Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

William M. Lewis Jr.

William M. Lewis Jr.

Research Interests

My field of study is limnology, which is the ecological analysis of lakes, streams, and wetlands. I do my research and teaching through the CIRES Center for Limnology, which offers analytical services and opportunities for field work in all aquatic environments of Colorado. Research projects as well as graduate and undergraduate studies in limnology typically incorporate analyses and interpretation from physics, chemistry, and biology as an interdisciplinary mix that facilitates the understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Some fields of special interest for me and my graduate students at CU have been biogeochemistry, food webs, and biological production. In limnology, biogeochemistry, which is based on analysis of element cycling in ecosystems, has been used frequently to study the effects of humans on biological processes in aquatic environments through nutrients or toxins. Food web studies are frequently based on use of tracers such as stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the rates at which biomass for groups of organisms are processed through the food web by grazing, predation, and decomposition. The study of biological production, which is critical to human interest in the yield of biomass from aquatic ecosystems, focuses on factors that restrict or magnify the amount of production per unit area in ecosystems, and takes into account the influences of humans on biological production.

Current Research

Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen

Much of my current work with students and other collaborators focuses on environmental cycling of nitrogen in numerous aquatic environments of Colorado. One example is the South Platte River below Denver, which receives a large amount of treated wastewater from Denver and its suburbs. Our recent studies show that the South Platte River below Denver supports very high rates of denitrification, which converts nitrate to N2, an inert gas that is released to the atmosphere. This process is environmentally favorable because excessive nitrate derived from wastewater causes nuisance growth of algae and aquatic vascular plants.

Analysis of Food Webs in Lakes

Recent PhD graduate Thomas Detmer led an ambitious project in Rocky Mountain National Park related to the influence of fish on food webs. The RMNP has lakes with fish and lakes that lack fish. In comparing these lakes, Detmer showed that fish very strongly suppress the presence of large invertebrates such as stoneflies, thus shifting the composition of aquatic invertebrates in the lakes, as expected. Contrary to expectation, however, he showed that loss of the large invertebrates was compensated by a great increase in the abundance of small invertebrates. Ecologically speaking, the small invertebrates took the place of the larger invertebrates in the food web, so that changes in food web functions were negligible. This is an example of ecological resilience.

Production of Aquatic Biomass

Aquatic environments create new biomass through photosynthesis, which is conducted by algae and aquatic vascular plants. Our research on both lakes and streams in Colorado shows that photosynthesis is controlled in some cases by P, a nutrient, and sometimes by N, also a nutrient. In the past, limnologists have thought that P is a master nutrient, and that N does not commonly control production through photosynthesis. Our experiments in Colorado, and similar work conducted elsewhere, support a new view of nitrogen as a commonly limiting nutrient for aquatic photosynthesis.



Summary of nitrogen fluxes relevant to concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and nitrite (NO3-), important pollutants in the South Platte River below Denver.

Honors and Awards

  • Past President, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
  • Member of the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 1993-1999
  • Recipient of the Naumann-Thienemann Medal of the International Society of Pure and Applied Limnology, 1999
  • Sustained Achievement Award of the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation, 1996
  • Chair, National Research Council Committee on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2001-2003).

View Publications

  • Detmer, T; McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2017), Trophic interactions across lake-stream boundaries in mountain lakes. Inland Waters Version: 1 7 (4) 440-448, issn: 2044-2041, ids: FT8MG, doi: 10.1080/20442041.2017.1382936
  • Detmer, TM; McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2017), Predator driven changes in prey size distribution stabilize secondary production in lacustrine food webs. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 62 (2) 592-605, issn: 0024-3590, ids: EQ2CK, doi: 10.1002/lno.10446
  • Rhoades, CC; McCutchan, JH; Cooper, LA; Clow, D; Detmer, TM; Briggs, JS; Stednick, JD; Veblen, TT; Ertz, RM; Likens, GE; Lewis, WM (2013), Biogeochemistry of beetle-killed forests: Explaining a weak nitrate response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (5) 1756-1760, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 084RZ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1221029110, PubMed ID: 23319612
  • Robertson, DS; Lewis, WM; Sheehan, PM; Toon, OB (2013), K-Pg extinction: Reevaluation of the heat-fire hypothesis. J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci. Version: 1 118 (1) 329-336, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 129MN, doi: 10.1002/jgrg.20018
  • Robertson, DS; Lewis, WM; Sheehan, PM; Toon, OB (2013), K-Pg extinction patterns in marine and freshwater environments: The impact winter model. J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci. Version: 1 118 (3) 1006-1014, issn: 2169-8953, ids: 233EV, doi: 10.1002/jgrg.20086
  • Anthony, JL; Lewis, WM (2012), Low boundary layer response and temperature dependence of nitrogen and phosphorus releases from oxic sediments of an oligotrophic lake. Aquat. Sci. Version: 1 74 (3) 611-617, issn: 1015-1621, ids: 964XR, doi: 10.1007/s00027-012-0255-6
  • Clow, DW; Rhoades, C; Briggs, J; Caldwell, M; Lewis, WM (2011), Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA. Appl. Geochem. Version: 1 26 S174-S178, issn: 0883-2927, ids: 858HZ, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.096
  • Lewis, WM; Wurtsbaugh, WA; Paerl, HW (2011), Rationale for Control of Anthropogenic Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Reduce Eutrophication of Inland Waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 45 (24) 10300-10305, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 862TZ, doi: 10.1021/es202401p, PubMed ID: 22070635
  • Segura, C; McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM; Pitlick, J (2011), The influence of channel bed disturbance on algal biomass in a Colorado mountain stream. Ecohydrology Version: 1 4 (3) 411-421, issn: 1936-0584, ids: 776HF, doi: 10.1002/eco.142
  • Lewis, WM (2011), Global primary production of lakes: 19th Baldi Memorial Lecture. Inland Waters Version: 1 1 (1) 1-28, issn: 2044-2041, ids: 991RY, doi: 10.5268/IW-1.1.384
  • Lewis, WM; McCutchan, JH (2010), Ecological responses to nutrients in streams and rivers of the Colorado mountains and foothills. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 55 (9) 1973-1983, issn: 0046-5070, ids: 639TL, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02431.x
  • Maron, MK; Vaida, V (2010), Gas-phase water mediated equilibrium between aldehydes and their geminal diol counterparts. Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 240 , issn: 0065-7727, ids: V20UK
  • Lewis, WM (2010), Biogeochemistry of tropical lakes. Int. Assoc. Theor. Appl. Limnol. Proc. Version: 1 30th Congress of the International-Association-of-Theoretical-and-Applied-Limnology 30 1595-1603, Montreal, CANADA, AUG 12-18, 2007, Ed. Jones, J, issn: 0368-0770, ids: BXY31, isbn: 978-30510-54081-5
  • Higgins, TM; McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2009), Quantifying riverine sediment denitrification rates in situ with a novel, portable hyporheic chamber. Int. Assoc. Theor. Appl. Limnol. Proc. Version: 1 30th Congress of the International-Association-of-Theoretical-and-Applied-Limnology 30 809-+, Montreal, CANADA, AUG 12-18, 2007, Ed. Jones, J, issn: 0368-0770, ids: BIX68, isbn: 978-3-510-54076-1
  • McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2008), Spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in an effluent-dominated plains river. Version: 1 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED LIMNOLOGY, VOL 30, PT 2, PROCEEDINGS 30th Congress of the International-Association-of-Theoretical-and-Applied-Limnology 30 323-328, Montreal, CANADA, AUG 12-18, 2007, Ed. Jones, J; Faaborg, J, issn: 0368-0770, ids: BHT51, isbn: 978-3-510-54073-0
  • Gardner, EM; McKnight, DM; Lewis, WM; Miller, MP (2008), Effects of nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton in an alpine lake, Colorado, USA. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. Version: 1 40 (1) 55-64, issn: 1523-0430, ids: 258LI, doi: 10.1657/1523-0430(07-002)[GARDNER]2.0.CO;2
  • Higgins, TM; McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2008), Nitrogen ebullition in a Colorado plains river. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 89 (3) 367-377, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 338RV, doi: 10.1007/s10533-008-9225-4
  • Lewis, WM; Wurtsbaugh, WA (2008), Control of Lacustrine Phytoplankton by Nutrients: Erosion of the Phosphorus Paradigm. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 93 (5-Apr) 446-465, issn: 1434-2944, ids: 370PD, doi: 10.1002/iroh.200811065
  • Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF; McCutchan, JH (2008), Application of a nutrient-saturation concept to the control of algal growth in lakes. Lake Reserv. Manag. Version: 1 24 (1) 41-46, issn: 1040-2381, ids: 492NQ, doi: 10.1080/07438140809354049
  • McGrath, CC; Lewis, WM (2007), Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Version: 1 136 (5) 1381-1392, issn: 0002-8487, ids: 220VE, doi: 10.1577/T07-017.1
  • Rodriguez, MA; Winemiller, KO; Lewis, WM; Baechle, DCT (2007), The freshwater habitats, fishes, and fisheries of the Orinoco River basin. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manag. Version: 1 10 (2) 140-152, issn: 1463-4988, ids: 187SY, doi: 10.1080/14634980701350686
  • Cronin, G; McCutchan, JH; Pitlick, J; Lewis, WM (2007), Use of Shields stress to reconstruct and forecast changes in river metabolism. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 52 (8) 1587-1601, issn: 0046-5070, ids: 188FW, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01790.x
  • Cronin, G; Lewis, WM; Schiehser, MA (2006), Influence of freshwater macrophytes on the littoral ecosystem structure and function of a young Colorado reservoir. Aquat. Bot. Version: 1 85 (1) 37-43, issn: 0304-3770, ids: 042HE, doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.01.011
  • Sedarat, A, MJ Sterling, MA Fuhrman, WM Lewis and M Saric (2006), Achalasia as a cause of congestive heart failure. Gastrointest. Endosc. Version: 1 64 (6) 1026-1028, issn: 0016-5107, ids: 116AM
  • Kaushal, SS; Lewis, WM; McCutchan, JH (2006), Land use change and nitrogen enrichment of a Rocky Mountain watershed. Ecol. Appl. Version: 1 16 (1) 299-312, issn: 1051-0761, ids: 028SW, doi: 10.1890/05-0134, PubMed ID: 16705981
  • McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2006), Groundwater flux and open-channel estimation of stream metabolism: response to Hall and Tank. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. Version: 1 4 213-215, ids: 079XO, doi: 10.4319/lom.2006.4.213
  • Ortiz-Zayas, JR; Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF; McCutchan, JH; Scatena, FN (2005), Metabolism of a tropical rainforest stream. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 24 (4) 769-783, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 991UJ, doi: 10.1899/03-094.1
  • Kaushal, SS; Lewis, WM (2005), Fate and transport of organic nitrogen in minimally disturbed montane streams of Colorado, USA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 74 (3) 303-321, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 978YO, doi: 10.1007/s10533-004-4723-5
  • Pribyl, AL; McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF (2005), Whole-system estimation of denitrification in a plains river: a comparison of two methods. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 73 (3) 439-455, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 963QA, doi: 10.1007/s10533-004-0565-4
  • Saunders, JF, M Murphy, M Clark and ML Lewis (2004), The influence of climate variation on the estimation of low flows used to protect water quality: A nationwide assessment. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. Version: 1 40 (5) 1339-1349, issn: 1093-474X, ids: 865SA, doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2004.tb01590.x
  • McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM; Kendall, C; McGrath, CC (2003), Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Oikos Version: 1 102 (2) 378-390, issn: 0030-1299, ids: 704CA, doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12098.x
  • Lewis, WM (2003), Klamath Basin fishes: Argument is no substitute for evidence. Fisheries Version: 1 28 (3) 20-25, issn: 0363-2415, ids: 654NV
  • Saunders, JF; Lewis, WM (2003), Implications of climatic variability for regulatory low flows in the South Platte River basin, Colorado. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. Version: 1 39 (1) 33-45, issn: 1093-474X, ids: 656PY, doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb01559.x
  • Kaushal, SS; Lewis, WM (2003), Patterns in the chemical fractionation of organic nitrogen in Rocky Mountain streams. Ecosystems Version: 1 6 (5) 483-492, issn: 1432-9840, ids: 720HU, doi: 10.1007/s10021-003-0175-3
  • Niyogi, DK; Lewis, WM; McKnight, DM (2003), Direct and indirect effects of mine drainage on bacterial processes in mountain streams. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 22 (2) 276-291, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 691FF, doi: 10.2307/1467998
  • McCutchan, JH; Saunders, JF; Pribyl, AL; Lewis, WM (2003), Open-channel estimation of denitrification. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. Version: 1 1 74-81, ids: V42MW
  • Lewis, WM (2002), Yield of nitrogen from minimally disturbed watersheds of the United States. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 57 (1) 375-385, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 559AG, doi: 10.1023/A:1015709128245
  • McCutchan, JH; Saunders, JF; Lewis, WM; Hayden, MG (2002), Effects of groundwater flux on open-channel estimates of stream metabolism. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 47 (1) 321-324, issn: 0024-3590, ids: 516AM, doi: 10.4319/lo.2002.47.1.0321
  • McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM (2002), Relative importance of carbon sources for macroinvertebrates in a Rocky Mountain stream. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 47 (3) 742-752, issn: 0024-3590, ids: 551HP, doi: 10.4319/lo.2002.47.3.0742
  • Niyogi, DK; Lewis, WM; McKnight, DM (2002), Effects of stress from mine drainage on diversity, biomass, and function of primary producers in mountain streams. Ecosystems Version: 1 5 (6) 554-567, issn: 1432-9840, ids: 595QV, doi: 10.1007/s10021-002-0182-9
  • Niyogi, DK; McKnight, DM; Lewis, WM (2002), Fungal communities and biomass in mountain streams affected by mine drainage. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 155 (2) 255-271, issn: 0003-9136, ids: 603BN
  • Ricard, CS, JM Jakubowski, JW Verbsky, MA Barbieri, WM Lewis, GE Fernandez, M Vogel, C Tsou, V Prasad, PD Stahl, G Waksman and CM Cheney (2001), Drosophila rab GDI mutants disrupt development but have normal rab membrane extraction. Genesis Version: 1 31 (1) 17-29, issn: 1526-954X, ids: 477QJ
  • Niyogi, DK; Lewis, WM; McKnight, DM (2001), Litter breakdown in mountain streams affected by mine drainage: Biotic mediation of abiotic controls. Ecol. Appl. Version: 1 11 (2) 506-516, issn: 1051-0761, ids: 418EA, doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0506:LBIMSA]2.0.CO;2
  • Lewis, WM; Hamilton, SK; Rodriguez, MA; Saunders, JF; Lasi, MA (2001), Foodweb analysis of the Orinoco floodplain based on production estimates and stable isotope data. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 20 (2) 241-254, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 433JN, doi: 10.2307/1468319
  • Sjodin, A; Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF (2001), Analysis of groundwater exchange for a large plains river in Colorado (USA). Hydrol. Process. Version: 1 15 (4) 609-620, issn: 0885-6087, ids: 413MZ, doi: 10.1002/hyp.173
  • Smith, LK; Lewis, WM; Chanton, JP; Cronin, G; Hamilton, SK (2000), Methane emissions from the Orinoco River floodplain, Venezuela. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 51 (2) 113-140, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 341HT, doi: 10.1023/A:1006443429909
  • Lewis, WM; Hamilton, SK; Lasi, MA; Rodriguez, M; Saunders, JF (2000), Ecological determinism on the Orinoco floodplain. Bioscience Version: 1 50 (8) 681-692, issn: 0006-3568, ids: 343QE, doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0681:EDOTOF]2.0.CO;2
  • Downing, JA; McClain, M; Twilley, R; Melack, JM; Elser, J; Rabalais, NN; Lewis, WM; Turner, RE; Corredor, J; Soto, D; Yanez-Arancibia, A; Kopaska, JA; Howarth, RW (1999), The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-cycle of tropical aquatic ecosystems: Current conditions and projected changes. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 46 (3-Jan) 109-148, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 204QU, doi: 10.1007/BF01007576
  • Lewis, WM; Melack, JM; McDowell, WH; McClain, M; Richey, JE (1999), Nitrogen yields from undisturbed watersheds in the Americas. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 46 (3-Jan) 149-162, issn: 0168-2563, ids: 204QU, doi: 10.1007/BF01007577
  • Groppo, JG, TL Robl, WM Lewis and CJ McCormick (1999), Classification and froth flotation of fly ash for producing high quality pozzolan. Miner. Metall. Process. Version: 1 16 (3) 34-36, issn: 0747-9182, ids: 258WD
  • Niyogi, DK; McKnight, DM; Lewis, WM (1999), Influences of water and substrate quality for periphyton in a montane stream affected by acid mine drainage. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 Symposium on the Effects of Multiple Stressors on Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems at the Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Limnology-and-Oceanography 44 (3) 804-809, SAMTA FE, NEW MEXICO, FEB, 1997, issn: 0024-3590, ids: 196UU, doi: 10.4319/lo.1999.44.3_part_2.0804
  • Vavilova, VV; Lewis, WM (1998), Temporal and altitudinal variations in the attached algae of mountain streams in Colorado. Hydrobiologia Version: 1 390 (3-Jan) 99-106, issn: 0018-8158, ids: 195EJ, doi: 10.1023/A:1003526306724
  • McCutchan, JH; Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF (1998), Uncertainty in the estimation of stream metabolism from open-channel oxygen concentrations. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. Version: 1 17 (2) 155-164, issn: 0887-3593, ids: 108JL, doi: 10.2307/1467959
  • Skaggs, RL; Lores, M; Lewis, WM; Birks, JW (1998), Detection of argon by Penning ionization and competitive absorption using a sensitized photoionization detector. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 70 (16) 3493-3497, issn: 0003-2700, ids: 111AF, doi: 10.1021/ac9802022
  • Sjodin, AL; Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF (1997), Denitrification as a component of the nitrogen budget for a large plains river. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 39 (3) 327-342, issn: 0168-2563, ids: YD252, doi: 10.1023/A:1005884117467
  • Rodriguez, MA; Lewis, WM (1997), Structure of fish assemblages along environmental gradients in floodplain lakes of the Orinoco River. Ecol. Monogr. Version: 1 67 (1) 109-128, issn: 0012-9615, ids: WH237, doi: 10.1890/0012-9615(1997)067[0109:SOFAAE]2.0.CO;2
  • Friedman, JM; Osterkamp, WR; Lewis, WM (1996), The role of vegetation and bed-level fluctuations in the process of channel narrowing. Geomorphology Version: 1 14 (4) 341-351, issn: 0169-555X, ids: UC058, doi: 10.1016/0169-555X(95)00047-9
  • Lewis, WM (1996), Tropical lakes: How latitude makes a difference. Version: 1 PERSPECTIVES IN TROPICAL LIMNOLOGY International Conference on Tropical Limnology 43-64, SATYA WACANA CHRISTIAN UNIV, SALATIGA, INDONESIA, JUL 04-08, 1994, Ed. Schiemer, F; Boland, KT, ids: BF27G, isbn: 90-5103-113-0
  • Friedman, JM; Osterkamp, WR; Lewis, WM (1996), Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a Great Plains flood. Ecology Version: 1 77 (7) 2167-2181, issn: 0012-9658, ids: VM421, doi: 10.2307/2265710
  • Lewis, WM (1996), Wetlands on the line. Geotimes Version: 1 41 (7) 5-5, issn: 0016-8556, ids: UV909
  • Arenz, RF; Lewis, WM; Saunders, JF (1996), Determination of chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon from reflectance data for Colorado reservoirs. Int. J. Remote Sens. Version: 1 17 (8) 1547-1566, issn: 0143-1161, ids: UJ901, doi: 10.1080/01431169608948723
  • LEWIS, WM; SAUNDERS, JF (1995), IMPROVEMENTS IN STREAM AMMONIA MODELS BY SIMULTANEOUS COMPUTATION OF EXTREMES IN FLOW AND WATER CHEMISTRY. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 29 (7) 1796-1801, issn: 0013-936X, ids: RG467, doi: 10.1021/es00007a016, PubMed ID: 22176452
  • FRIEDMAN, JM; SCOTT, ML; LEWIS, WM (1995), RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST USING IRRIGATION, ARTIFICIAL DISTURBANCE, AND NATURAL SEEDFALL. Environ. Manage. Version: 1 19 (4) 547-557, issn: 0364-152X, ids: RC019, doi: 10.1007/BF02471966
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA; LEWIS, WM (1994), REGULATION AND STABILITY IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF NEOTROPICAL FLOODPLAIN LAKES. Oecologia Version: 1 99 (2-Jan) 166-180, issn: 0029-8549, ids: PJ341, doi: 10.1007/BF00317098, PubMed ID: 28313963
  • SPAK, DR, JM DIPAOLA, WM LEWIS and CE ANDERSON (1993), TALL FESCUE SWARD DYNAMICS .2. INFLUENCE OF 4 PLANT-GROWTH REGULATORS. Crop Sci. Version: 1 33 (2) 304-310, issn: 0011-183X, ids: LC508
  • MUELLER, JP, WM LEWIS, JT GREEN and JC BURNS (1993), YIELD AND QUALITY OF SILAGE CORN AS ALTERED BY JOHNSONGRASS INFESTATION. Agron. J. Version: 1 85 (1) 49-52, issn: 0002-1962, ids: KL367
  • HAMILTON, SK; LEWIS, WM (1992), STABLE CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN ALGAE AND DETRITUS FROM THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Version: 1 56 (12) 4237-4246, issn: 0016-7037, ids: KF602, doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(92)90264-J
  • MORRIS, DP; LEWIS, WM (1992), NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF BACTERIOPLANKTON GROWTH IN LAKE DILLON, COLORADO. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 37 (6) 1179-1192, issn: 0024-3590, ids: KR914, doi: 10.4319/lo.1992.37.6.1179
  • HAMILTON, SK; LEWIS, WM; SIPPEL, SJ (1992), ENERGY-SOURCES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS IN THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN - EVIDENCE FROM STABLE ISOTOPES. Oecologia Version: 1 89 (3) 324-330, issn: 0029-8549, ids: HJ153, doi: 10.1007/BF00317409, PubMed ID: 28313080
  • MITTON, JB; LEWIS, WM (1992), HETEROZYGOSITY AND LIFE-HISTORY VARIATION IN BONY FISHES - RESPONSE. Evolution Version: 1 46 (2) 576-577, issn: 0014-3820, ids: HQ631, doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1992.tb02063.x, PubMed ID: 28564030
  • UNGER, PA; LEWIS, WM (1991), POPULATION ECOLOGY OF A PELAGIC FISH, XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE (ATHERINIDAE), IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Ecology Version: 1 72 (2) 440-456, issn: 0012-9658, ids: FE248, doi: 10.2307/2937186
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA; LEWIS, WM (1990), DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF FISH COMMUNITIES OF ORINOCO FLOODPLAIN LAKES. Version: 1 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 6 (3) 319-328, issn: 8755-724X, ids: DL276
  • LEWIS, WM (1990), COMPARISONS OF PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN TEMPERATE AND TROPICAL LAKES. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 35 (8) 1838-1845, issn: 0024-3590, ids: FE655, doi: 10.4319/lo.1990.35.8.1838
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA; RICHARDSON, SE; LEWIS, WM (1990), NOCTURNAL BEHAVIOR AND ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF A DRIFTWOOD CATFISH, ENTOMOCORUS-GAMEROI (AUCHENIPTERIDAE). Biotropica Version: 1 22 (4) 435-438, issn: 0006-3606, ids: EQ793, doi: 10.2307/2388565
  • HAMILTON, SK; LEWIS, WM (1990), PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FRINGING FLOODPLAIN OF THE ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA. Interciencia Version: 1 INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON MAJOR LATIN AMERICAN RIVERS ( SISGRIL ) 15 (6) 491-500, CIUDAD GUAYANA, VENEZUELA, MAY 28-JUN 03, 1990, issn: 0378-1844, ids: EX204
  • HAMILTON, SK; LEWIS, WM (1990), BASIN MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKES ON THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 119 (4) 393-425, issn: 0003-9136, ids: FU564
  • HAMILTON, SK; SIPPEL, SJ; LEWIS, WM; SAUNDERS, JF (1990), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND EVIDENCE FOR ITS REDUCTION BY MACROPHYTE MATS IN 2 ORINOCO FLOODPLAIN LAKES. J. Plankton Res. Version: 1 12 (2) 345-363, issn: 0142-7873, ids: CR963, doi: 10.1093/plankt/12.2.345
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1989), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE LOWER ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 34 (2) 397-409, issn: 0024-3590, ids: U5388, doi: 10.4319/lo.1989.34.2.0397
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1989), TRANSPORT OF MAJOR SOLUTES AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS AND DISCHARGE IN THE APURE RIVER, VENEZUELA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 8 (2) 101-113, issn: 0168-2563, ids: AN742
  • TWOMBLY, S; LEWIS, WM (1989), FACTORS REGULATING CLADOCERAN DYNAMICS IN A VENEZUELAN FLOODPLAIN LAKE. J. Plankton Res. Version: 1 11 (2) 317-333, issn: 0142-7873, ids: T5567, doi: 10.1093/plankt/11.2.317
  • LEWIS, WM (1989), FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR ANOMALOUS SIZE SCALING OF RESPIRATION IN PHYTOPLANKTON. J. Phycol. Version: 1 25 (2) 395-397, issn: 0022-3646, ids: AC845, doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1989.tb00136.x
  • LEWIS, WM; SAUNDERS, JF (1989), CONCENTRATION AND TRANSPORT OF DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED SUBSTANCES IN THE ORINOCO RIVER. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 7 (3) 203-240, issn: 0168-2563, ids: AD097, doi: 10.1007/BF00004218
  • MITTON, JB; LEWIS, WM (1989), RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GENETIC-VARIABILITY AND LIFE-HISTORY FEATURES OF BONY FISHES. Evolution Version: 1 43 (8) 1712-1723, issn: 0014-3820, ids: CH764, doi: 10.2307/2409387, PubMed ID: 28564340
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1988), COMPOSITION AND SEASONALITY OF THE ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. J. Plankton Res. Version: 1 10 (5) 957-985, issn: 0142-7873, ids: P8813, doi: 10.1093/plankt/10.5.957
  • LEWIS, WM (1988), PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN THE ORINOCO RIVER. Ecology Version: 1 69 (3) 679-692, issn: 0012-9658, ids: N7209, doi: 10.2307/1941016
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1988), TRANSPORT OF PHOSPHORUS, NITROGEN, AND CARBON BY THE APURE RIVER, VENEZUELA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 5 (3) 323-342, issn: 0168-2563, ids: P0815, doi: 10.1007/BF02180071
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1988), DYNAMICS AND CONTROL MECHANISMS IN A TROPICAL ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY (LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA). Ecol. Monogr. Version: 1 58 (4) 337-353, issn: 0012-9615, ids: R0417, doi: 10.2307/1942544
  • MORRIS, DP; LEWIS, WM (1988), PHYTOPLANKTON NUTRIENT LIMITATION IN COLORADO MOUNTAIN LAKES. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 20 (3) 315-327, issn: 0046-5070, ids: T0991, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1988.tb00457.x
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1988), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE CAURA RIVER, VENEZUELA. Biotropica Version: 1 20 (3) 206-214, issn: 0006-3606, ids: P8500, doi: 10.2307/2388235
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1988), ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND TRANSPORT IN A TROPICAL WHITE-WATER RIVER. Hydrobiologia Version: 1 162 (2) 147-155, issn: 0018-8158, ids: N2762, doi: 10.1007/BF00014537
  • LEWIS, WM (1987), TROPICAL LIMNOLOGY. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. Version: 1 18 159-184, issn: 0066-4162, ids: K9588, doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001111
  • LUNDBERG, JG; LEWIS, WM; SAUNDERS, JF; MAGOLECCIA, F (1987), A MAJOR FOOD WEB COMPONENT IN THE ORINOCO RIVER CHANNEL - EVIDENCE FROM PLANKTIVOROUS ELECTRIC FISHES. Science Version: 1 237 (4810) 81-83, issn: 0036-8075, ids: H9606, doi: 10.1126/science.237.4810.81, PubMed ID: 17813624
  • NETO, JR, CC KOHLER and WM LEWIS (1987), WATER REUSE SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION OF FINGERLING FISHES IN BRAZIL WITH EMPHASIS ON SOUTH-AMERICAN CATFISHES (RHAMDIA-QUELENS AND RHAMDIA-SAPO). Trop. Agric. Version: 1 64 (1) 2-6, issn: 0041-3216, ids: F4928
  • LEWIS, WM and PJ CLARK (1987), RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION - ANGLIA CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECTS. PROC INST CIVIL ENG PT 1 Version: 1 82 247-268, issn: 0307-8353, ids: G8213
  • LEWIS, WM; HAMILTON, SK; JONES, SL; RUNNELS, DD (1987), MAJOR ELEMENT CHEMISTRY, WEATHERING AND ELEMENT YIELDS FOR THE CAURA RIVER DRAINAGE, VENEZUELA. Biogeochemistry Version: 1 4 (2) 159-181, issn: 0168-2563, ids: J3311, doi: 10.1007/BF02180153
  • SAUNDERS, JF; LEWIS, WM (1987), A PERSPECTIVE ON THE USE OF COHORT ANALYSIS TO OBTAIN DEMOGRAPHIC-DATA FOR COPEPODS. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 32 (2) 511-513, issn: 0024-3590, ids: H1882, doi: 10.4319/lo.1987.32.2.0511
  • LEVINE, SN; LEWIS, WM (1987), A NUMERICAL-MODEL OF NITROGEN-FIXATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 17 (2) 265-274, issn: 0046-5070, ids: G5950, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1987.tb01047.x
  • HAMILTON, SK; LEWIS, WM (1987), CAUSES OF SEASONALITY IN THE CHEMISTRY OF A LAKE ON THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 32 (6) 1277-1290, issn: 0024-3590, ids: L6101, doi: 10.4319/lo.1987.32.6.1277
  • LEWIS, WM; MORRIS, DP (1986), TOXICITY OF NITRITE TO FISH - A REVIEW. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Version: 1 115 (2) 183-195, issn: 0002-8487, ids: C6345, doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1986)115<183:TONTF>2.0.CO;2
  • LEWIS, WM (1986), EVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETATIONS OF ALLELOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN PHYTOPLANKTON ALGAE. Am. Nat. Version: 1 127 (2) 184-194, issn: 0003-0147, ids: A0176, doi: 10.1086/284477
  • LEWIS, WM (1986), NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSSES FROM A NUTRIENT-POOR TROPICAL MOIST FOREST. Ecology Version: 1 67 (5) 1275-1282, issn: 0012-9658, ids: E1979, doi: 10.2307/1938683
  • CRESSA, C; LEWIS, WM (1986), ECOLOGICAL ENERGETICS OF CHAOBORUS IN A TROPICAL LAKE. Oecologia Version: 1 70 (3) 326-331, issn: 0029-8549, ids: E3639, doi: 10.1007/BF00379492, PubMed ID: 28311916
  • LEWIS, WM (1986), PHYTOPLANKTON SUCCESSION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Hydrobiologia Version: 1 138 189-203, issn: 0018-8158, ids: E0709, doi: 10.1007/BF00027240
  • LEWIS, WM; FROST, T; MORRIS, D (1986), STUDIES OF PLANKTONIC BACTERIA IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 106 (3) 289-305, issn: 0003-9136, ids: C7640
  • LEWIS, WM; SAUNDERS, JF; LEVINE, SN; WEIBEZAHN, FH (1986), ORGANIC-CARBON IN THE CAURA RIVER, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 31 (3) 653-656, issn: 0024-3590, ids: C8635, doi: 10.4319/lo.1986.31.3.0653
  • LEWIS, WM (1985), PROTOZOAN ABUNDANCES IN THE PLANKTON OF 2 TROPICAL LAKES. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 104 (3) 337-343, issn: 0003-9136, ids: APV81
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC; HAMILTON, SK (1985), EVIDENCE THAT FILTERABLE PHOSPHORUS IS A SIGNIFICANT ATMOSPHERIC LINK IN THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE. Oikos Version: 1 45 (3) 428-432, issn: 0030-1299, ids: AVY59, doi: 10.2307/3565578
  • LEVINE, SN; LEWIS, WM (1985), THE HORIZONTAL HETEROGENEITY OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 30 (6) 1240-1245, issn: 0024-3590, ids: AVJ10, doi: 10.4319/lo.1985.30.6.1240
  • LEWIS, WM (1985), NUTRIENT SCARCITY AS AN EVOLUTIONARY CAUSE OF HAPLOIDY. Am. Nat. Version: 1 125 (5) 692-701, issn: 0003-0147, ids: AHJ76, doi: 10.1086/284372
  • MCCARTY, LB, JM DIPAOLA, WM LEWIS and WB GILBERT (1985), TALL FESCUE RESPONSE TO PLANT-GROWTH RETARDANTS AND FERTILIZER SOURCES. Agron. J. Version: 1 77 (3) 476-480, issn: 0002-1962, ids: AHF27
  • LEWIS, WM (1985), WORLD-HEALTH-ORGANIZATION, GUIDELINES ON ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS. Sci. Total Environ. Version: 1 47 (DEC) 83-91, issn: 0048-9697, ids: AVA56
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC; SAUNDERS, JF (1984), CHEMICAL-PATTERNS OF BULK ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN THE STATE OF COLORADO. Water Resour. Res. Version: 1 20 (11) 1691-1704, issn: 0043-1397, ids: TT375, doi: 10.1029/WR020i011p01691
  • LEWIS, WM (1984), THE DIATOM SEX CLOCK AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE. Am. Nat. Version: 1 123 (1) 73-80, issn: 0003-0147, ids: RX727, doi: 10.1086/284187
  • CRESSA, C; LEWIS, WM (1984), GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS IN A TROPICAL CHAOBORUS SPECIES AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 100 (1) 21-28, issn: 0003-9136, ids: SP180
  • LEWIS, WM (1984), A 5-YEAR RECORD OF TEMPERATURE, MIXING, AND STABILITY FOR A TROPICAL LAKE (LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA). Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 99 (3) 340-346, issn: 0003-9136, ids: SF837
  • LEVINE, SN; LEWIS, WM (1984), DIEL VARIATION OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 29 (4) 887-893, issn: 0024-3590, ids: TC653, doi: 10.4319/lo.1984.29.4.0887
  • LEWIS, WM; LEVINE, SN (1984), THE LIGHT RESPONSE OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 29 (4) 894-900, issn: 0024-3590, ids: TC653, doi: 10.4319/lo.1984.29.4.0894
  • UNGER, PA; LEWIS, WM; MCCLEARN, DH (1984), NONVISUAL FEEDING IN A VISUAL PLANKTIVORE, XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE. Oecologia Version: 1 64 (2) 280-283, issn: 0029-8549, ids: TN847, doi: 10.1007/BF00376883, PubMed ID: 28312351
  • EPP, RW; LEWIS, WM (1984), COST AND SPEED OF LOCOMOTION FOR ROTIFERS. Oecologia Version: 1 61 (3) 289-292, issn: 0029-8549, ids: SH657, doi: 10.1007/BF00379624, PubMed ID: 28311052
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), INTERRUPTION OF SYNTHESIS AS A COST OF SEX IN SMALL ORGANISMS. Am. Nat. Version: 1 121 (6) 825-834, issn: 0003-0147, ids: QR940, doi: 10.1086/284106
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), A REVISED CLASSIFICATION OF LAKES BASED ON MIXING. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Version: 1 40 (10) 1779-1787, issn: 0706-652X, ids: RR929, doi: 10.1139/f83-207
  • UNGER, PA; LEWIS, WM (1983), SELECTIVE PREDATION WITH RESPECT TO BODY SIZE IN A POPULATION OF THE FISH XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE (ATHERINIDAE). Ecology Version: 1 64 (5) 1136-1144, issn: 0012-9658, ids: RJ868, doi: 10.2307/1937824
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), INTERCEPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC FIXED NITROGEN AS AN ADAPTIVE ADVANTAGE OF SCUM FORMATION IN BLUE-GREEN-ALGAE. J. Phycol. Version: 1 19 (4) 534-536, issn: 0022-3646, ids: SC962, doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1983.00534.x
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND MIXING IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 28 (2) 273-286, issn: 0024-3590, ids: QL472, doi: 10.4319/lo.1983.28.2.0273
  • LEWIS, WM (1983), COLLECTION OF AIRBORNE MATERIALS BY A WATER-SURFACE. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 28 (6) 1242-1246, issn: 0024-3590, ids: RV404, doi: 10.4319/lo.1983.28.6.1242
  • LEWIS, WM; RIEHL, W (1982), PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGY IN LAKE-VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol. Version: 1 67 (3) 297-322, issn: 0020-9309, ids: PA477
  • GRANT, MC; LEWIS, WM (1982), CHEMICAL LOADING RATES FROM PRECIPITATION IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. Version: 1 TELLUS 34 (1) 74-88, issn: 0040-2826, ids: NF076
  • LEWIS, WM (1982), CHANGES IN PH AND BUFFERING CAPACITY OF LAKES IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 27 (1) 167-172, issn: 0024-3590, ids: NA271, doi: 10.4319/lo.1982.27.1.0167
  • LEWIS, WM (1982), VERTICAL EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES IN A LARGE TROPICAL LAKE. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 27 (1) 161-163, issn: 0024-3590, ids: NA271, doi: 10.4319/lo.1982.27.1.0161
  • LEWIS, WM (1981), PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY AND NUTRIENT LOADING BY PRECIPITATION IN A TROPICAL WATERSHED. Water Resour. Res. Version: 1 17 (1) 169-181, issn: 0043-1397, ids: LD922, doi: 10.1029/WR017i001p00169
  • LEWIS, WM; WEIBEZAHN, FH (1981), ACID-RAIN AND MAJOR SEASONAL-VARIATION OF HYDROGEN-ION LOADING IN A TROPICAL WATERSHED. Version: 1 ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA 32 (3) 236-238, issn: 0001-5504, ids: NE515
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1981), EFFECT OF THE MAY-JUNE MOUNT ST-HELENS ERUPTIONS ON PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY IN CENTRAL COLORADO. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 15 (9) 1539-1542, issn: 1352-2310, ids: MB442, doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(81)90136-0
  • EPP, RW; LEWIS, WM (1981), PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN COPEPODS. Science Version: 1 214 (4527) 1349-1350, issn: 0036-8075, ids: MT154, doi: 10.1126/science.214.4527.1349, PubMed ID: 17812261
  • LEWIS, WM; WEIBEZAHN, FH (1981), CHEMISTRY OF A 7.5-M SEDIMENT CORE FROM LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 26 (5) 907-924, issn: 0024-3590, ids: MK658, doi: 10.4319/lo.1981.26.5.0907
  • BRADBURY, JP; LEYDEN, B; SALGADOLABOURIAU, M; LEWIS, WM; SCHUBERT, C; BINFORD, MW; FREY, DG; WHITEHEAD, DR; WEIBEZAHN, FH (1981), LATE QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. Science Version: 1 214 (4527) 1299-1305, issn: 0036-8075, ids: MT154, doi: 10.1126/science.214.4527.1299, PubMed ID: 17812244
  • LEWIS, WM; WEIBEZAHN, F (1981), THE CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE ORINOCO AND CARONI RIVERS, VENEZUELA. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 91 (4) 521-528, issn: 0003-9136, ids: ME498
  • LEWIS, WM and JI WADDINGTON (1981), WHO INTERNATIONAL DRINKING-WATER STANDARDS REVISED. Sci. Total Environ. Version: 1 18 (APR) 285-292, issn: 0048-9697, ids: LH158
  • SMITH, KM and WM LEWIS (1981), PARTIAL SYNTHESIS OF CHLOROPHYLL-A FROM RHODOCHLORIN. Tetrahedron Version: 1 37 (Suppl. 9) 399-403, issn: 0040-4020, ids: LT822
  • EPP, RW; LEWIS, WM (1980), METABOLIC UNIFORMITY OVER THE ENVIRONMENTAL-TEMPERATURE RANGE IN BRACHIONUS-PLICATILIS (ROTIFERA). Hydrobiologia Version: 1 73 (3-Jan) 145-147, issn: 0018-8158, ids: KF096, doi: 10.1007/BF00019439
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1980), ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED-STATES. Science Version: 1 207 (4427) 176-177, issn: 0036-8075, ids: HZ705, doi: 10.1126/science.207.4427.176, PubMed ID: 17809099
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1980), EFFECT OF URBAN SOURCES ON ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED-STATES - REPLY. Science Version: 1 210 (4473) 1043-1043, issn: 0036-8075, ids: KR043, doi: 10.1126/science.210.4473.1043-a, PubMed ID: 17797496
  • EPP, RW; LEWIS, WM (1980), THE NATURE AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF METABOLIC CHANGES DURING THE LIFE-HISTORY OF COPEPODS. Ecology Version: 1 61 (2) 259-264, issn: 0012-9658, ids: KD173, doi: 10.2307/1935183
  • SMITH, KM, JAP BAPTISTADEALMEIDA and WM LEWIS (1980), STUDIES OF SPIRO-CHLORIN FORMATION USING PORPHYRIN AMIDES. J. Heterocycl. Chem. Version: 1 17 (3) 481-487, issn: 0022-152X, ids: JQ944
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1980), RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SNOW COVER AND WINTER LOSSES OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES FROM A MOUNTAIN WATERSHED. Arct. Alp. Res. Version: 1 12 (1) 11-17, issn: 0004-0851, ids: JH458, doi: 10.2307/1550586
  • EPP, RW; LEWIS, WM (1979), METABOLIC RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE-CHANGE IN A TROPICAL FRESHWATER COPEPOD (MESOCYCLOPS-BRASILIANUS) AND THEIR ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE. Oecologia Version: 1 42 (2) 123-138, issn: 0029-8549, ids: HP799, doi: 10.1007/BF00344853, PubMed ID: 28309656
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1979), CHANGES IN THE OUTPUT OF IONS FROM A WATERSHED AS A RESULT OF THE ACIDIFICATION OF PRECIPITATION. Ecology Version: 1 60 (6) 1093-1097, issn: 0012-9658, ids: JS622, doi: 10.2307/1936955
  • LEWIS, WM; SAUNDERS, JF (1979), 2 NEW INTEGRATING SAMPLERS FOR ZOOPLANKTON, PHYTOPLANKTON, AND WATER CHEMISTRY. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 85 (2) 244-249, issn: 0003-9136, ids: GV264
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1979), RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STREAM DISCHARGE AND YIELD OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES FROM A COLORADO MOUNTAIN WATERSHED. Soil Sci. Version: 1 128 (6) 353-363, issn: 0038-075X, ids: JA516, doi: 10.1097/00010694-197912000-00007
  • DEINFANTE, A; INFANTE, O; MARQUEZ, M; LEWIS, WM; WEIBEZAHN, FH (1979), CONDITIONS LEADING TO MASS MORTALITY OF FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON IN LAKE VALENCIA VENEZUELA. Version: 1 ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA 30 (1) 67-73, issn: 0001-5504, ids: HL682
  • EPP, RW; LEWIS, WM (1979), SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN BRACHIONUS-PLICATILIS (ROTIFERA) - EVOLUTIONARY AND ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE. Evolution Version: 1 33 (3) 919-928, issn: 0014-3820, ids: HR242, doi: 10.2307/2407655, PubMed ID: 28568445
  • LEWIS, WM; WEIBEZAHN, FH (1978), CHEMICAL-ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF A DEEP-WATER CORE FROM LAKE VALENCIA. Version: 1 ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA 29 130-130, issn: 0001-5504, ids: HL684
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), COMPOSITIONAL, PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL AND ELEMENTARY STRUCTURAL-ANALYSIS OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE - LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES. J. Ecol. Version: 1 66 (1) 213-226, issn: 0022-0477, ids: EY131, doi: 10.2307/2259189
  • LEWIS, WM; GRANT, MC (1978), SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL INTERPRETATION OF PRECIPITATION FOR MASS BALANCE STUDIES. Water Resour. Res. Version: 1 14 (6) 1098-1104, issn: 0043-1397, ids: GC389, doi: 10.1029/WR014i006p01098
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), DYNAMICS AND SUCCESSION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE - LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES. J. Ecol. Version: 1 66 (3) 849-880, issn: 0022-0477, ids: GF551, doi: 10.2307/2259300
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), COMPARISON OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN ZOOPLANKTON OF A LAKE BY MEANS OF VARIANCE COMPONENTS. Ecology Version: 1 59 (4) 666-671, issn: 0012-9658, ids: GB333
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSION IN A TROPICAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY AND A NEW MEASURE OF SUCCESSION RATE. Am. Nat. Version: 1 112 (984) 401-414, issn: 0003-0147, ids: EX444, doi: 10.1086/283282
  • LEWIS, WM (1978), SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE (LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES). Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol. Version: 1 63 (5) 619-635, issn: 0020-9309, ids: GU121, doi: 10.1002/iroh.19780630508
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SHAPES OF ABUNDANCE-FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR COEXISTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES. Ecology Version: 1 58 (4) 850-859, issn: 0012-9658, ids: DV440, doi: 10.2307/1936220
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), NET GROWTH-RATE THROUGH TIME AS AN INDICATOR OF ECOLOGICAL SIMILARITY AMONG PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES. Ecology Version: 1 58 (1) 149-157, issn: 0012-9658, ids: DJ641, doi: 10.2307/1935116
  • LEWIS, WM; CANFIELD, D (1977), DISSOLVED ORGANIC-CARBON IN SOME DARK VENEZUELAN WATERS AND A REVISED EQUATION FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC-CARBON. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 79 (4) 441-445, issn: 0003-9136, ids: DN108
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), COMMENTS ON ANALYSIS OF GRAZING IN LAKE ERKEN. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 22 (5) 966-967, issn: 0024-3590, ids: DV903, doi: 10.4319/lo.1977.22.5.0966
  • EIVAZI, F, WM LEWIS and KM SMITH (1977), FRAGMENTATION REACTIONS OF BILINDIONES. Tetrahedron Lett. Version: 1(35) 3083-3086, issn: 0040-4039, ids: DS558
  • LEWIS, WM (1977), FEEDING SELECTIVITY OF A TROPICAL CHAOBORUS POPULATION. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 7 (4) 311-325, issn: 0046-5070, ids: DS274, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1977.tb01679.x
  • LEWIS, WM (1976), OBSERVATIONS ON SUPERFICIAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURES OF SOME LAKES IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED-STATES. Freshw. Biol. Version: 1 6 (1) 49-57, issn: 0046-5070, ids: BG441, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1976.tb01590.x
  • LEWIS, WM (1976), SURFACE/VOLUME RATIO - IMPLICATIONS FOR PHYTOPLANKTON MORPHOLOGY. Science Version: 1 192 (4242) 885-887, issn: 0036-8075, ids: BR576, doi: 10.1126/science.192.4242.885, PubMed ID: 17817763
  • LEWIS, WM (1975), THEORETICAL COMPARISON OF ATTENUATION OF LIGHT ENERGY AND QUANTA IN WATERS OF DIVERGENT OPTICAL-PROPERTIES. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 75 (3) 285-296, issn: 0003-9136, ids: AL213
  • SATCHELL, DP, SD CRAWFORD and WM LEWIS (1975), STATUS OF SEDIMENT FROM CATFISH PRODUCTION PONDS AS A FERTILIZER AND SOIL CONDITIONER. Progress. Fish-Cult. Version: 1 37 (4) 191-193, issn: 0033-0779, ids: BQ177
  • LEWIS, WM (1974), PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN PLANKTON COMMUNITY OF A TROPICAL LAKE. Ecol. Monogr. Version: 1 44 (4) 377-409, issn: 0012-9615, ids: U7957
  • LEWIS, WM (1974), EFFECTS OF FIRE ON NUTRIENT MOVEMENT IN A SOUTH-CAROLINA PINE FOREST. Ecology Version: 1 55 (5) 1120-1127, issn: 0012-9658, ids: U7315
  • LEWIS, WM and JA TYBURCZY (1974), AMOUNTS AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SOME FRESHWATERS OF SOUTHEASTERN US. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 74 (1) 8-17, issn: 0003-9136, ids: U0473
  • LEWIS, WM (1974), ANALYSIS OF SURFACE SLICKS IN A RESERVOIR RECEIVING HEATED EFFLUENT. Arch. Hydrobiol. Version: 1 74 (3) 304-315, issn: 0003-9136, ids: U9195
  • LEWIS, WM (1973), THERMAL REGIME OF LAKE LANAO (PHILIPPINES) AND ITS THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR TROPICAL LAKES. Limnol. Oceanogr. Version: 1 18 (2) 200-217, issn: 0024-3590, ids: P8583
  • COPE, WA, TW WALDREP, DS CHAMBLEE and WM LEWIS (1973), EVALUATION OF HERBICIDES IN ESTABLISHMENT OF ALFALFA, LADINO WHITE CLOVER, AND CROWNVETCH. Agron. J. Version: 1 65 (5) 820-825, issn: 0002-1962, ids: R0524
  • LEWIS, WM (1970), MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYPRINODONTOIDS FOR INHABITING OXYGEN DEFICIENT WATERS. Copeia Version: 1(2) 319-&, issn: 0045-8511, ids: G4699