Air-Aqueous Solution Interface. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 117 (43) 22341-22350, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 247HJ, doi: 10.1021/jp402737n
  • Griffith, EC, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2013), Sunlight-initiated Chemistry of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid: Building Complexity in the Origin of Life. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. Version: 1 43 (5-Apr) 341-352, issn: 0169-6149, ids: AD4FS, doi: 10.1007/s11084-013-9349-y, PubMed ID: 24362712
  • Griffith, EC and V Vaida (2013), Ionization state of L-Phenylalanine at the Air-Water Interface. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 135 (2) 710-716, issn: Feb-63, ids: 075XP, doi: 10.1021/ja308089n, PubMed ID: 23240998
  • Kahan, TF, TK Ormond, GB Ellison and V Vaida (2013), Acetic acid formation via the hydration of gas-phase ketene under ambient conditions. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 565 1-4, issn: Sep-14, ids: 115EF, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2013.02.030
  • Griffith, EC, BK Carpenter, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2013), Photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (29) 11714-11719, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 187AB, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303206110, PubMed ID: 23821751
  • Griffith, EC, BK Carpenter, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2013), Reply to Eugene et al.: Photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (46) E4276-E4276, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 250DQ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.13163671100, PubMed ID: 24367807
  • Thomsen, DL, JL Axson, SD Schroder, JR Lane, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2013), Intramolecular Interactions in 2-Aminoethanol and 3-Aminopropanol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 117 (40) 10260-10273, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 244DI, doi: 10.1021/jp405512y, PubMed ID: 24001040
  • Griffith, EC, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2012), Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions in the Emergence of Complexity in Simple Chemical Systems. Accounts Chem. Res. Version: 1 45 (12) 2106-2113, issn: Jan-42, ids: 061CR, doi: 10.1021/ar300027q, PubMed ID: 22509900
  • Larsen, MC and V Vaida (2012), Near Infrared Photochemistry of Pyruvic Acid in Aqueous Solution. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 5840-5846, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp2087972, PubMed ID: 22233273
  • Kramer, ZC, K Takahashi, V Vaida and RT Skodje (2012), Will water act as a photocatalyst for cluster phase chemical reactions? Vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 136 (16) , Art. No. 164302, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 936PJ, doi: 10.1063/1.4704767, PubMed ID: 22559477
  • Kahan, TF, RA Washenfelder, V Vaida and SS Brown (2012), Cavity-Enhanced Measurements of Hydrogen Peroxide Absorption Cross Sections from 353 to 410 nm. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 5941-5947, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp2104616, PubMed ID: 22225472
  • Griffith, EC and V Vaida (2012), In situ observation of peptide bond formation at the water-air interface. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 109 (39) 15697-15701, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 017QD, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210029109, PubMed ID: 22927374
  • Griffith, EC, EM Adams, HC Allen and V Vaida (2012), Hydrophobic Collapse of a Stearic Acid Film by Adsorbed L-Phenylalanine at the Air-Water Interface. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 116 (27) 7849-7857, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 972GB, doi: 10.1021/jp303913e, PubMed ID: 22691061
  • Axson, JL, RA Washenfelder, TF Kahan, CJ Young, V Vaida and SS Brown (2011), Absolute ozone absorption cross section in the Huggins Chappuis minimum (350-470 nm) at 296 K. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (22) 11581-11590, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 863AC, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-11581-2011
  • Maron, MK, K Takahashi, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2011), Hydration of pyruvic acid to its geminal-diol, 2,2-dihydroxypropanoic acid, in a water-restricted environment. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 513 (6-Apr) 184-190, issn: Sep-14, ids: 814XW, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2011.07.090
  • Vaida, V (2011), Perspective: Water cluster mediated atmospheric chemistry. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 135 (2) , Art. No. 20901, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 792UN, doi: 10.1063/1.3608919, PubMed ID: 21766916
  • Axson, JL, K Takahashi, DO De Haan and V Vaida (2010), Gas-phase water-mediated equilibrium between methylglyoxal and its geminal diol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6687-6692, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912121107, PubMed ID: 20142510
  • Takahashi, K, KL Plath, JL Axson, GC Nelson, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2010), Dynamics and spectroscopy of vibrational overtone excited glyoxylic acid and 2,2-dihydroxyacetic acid in the gas-phase. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 132 (9) , Art. No. 94305, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 564VG, doi: 10.1063/1.3327839, PubMed ID: 20210396
  • Donaldson, DJ, C George and V Vaida (2010), Red sky at night: Long-wavelength photochemistry in the atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (14) 5321-5326, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 623NF, doi: 10.1021/es903680v, PubMed ID: 20540491
  • Miller, BJ, M Yekutiel, AH Sodergren, DL Howard, ME Dunn, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2010), Overtone Spectra of 2-Mercaptoethanol and 1,2-Ethanedithiol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 114 (48) 12692-12700, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 686YP, doi: 10.1021/jp9112798, PubMed ID: 21067132
  • Plath, KL, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2009), Fundamental and Overtone Vibrational Spectra of Gas-Phase Pyruvic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (26) 7294-7303, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 462VG, doi: 10.1021/jp810687t, PubMed ID: 19260671
  • Vaida, V (2009), Spectroscopy of Photoreactive Systems: Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (1) 5-18, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 390BU, doi: 10.1021/jp806365r, PubMed ID: 19072328
  • Maron, MK, MJ Shultz and V Vaida (2009), Characterization of the nitric acid-water complex in the infrared and near-infrared region at ambient temperatures in carbon tetrachloride. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 473 (6-Apr) 268-273, issn: Sep-14, ids: 443KM, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.03.071
  • Plath, KL, JL Axson, GC Nelson, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2009), Gas-phase vibrational spectra of glyoxylic acid and its gem diol monohydrate. Implications for atmospheric chemistry. React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. Version: 1 96 (2) 209-224, issn: 0133-1736, ids: 443WW, doi: 10.1007/s11144-009-5528-2
  • Miller, BJ, DL Howard, JR Lane, HG Kjaergaard, ME Dunn and V Vaida (2009), SH-Stretching Vibrational Spectra of Ethanethiol and tert-Butylthiol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (26) 7576-7583, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 462VG, doi: 10.1021/jp9017162, PubMed ID: 19432460
  • Vaida, V, KJ Feierabend, N Rontu and K Takahashi (2008), Sunlight-initiated photochemistry: Excited vibrational states of atmospheric chromophores. Int. J. Photoenergy Version: 1, Art. No. 138091, issn: 1110-662X, ids: 332GH, doi: 10.1155/2008/138091
  • Dunn, ME, GC Shields, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2008), Experimental and Theoretical Study of the OH Vibrational Spectra and Overtone Chemistry of Gas-Phase Vinylacetic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 112 (41) 10226-10235, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 358UN, doi: 10.1021/jp805746t, PubMed ID: 18798603
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2008), Vibrational spectroscopy of perfluorocarboxylic acids from the infrared to the visible regions. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 112 (2) 276-282, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 250GE, doi: 10.1021/jp0749773, PubMed ID: 17927241
  • Takahashi, K, KL Plath, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2008), Dynamics of vibrational overtone excited pyruvic acid in the gas phase: Line broadening through hydrogen-atom chattering. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 112 (32) 7321-7331, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 335KT, doi: 10.1021/jp803225c, PubMed ID: 18637664
  • Vesselenyi, T, I Dzitac, S Dzitac and V Vaida (2008), Surface roughness image analysis using quasi-fractal characteristics and fuzzy clustering methods. Int. J. Comput. Commun. Control Version: 1 3 (3) 304-316, issn: 1841-9836, ids: 321AB
  • Lane, JR, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2008), Calculated electronic transitions of the water ammonia complex. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 128 (3) , Art. No. 34302, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 252UC, doi: 10.1063/1.2814163, PubMed ID: 18205493
  • Tuck, AF, DJ Donaldson, MH Hitchman, EC Richard, H Tervahattu, V Vaida and JC Wilson (2008), On geoengineering with sulphate aerosols in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Clim. Change Version: 1 90 (3) 315-331, issn: 0165-0009, ids: 348BU, doi: 10.1007/s10584-008-9411-3
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2007), Miscibility of perfluorododecanoic acid with organic acids at the air-water interface. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 111 (27) 9975-9980, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 186EN, doi: 10.1021/jp0718395
  • Lane, JR, HG Kjaergaard, KL Plath and V Vaida (2007), Overtone spectroscopy of sulfonic acid derivatives. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 111 (25) 5434-5440, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 180VV, doi: 10.1021/jp0688005, PubMed ID: 17542563
  • Takahashi, K, ZC Kramer, V Vaida and RT Skodje (2007), Vibrational overtone induced elimination reactions within hydrogen-bonded molecular clusters: the dynamics of water catalyzed reactions in CH2FOH center dot(H2O). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (29) 3864-3871, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 191AN, doi: 10.1039/b705264b, PubMed ID: 17637978
  • Miller, Y, RB Gerber and V Vaida (2007), Photodissociation yields for vibrationally excited states of sulfuric acid under atmospheric conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 34 (16) , Art. No. L16820, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 204FD, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030529
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2007), Surface partitioning and stability of pure and mixed films of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol at the air-water interface. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 111 (31) 11612-11618, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 196LF, doi: 10.1021/jp070484m
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2006), Vibrational spectroscopy of perfluoroproplonic acid in the region between 1000 and 11000 cm(-1). J. Mol. Spectrosc. Version: 1 237 (1) 19-26, issn: 0022-2852, ids: 045LO, doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2006.02.009
  • Feierabend, KJ, DK Havey, ME Varner, JF Stanton and V Vaida (2006), A comparison of experimental and calculated spectra of HNO3 in the near-infrared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrational perturbation theory. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 124 (12) , Art. No. 124323, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 028CP, doi: 10.1063/1.2180248, PubMed ID: 16599690
  • Feierabend, KJ, DK Havey, SS Brown and V Vaida (2006), Experimental absolute intensities of the 4v(9) and 5v(9) O-H stretching overtones of H2SO4. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 420 (6-Apr) 438-442, issn: Sep-14, ids: 026CC, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.01.013
  • Klemperer, W and V Vaida (2006), Molecular complexes in close and far away. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 103 (28) 10584-10588, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 063VG, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0508231103, PubMed ID: 16740667
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2006), Experimental and theoretical investigation of vibrational overtones of glycolic acid and its hydrogen bonding interactions with water. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (20) 6439-6446, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 043TW, doi: 10.1021/jp060602q, PubMed ID: 16706399
  • Donaldson, DJ and V Vaida (2006), The influence of organic films at the air-aqueous boundary on atmospheric processes. Chem. Rev. Version: 1 106 (4) 1445-1461, issn: Sep-65, ids: 035HB, doi: 10.1021/cr040367c, PubMed ID: 16608186
  • Gilman, JB, H Tervahattu and V Vaida (2006), Interfacial properties of mixed films of long-chain organics at the air-water interface. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 40 (34) 6606-6614, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 102BC, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.052
  • Gilman, JB and V Vaida (2006), Permeability of acetic acid through organic films at the air-aqueous interface. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (24) 7581-7587, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 053DH, doi: 10.1021/jp061220n, PubMed ID: 16774200
  • Tervahattu, H, J Juhanoja, V Vaida, AF Tuck, JV Niemi, K Kupiainen, M Kulmala and H Vehkamaki (2005), Fatty acids on continental sulfate aerosol particles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D6) , Art. No. D06207, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 913LS, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005400
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend, JC Black and V Vaida (2005), Temperature-dependent infrared spectra of torsional vibrations in acetic acid. J. Mol. Spectrosc. Version: 1 229 (2) 151-157, issn: 0022-2852, ids: 887FV, doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2004.09.009
  • Mills, MJ, OB Toon, V Vaida, PE Hintze, HG Kjaergaard, DP Schofield and TW Robinson (2005), Photolysis of sulfuric acid vapor by visible light as a source of the polar stratospheric CN layer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D8) , Art. No. D08201, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 922QG, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005519
  • Eliason, TL, DK Havey and V Vaida (2005), Gas phase infrared spectroscopic observation of the organic acid dimers (CH3(CH2)(6)COOH)(2), (CH3(CH2)(7)COOH)(2), and (CH3(CH2)(8)COOH)(2). Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 402 (3-Jan) 239-244, issn: Sep-14, ids: 889YX, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2004.12.021
  • Vaida, V (2005), Review article: Sunlight initiated atmospheric photochemical reactions. Int. J. Photoenergy Version: 1 7 (2) 61-70, issn: 1110-662X, ids: 941CR, doi: 10.1155/S1110662X05000103
  • Hintze, PE, KJ Feierabend, DK Havey and V Vaida (2005), High-resolution spectroscopy of H2SO4, HDSO4, and D2SO4 vapor in the region 1200-10,000 cm(-1). Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 61 (4) 559-566, issn: 1386-1425, ids: 892ZT, doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2004.05.006, PubMed ID: 15649784
  • Havey, DK and V Vaida (2004), Near infrared spectroscopy of organic acids: comparing O-H and C-H oscillator frequencies and intensities. J. Mol. Spectrosc. Version: 1 228 (1) 152-159, issn: 0022-2852, ids: 866KY, doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2004.07.015
  • Donaldson, DJ, H Tervahattu, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2004), Organic aerosols and the origin of life: An hypothesis. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. Version: 1 34 (2-Jan) 57-67, issn: 0169-6149, ids: 756ZX, doi: 10.1023/B:ORIG.0000009828.40846.b3, PubMed ID: 14979644
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend and V Vaida (2004), Ab initio study of H2SO4 rotamers. Theochem-J. Mol. Struct. Version: 1 680 (3-Jan) 243-247, issn: 0166-1280, ids: 837UP, doi: 10.1016/j.theochem.2004.04.048
  • Eliason, TL, JB Gilman and V Vaida (2004), Oxidation of organic films relevant to atmospheric aerosols. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 38 (9) 1367-1378, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 776DT, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.11.025
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend and V Vaida (2004), Vapor-phase vibrational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, in the region 2000-8500 cm(-1). J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 108 (42) 9069-9073, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 863CU, doi: 10.1021/jp0474881
  • Feierabend, KJ, DK Havey and V Vaida (2004), Gas phase spectroscopy of HNO3 in the region 2000-8500 cm(-1). Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 60 (12) 2775-2781, issn: 1386-1425, ids: 856MV, doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2004.01.016, PubMed ID: 15350912
  • Mmereki, BT, DJ Donaldson, JB Gilman, TL Eliason and V Vaida (2004), Kinetics and products of the reaction of gas-phase ozone with anthracene adsorbed at the air-aqueous interface. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 38 (36) 6091-6103, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 869US, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.08.014
  • Gilman, JB, TL Eliason, A Fast and V Vaida (2004), Selectivity and stability of organic films at the air-aqueous interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. Version: 1 280 (1) 234-243, issn: 0021-9797, ids: 872TP, doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2004.07.019, PubMed ID: 15476795
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  • DUNN, RC, BN FLANDERS, V VAIDA and JD SIMON (1992), THE SPECTROSCOPY OF OCLO IN POLAR LIQUIDS. Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 48 (9) 1293-1301, issn: 0584-8539, ids: JP756, doi: 10.1016/0584-8539(92)80266-Y
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  • VAIDA, V, DJ DONALDSON, SP SAPERS, R NAAMAN and MS CHILD (1989), SPECTROSCOPIC PROBE OF INTRAMOLECULAR PREDISSOCIATION DYNAMICS IN CLUSTERS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (2) 513-520, issn: 0022-3654, ids: T0489, doi: 10.1021/j100339a006
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  • RICHARD, EC, DJ DONALDSON and V VAIDA (1989), FOURIER-TRANSFORM UV/VIS EMISSION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED CN(B2-SIGMA+). Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 157 (4) 295-299, issn: Sep-14, ids: U6703, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(89)87250-1
  • VAIDA, V, DJ DONALDSON, SJ STRICKLER, SL STEPHENS and JW BIRKS (1989), A REINVESTIGATION OF THE ELECTRONIC-SPECTRA OF OZONE - CONDENSED-PHASE EFFECTS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (2) 506-508, issn: 0022-3654, ids: T0489, doi: 10.1021/j100339a003
  • PRINSLOW, DA and V VAIDA (1989), PHOTODISSOCIATION OF (OCS)2 AND (CS2)2 - COMPETING PHOTOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (5) 1836-1840, issn: 0022-3654, ids: T7220, doi: 10.1021/j100342a029
  • VAIDA, V, S SOLOMON, EC RICHARD, E RUHL and A JEFFERSON (1989), PHOTOISOMERIZATION OF OCLO - A POSSIBLE MECHANISM FOR POLAR OZONE DEPLETION. Nature Version: 1 342 (6248) 405-408, issn: 0028-0836, ids: CB426, doi: 10.1038/342405a0
  • HOLLINGSWORTH, WE and V VAIDA (1989), GAS-PHASE PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF CO3(CO)9CCH3. Organometallics Version: 1 8 (7) 1614-1615, issn: 0276-7333, ids: AE880, doi: 10.1021/om00109a006
  • MCCARTHY, MI and V VAIDA (1988), ELECTRONIC-SPECTRUM OF OCS AT 62000-72000 CM(-1). J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (21) 5875-5879, issn: 0022-3654, ids: Q7318, doi: 10.1021/j100332a007
  • GAINES, GA, DJ DONALDSON, SJ STRICKLER and V VAIDA (1988), THE N-3S RYDBERG STATE OF ACETONE - ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED (CH3)2CO AND (CD3)2CO. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (10) 2762-2766, issn: 0022-3654, ids: N5407, doi: 10.1021/j100321a014
  • DONALDSON, DJ, EC RICHARD, SJ STRICKLER and V VAIDA (1988), SPECTROSCOPY OF THE N0-3S RYDBERG STATE OF ISOLATED AND CLUSTERED ACETALDEHYDE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (19) 5514-5517, issn: 0022-3654, ids: Q4134, doi: 10.1021/j100330a036
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  • HEMLEY, RJ, AC LASAGA, V VAIDA and M KARPLUS (1988), THEORETICAL-ANALYSIS OF THE 1(1)BU+(1B1+)[-1(1)AG-(1A1) TRANSITION OF TRANS-1,3,5-HEXATRIENE AND CIS-1,3,5-HEXATRIENE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (4) 945-954, issn: 0022-3654, ids: M4430, doi: 10.1021/j100315a018
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  • DONALDSON, DJ, V VAIDA and R NAAMAN (1987), ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF DISSOCIATING MOLECULES - EFFECTS OF CLUSTER FORMATION ON THE PHOTODISSOCIATION OF CH3I. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 87 (5) 2522-2530, issn: 0021-9606, ids: J8080, doi: 10.1063/1.453091
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  • ROEBBER, JL and V VAIDA (1985), THE DIRECT ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE 1-SIGMA-G+ -] 1B2(1-SIGMA-U+) TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED (C3252)-C-13 AND (C34S2)-C-12. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 83 (6) 2748-2753, issn: 0021-9606, ids: AQW58, doi: 10.1063/1.449224
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  • LEOPOLD, DG and V VAIDA (1984), PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF GAS-PHASE MN2(CO)10 AND RE2(CO)10 - MASS-SPECTROMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR A DINUCLEAR PRIMARY PHOTOPRODUCT. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 106 (13) 3720-3722, issn: Feb-63, ids: SW839, doi: 10.1021/ja00325a002
  • VAIDA, V, W HESS and JL ROEBBER (1984), THE DIRECT ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE AA2\[-XA1 TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED AMMONIA. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 88 (16) 3397-3400, issn: 0022-3654, ids: TD549, doi: 10.1021/j150660a006
  • LEOPOLD, DG, RD PENDLEY, JL ROEBBER, RJ HEMLEY and V VAIDA (1984), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED POLYENES .2. THE 1 1BU+[-1 1AG- TRANSITIONS OF BUTADIENES AND HEXATRIENES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 81 (10) 4218-4229, issn: 0021-9606, ids: TV207, doi: 10.1063/1.447453
  • LEOPOLD, DG, V VAIDA and MF GRANVILLE (1984), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED POLYENES .1. THE 1 1BU+[-1 1AG- TRANSITION OF TRANS, TRANS-1,3,5,7-OCTATETRAENE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 81 (10) 4210-4217, issn: 0021-9606, ids: TV207, doi: 10.1063/1.447452
  • HEMLEY, RJ, DG LEOPOLD, JL ROEBBER and V VAIDA (1983), THE DIRECT ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE 1-SIGMA-G+-]1B2(1-SIGMA-U+) TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED CS2. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 79 (11) 5219-5227, issn: 0021-9606, ids: RR565, doi: 10.1063/1.445710
  • WELCH, JA, V VAIDA and GL GEOFFROY (1983), GAS-PHASE MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION OF IRON CARBONYLS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 87 (19) 3635-3638, issn: 0022-3654, ids: RG485, doi: 10.1021/j100242a013
  • LEOPOLD, DG and V VAIDA (1983), MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION OF TRANSITION-METAL CARBONYL-COMPLEXES - A NOVEL ROUTE TO GAS-PHASE METAL-CLUSTERS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 105 (23) 6809-6811, issn: Feb-63, ids: RQ994, doi: 10.1021/ja00361a010
  • GERRITY, DP, LJ ROTHBERG and V VAIDA (1983), ULTRAVIOLET VISIBLE MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION OF CR(CO)6 - EXPERIMENTAL-EVIDENCE FOR STATISTICAL FRAGMENTATION. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 87 (12) 2222-2225, issn: 0022-3654, ids: QU706, doi: 10.1021/j100235a035
  • HEMLEY, RJ, JI DAWSON and V VAIDA (1983), FRANCK-CONDON ANALYSIS OF THE 1 1AG--]1 1BU+ TRANSITION OF 1,3-BUTADIENE FROM ABSORPTION AND RAMAN INTENSITIES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 78 (6) 2915-2927, issn: 0021-9606, ids: QG962, doi: 10.1063/1.445251
  • LICHTIN, DA, RB BERNSTEIN and V VAIDA (1982), MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS-SPECTROMETRY OF TRANSITION-METAL COMPLEXES - MN2(CO)10 AND RE2(CO)10. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 104 (7) 1830-1834, issn: Feb-63, ids: NK245, doi: 10.1021/ja00371a009
  • ROTHBERG, LJ, NJ COOPER, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1982), PICOSECOND DYNAMICS OF SOLUTION-PHASE PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF [MN2(CO)10]. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 104 (12) 3536-3537, issn: Feb-63, ids: NT506, doi: 10.1021/ja00376a063
  • WELCH, JA, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1982), MEDIUM EFFECTS ON THE PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF CR(CO)6. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 86 (11) 1941-1947, issn: 0022-3654, ids: NQ924, doi: 10.1021/j100208a008
  • HALPERN, AM, DP GERRITY, LJ ROTHBERG and V VAIDA (1982), EVIDENCE OF A STATE DEPENDENT DEPLETION PROCESS IN THE 2-PHOTON FLUORESCENCE EXCITATION-SPECTRA OF SATURATED AMINES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 76 (1) 102-107, issn: 0021-9606, ids: MW465, doi: 10.1063/1.442763
  • LEOPOLD, DG, RJ HEMLEY, V VAIDA and JL ROEBBER (1981), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF HIGHER EXCITED-STATES OF JET-COOLED MONOSUBSTITUTED BENZENES - PHENYLACETYLENE, STYRENE, BENZALDEHYDE, AND ACETOPHENONE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 75 (10) 4758-4769, issn: 0021-9606, ids: MN294, doi: 10.1063/1.441911
  • HEMLEY, RJ, DG LEOPOLD, V VAIDA and JL ROEBBER (1981), ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF JET-COOLED MOLECULES - THE S2 STATE OF STYRENE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 85 (2) 134-135, issn: 0022-3654, ids: KZ190, doi: 10.1021/j150602a005
  • ROTHBERG, LJ, DP GERRITY and V VAIDA (1981), EFFECTS OF NON-RESONANT IONIZATION ON MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION LINE-SHAPES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 75 (9) 4403-4412, issn: 0021-9606, ids: MK823, doi: 10.1063/1.442604
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  • VAIDA, V, NJ COOPER, RJ HEMLEY and DG LEOPOLD (1981), PRODUCTION OF GAS-PHASE BARE TRANSITION-METAL CLUSTERS BY LASER PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF ORGANO-METALLIC CLUSTER COMPOUNDS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 103 (23) 7022-7023, issn: Feb-63, ids: MQ502, doi: 10.1021/ja00413a067
  • VAIDA, V and GM MCCLELLAND (1980), ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF COOLED SUPERSONIC EXPANSIONS - DYNAMICS OF THE 1B1U STATE OF TRANS-BUTADIENE. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 71 (3) 436-439, issn: Sep-14, ids: JZ344, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(80)80197-7
  • ROEBBER, JL, DP GERRITY, R HEMLEY and V VAIDA (1980), ELECTRONIC-SPECTRUM OF FURAN FROM 2200-A TO 1950-A. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 75 (1) 104-106, issn: Sep-14, ids: KN668, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(80)80474-X
  • GERRITY, DP, LJ ROTHBERG and V VAIDA (1980), MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION OF METAL ATOMS PRODUCED IN THE PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF GROUP-VI HEXACARBONYLS. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 74 (1) 1-5, issn: Sep-14, ids: KG965, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(80)85001-9
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  • VAIDA, V, RE TURNER, JL CASEY and SD COLSON (1978), MULTI-PHOTON TRANSITIONS IN TRANS-BUTADIENE OBSERVED BY MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION AND THERMAL LENSING SPECTROSCOPY. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 54 (1) 25-29, issn: Sep-14, ids: EW380, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(78)85655-3
  • TURNER, RE, V VAIDA, CA MOLINI, JO BERG and DH PARKER (1978), MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION SPECTRA OF PYRIDINE AND PYRAZINE. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 28 (2-Jan) 47-54, issn: 0301-0104, ids: ET016, doi: 10.1016/0301-0104(78)85036-8
  • VAIDA, V, MB ROBIN and NA KUEBLER (1978), NOTE ON ELUSIVE (E26)-E-1 STATE IN 2-PHOTON SPECTRUM OF BENZENE. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 58 (4) 557-560, issn: Sep-14, ids: FX421, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(78)80018-9
  • VAIDA, V and SD COLSON (1978), LOCAL STRUCTURE AND TRIPLET ENERGY MIGRATION IN PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE-PARA-DIBROMOBENZENE SOLID-SOLUTIONS. Mol. Phys. Version: 1 35 (4) 965-974, issn: 0026-8976, ids: FB258, doi: 10.1080/00268977800100711
  • COLSON, SD, RE TURNER and V VAIDA (1977), PHONON ASSISTED TRAP-TRAP TRIPLET ENERGY MIGRATION IN ODEGREESK LIMIT IN CRYSTALLINE BENZENE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 66 (5) 2187-2190, issn: 0021-9606, ids: CY617, doi: 10.1063/1.434136
  • COLSON, SD, SM GEORGE, T KEYES and V VAIDA (1977), SINGLET AND TRIPLET EXCITON PERCOLATION IN BENZENE ISOTOPIC MIXED-CRYSTALS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 67 (11) 4941-4947, issn: 0021-9606, ids: EF423, doi: 10.1063/1.434676
  • VAIDA, V and SD COLSON (1977), INTERMOLECULAR MIXING OF ELECTRONIC STATES IN CHEMICALLY MIXED MOLECULAR-CRYSTALS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 67 (2) 710-714, issn: 0021-9606, ids: DP685, doi: 10.1063/1.434876
  • COLSON, SD and V VAIDA (1976), RESOLVED EMISSION FROM COMPOUND STATES IN CHEMICALLY MIXED CRYSTALS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 64 (10) 4224-4225, issn: 0021-9606, ids: BR064, doi: 10.1063/1.431993
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