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Hurricanes

B-11
Hurricanes: Their nature and impacts on society

Table of Contents
Dedication
Foreword
Preface

CHAPTER 1 Introduction: Science, Policy, and Hurricanes 1.1 The Hurricane: "A Melancholy Event" 1.2 "We Need Help": Hurricane Andrew in South Florida, August 1.2.1 Forecast 1.2.2 Impact 1.2.3 Response 1.3 Defining the Problem 1.3.1 The hurricane as an extreme meteorological event 1.3.2 Hurricanes in North American history 1.3.3 Ten notable hurricanes of the past century 1.3.4 Extreme weather events 1.3.5 Science in service to society 1.3.6 The challenge: toward a more usable science

CHAPTER 2 The US Hurricane Problem 2.1 Reframing the US Hurricane Problem 2.1.1 The challenge of problem definition 2.1.2 The conventional framing of the US hurricane problem 2.1.3 Societal vulnerability as an alternative framing of the hurricane problem 2.2 Vulnerability to hurricanes 2.2.1 Hurricane incidence 2.2.2 Hurricane incidence and climate change 2.2.3 Exposure to hurricanes 2.3 Assessment of Vulnerability to Hurricanes 2.3.1 Tropical cyclone risk assessment 2.3.2 Societal vulnerability to tropical cyclones: a framework for assessment 2.3.3 Incidence assessment 2.3.4 Exposure assessment

CHAPTER 3 Tropical Cyclones on Planet Earth 3.1 Life of a Hurricane 3.1.1 Birth and growth 3.1.2 Maturity 3.1.3 Decay 3.1.4 Criteria for development and intensification of a tropical cyclone 3.2 Special Cases of Development and Intensification 3.3 Geographic and Seasonal Distribution 3.3.1 Origin 3.3.2 Movement 3.3.3 Tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean Basin

CHAPTER 4 Hurricane Forecasts 4.1 Tropical Cyclone Movement 4.2 External Flow: The Steering Current 4.3 Interaction of the Steering Current and the Hurricane 4.4 Internal Flow 4.5 Tropical Cyclone Track, Intensity, and Seasonal Forecasting 4.5.1 Tropical cyclone track predictions 4.5.2 Tropical cyclone intensity change predictions 4.5.3 Seasonal predictions of tropical cyclone activity 4.5.4 Attempts at tropical cyclone modification 4.5.5 Value to society of forecasts

CHAPTER 5 Hurricane Impacts 5.1 Ocean Impacts 5.2 Land Impacts at the Coast and a Short Distance Inland 5.2.1 Storm surge 5.2.2 Storm surge analysis 5.2.3 Winds 5.2.4 Rainfall 5.2.5 Tornadoes 5.2.6 Inland impacts 5.3 Societal Impacts 5.3.1 Hurricane impacts on society 5.3.2 The challenge of estimating damages 5.3.3 Summary

CHAPTER 6 Societal Responses 6.1 Understanding Societal Responses to Weather Events 6.2 Long-Term Social and Decision Processes 6.2.1 Preparing for evacuation 6.2.2 Preparing for impacts 6.2.3 Preparing for recovery 6.3 Short-Term Decision Processes 6.3.1 Forecast: the art and science of hurricane track prediction 6.3.2 Impact: surviving the storm 6.3.3 Response: recovery and restoration 6.4 Conclusion: Preparedness Assessment

CHAPTER 7 Hurricane Andrew: Forecast, Impact, Response 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Forecast 7.2.1 Hurricane track and intensity 7.2.2 Evacuation 7.3 Impact 7.3.1 Direct damages from Hurricane Andrew 7.3.2 Building codes: construction, implementation, enforcement, and compliance 7.3.3 Insurance 7.4 Response 7.4.1 Recovery 7.4.2 Restoration

CHAPTER 8 Tropical Cyclone Fundamentals 8.1 From Knowledge to Action 8.2 Ten Important Lessons of Hurricanes 8.3 Last Words

APPENDIX A Additional Reading
APPENDIX B Economic and Casualty Data for the United States
APPENDIX C Selected Data on Tropical Storm and Hurricane Incidence in the Atlantic Ocean Basin
APPENDIX D Selected Data and Names of Tropical Cyclones in Ocean Basins Around the World
APPENDIX E Guide for Local Hurricane Decision-Makers APPENDIX F Units References Index




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