Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Margaret A. Tolbert

Research Interests

I am a professor in Chemistry at the University of Colorado in Boulder. My research group focuses on clouds and aerosols in atmospheric chemistry. Research topics include stratospheric ozone depletion, cirrus cloud chemistry, tropospheric clouds and particles, the interaction between clouds and climate, and the chemistry of planetary atmospheres including Titan and Mars. Our work is laboratory-based; we use simulation chambers to identify key atmospheric aerosol processes important in different environments. Novel laboratory techniques include aerosol optical levitation, aerosol mass spectrometry, and aerosol optical techniques such as cavity ring down, photo acoustic and Raman spectroscopies. 

Current Research

Aqueous inorganic ions are a major component of atmospheric aerosols, typically comprising 25 to 75 percent of the dry aerosol mass. At sufficiently low relative humidity (RH), aqueous inorganic aerosols can undergo crystallization with the loss of particle-phase water (efflorescence), which alters the aerosol’s effect on global climate and many heterogeneous reactions that influence air quality. Because of the importance of the aerosol phase, the efflorescence behavior of aqueous inorganic aerosols has been studied for decades. Despite advances, there is still little agreement on how crystals nucleate and grow from an aqueous solution. In particular, the effect of collisions on particle phase remains largely unexplored.

We previously showed that collisions between aqueous droplets and soluble crystalline contact nuclei (CN) resulted in a nonequilibrium CN-droplet interface that persisted long enough for crystal nucleation to occur epitaxially (that is, oriented by CN crystal lattice structure), although CN dissolution was predicted from bulk thermodynamics. The question arises whether nonequilibrium effects may exist for collisions with other CN particle types, such as insoluble amorphous organics. Here, we studied the effect of collisions between aqueous inorganic microdroplets and insoluble (hydrophobic) amorphous organic aerosols. Experiments were performed using optically levitated microdroplets of sodium chloride (NaCl), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), and sodium bromide (NaBr), which are important components of sea spray aerosol. In our optical levitation system, light-absorbing particles, such as soot, strongly absorb the trapping laser wavelength. Thus, to avoid these complications and to probe the potential relevance of ion-specific interactions on salt crystal nucleation, functionalized surfactant-free polystyrene latex spheres (PSLs), which are hydrophobic amorphous organic aerosols, with a range of surface functionality/net charge were used as CN proxies for atmospherically relevant insoluble organic aerosols. We found that collisions with PSLs induced crystallization of aqueous inorganic microdroplets at high RH, the effect of which was correlated with destabilizing water-mediated ion-specific surface interactions. These same organic aerosols did not induce crystallization once internally mixed in the droplet, pointing toward a previously unconsidered transient ion-specific crystal nucleation pathway that can promote aerosol crystallization via particle collisions.

An example of a collision induced contact efflorescence event is shown in the figure, where an aqueous droplet of NaCl is collided with a 400 nm PSL CN at 57% RH. In part A, the brightfield images of the NaCl particle are shown (scale bar 10 mm).  Frame 1 shows the aqueous droplet before contact, Frame 2 the droplet 20 ms after contact, and frames 3 and 4 the droplet 90 and 180 ms, respectively, after contact. Efflorescence begins immediately after contact, and as efflorescence proceeds, the loss of water causes the particle to move upward in the trap. Part B shows a different fully effloresced NaCl crystal levitated in the trap. Parts C and D show binary contrast images that allow the point of contact to be more visible (see arrow). This set of images clearly shows that it is the contact event with the amorphous organic CN that induced NaCl efflorescence at a relative humidity well above the homogeneous value of 47% RH. Ongoing studies will begin to probe contact ice nucleation, a process thought to be important in mixed phase clouds.



images of levitated droplets and collisions

An aqueous droplet of NaCl is collided with a 400 nm PSL CN at 57% RH. In part A, the brightfield images of the NaCl particle are shown (scale bar 10 μm). Frame 1 shows the aqueous droplet before contact, Frame 2 the droplet 20 ms after contact, and frames 3 and 4 the droplet 90 and 180 ms, respectively, after contact. Efflorescence begins immediately after contact, and as efflorescence proceeds, the loss of water causes the particle to move upward in the trap. Part B shows a different fully effloresced NaCl crystal levitated in the trap. Parts C and D show binary contrast images that allow the point of contact to be more visible (see arrow).

Honors and Awards

  • 2019 College Scholar Award, College of Arts and Sciences, CU Boulder
  • 2017 NASA Group Achievement Award, MSL Extended Mission Science Team
  • 2010 Distinguished Professor, University of Colorado
  • 2009 ACS National Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science
  • 2009 Hazel Barnes Prize, CU Boulder
  • 2007 Guggenheim Fellowship
  • 2005 Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2003 NASA Group Achievement Award, Crystal-Face Science Team
  • 2001 NASA Group Achievement Award, SOLVE Experiment
  • 2001 Boulder Faculty Assembly Award for Excellence in Research, Scholarly and Creative Work, CU Boulder
  • 1994 Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar
  • 1993 James B. Macelwane Medal, American Geophysical Union
  • 1993 Fellow of the American Geophysical Union

View Publications

  • Horst, SM, YH Yoon, MS Ugelow, AH Parker, R Li, JA de Gouw and MA Tolbert (2018), Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition. Icarus Version: 1 301 136-151, issn: 0019-1035, ids: FP8IZ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.039
  • Ushijima, SB, RD Davis and MA Tolbert (2018), Immersion and Contact Efflorescence Induced by Mineral Dust Particles. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 122 (5) 1303-1311, issn: 1089-5639, ids: FW0AZ, doi: 10.1021/acsjpca.7b12075, PubMed ID: 29332388
  • Rivera-Valentin, EG, RV Gough, VF Chevrier, KM Primm, GM Martinez and M Tolbert (2018), Constraining the Potential Liquid Water Environment at Gale Crater, Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 123 (5) 1156-1167, issn: 2169-9097, ids: GJ0VM, doi: 10.1002/2018JE005558
  • Horst, SM, C He, MS Ugelow, AM Jellinek, RT Pierrehumbert and MA Tolbert (2018), Exploring the Atmosphere of Neoproterozoic Earth: The Effect of O-2 on Haze Formation and Composition. Astrophys. J. Version: 1 858 (2) , Art. No. 119, issn: 0004-637X, ids: GH0BA, doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabd7d
  • Creamean, JM, KM Primm, MA Tolbert, EG Hall, J Wendell, A Jordan, PJ Sheridan, J Smith and RC Schnell (2018), HOVERCAT: a novel aerial system for evaluation of aerosol-cloud interactions. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 11 (7) 3969-3985, issn: 1867-1381, ids: GM0JS, doi: 10.5194/amt-11-3969-2018
  • Ugelow, MS, DO De Haan, SM Horst and MA Tolbert (2018), The Effect of Oxygen on Organic Haze Properties. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 859 (1) , Art. No. L2, issn: 2041-8205, ids: GG1WZ, doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/aac2c7
  • Genareau, K, SM Cloer, K Primm, MA Tolbert and TW Woods (2018), Compositional and Mineralogical Effects on Ice Nucleation Activity of Volcanic Ash. Atmosphere Version: 1 9 (7) , Art. No. 238, issn: 2073-4433, ids: GU2ZH, doi: 10.3390/atmos9070238
  • Primm, KM, V Gough, J Wong, G Rivera-Valentin, GM Martinez, JV Hogancamp, PD Archer, DW Ming and MA Tolbert (2018), The Effect of Mars-Relevant Soil Analogs on the Water Uptake of Magnesium Perchlorate and Implications for the Near-Surface of Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 123 (8) 2076-2088, issn: 2169-9097, ids: GY8LQ, doi: 10.1029/2018JE005540
  • Ugelow, MS, KJ Zarzana, DA Day, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2017), The optical and chemical properties of discharge generated organic haze using in-situ real-time techniques. Icarus Version: 1 294 1-13, issn: 0019-1035, ids: EY1OH, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.04.028
  • Davis, RD and MA Tolbert (2017), Crystal nucleation initiated by transient ion-surface interactions at aerosol interfaces. Sci. Adv. Version: 1 3 (7) , Art. No. e1700425, issn: 2375-2548, ids: FI0CH, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1700425
  • Nuding, DL, RV Gough, KJ Venkateswaran, JA Spry and MA Tolbert (2017), Laboratory Investigations on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Deliquescent Salt Mars Analog Environments. Astrobiology Version: 1 17 (10) 997-1008, issn: 1531-1074, ids: FK1YD, doi: 10.1089/ast.2016.1545, PubMed ID: 29048223
  • Primm, KM, RV Gough, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2017), Freezing of perchlorate and chloride brines under Mars-relevant conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Version: 1 212 211-220, issn: 0016-7037, ids: FA9SZ, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.06.012
  • Gough, RV, J Wong, JL Dickson, JS Levy, JW Head, DR Marchant and MA Tolbert (2017), Brine formation via deliquescence by salts found near Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Laboratory experiments and field observational results. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 476 189-198, issn: 0012-821X, ids: FI8NN, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.08.003
  • Primm, KM, GP Schill, DP Veghte, MA Freedman and MA Tolbert (2017), Depositional ice nucleation on NX illite and mixtures of NX illite with organic acids. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 74 (1) 55-69, issn: 0167-7764, ids: EP6EY, doi: 10.1007/s10874-016-9340-x
  • Hasenkopf, CA, DP Veghte, GP Schill, S Lodoysamba, MA Freedman and MA Tolbert (2016), Ice nucleation, shape, and composition of aerosol particles in one of the most polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 139 222-229, issn: 1352-2310, ids: DQ3HR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.037
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2016), Formation of liquid water at low temperatures via the deliquescence of calcium chloride: Implications for Antarctica and Mars. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 131 79-87, issn: 0032-0633, ids: DY1LT, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2016.07.006
  • Hicks, RK, DA Day, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2016), Follow the Carbon: Isotopic Labeling Studies of Early Earth Aerosol. Astrobiology Version: 1 16 (11) 822-830, issn: 1531-1074, ids: EC6ZB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2015.1436, PubMed ID: 27870584
  • Hiranuma, N, S Augustin-Bauditz, H Bingemer, C Budke, J Curtius, A Danielczok, K Diehl, K Dreischmeier, M Ebert, F Frank, N Hoffmann, K Kandler, A Kiselev, T Koop, T Leisner, O Mohler, B Nillius, A Peckhaus, D Rose, S Weinbruch, H Wex, Y Boose, PJ DeMott, JD Hader, TCJ Hill, ZA Kanji, G Kulkarni, EJT Levin, CS McCluskey, M Murakami, BJ Murray, D Niedermeier, MD Petters, D OSullivan, A Saito, GP Schill, T Tajiri, MA Tolbert, A Welti, TF Whale, TP Wright and K Yamashita (2015), A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (5) 2489-2518, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CC7PE, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015
  • Hicks, RK, DA Day, JL Jimenez and MA Tolbert (2015), Elemental Analysis of Complex Organic Aerosol Using Isotopic Labeling and Unit-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (5) 2741-2747, issn: 0003-2700, ids: CC8IM, doi: 10.1021/ac504014g, PubMed ID: 25645140
  • Nuding, DL, RD Davis, RV Gough and MA Tolbert (2015), The aqueous stability of a Mars salt analog: Instant Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 120 (3) 588-598, issn: 2169-9097, ids: CF9AY, doi: 10.1002/2014JE004722
  • Davis, RD, S Lance, JA Gordon and MA Tolbert (2015), Long Working-Distance Optical Trap for in Situ Analysis of Contact-Induced Phase Transformations. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (12) 6186-6194, issn: 0003-2700, ids: CL2DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00809, PubMed ID: 25961113
  • Schill, GP, K Genareau and MA Tolbert (2015), Deposition and immersion-mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (13) 7523-7536, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CM8UT, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-7523-2015
  • Davis, RD, S Lance, JA Gordon, SB Ushijima and MA Tolbert (2015), Contact efflorescence as a pathway for crystallization of atmospherically relevant particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 112 (52) 15815-15820, issn: 0027-8424, ids: CZ6TU, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1522860113, PubMed ID: 26668396
  • Schill, G. P., Genareau, K., Tolbert, M. A. (2015), Deposition and immersion mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman spectroscopy. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. Version: 1 15 (2) , issn: 16807375, doi: 10.5194/ACPD-15-1385-2015
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2014), Formation of aqueous solutions on Mars via deliquescence of chloride-perchlorate binary mixtures. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 393 73-82, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AG0KG, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.002
  • Horst, SM and MA Tolbert (2014), THE EFFECT OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON PLANETARY HAZE FORMATION. Astrophys. J. Version: 1 781 (1) , Art. No. 53, issn: 0004-637X, ids: 286AE, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/53
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Sea-Spray Aerosol Using Raman Microscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 118 (50) 29234-29241, issn: 1932-7447, ids: AX2FP, doi: 10.1021/jp505379j
  • Nuding, DL, EG Rivera-Valentin, RD Davis, RV Gough, VF Chevrier and MA Tolbert (2014), Deliquescence and efflorescence of calcium perchlorate: An investigation of stable aqueous solutions relevant to Mars. Icarus Version: 1 243 420-428, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AT0OO, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.036
  • Schill, GP, DO De Haan and MA Tolbert (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Secondary Organic Aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (3) 1675-1682, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AA3TL, doi: 10.1021/es4046428, PubMed ID: 24410444
  • Sihvonen, SK, GP Schill, NA Lyktey, DP Veghte, MA Tolbert and MA Freedman (2014), Chemical and Physical Transformations of Aluminosilicate Clay Minerals Due to Acid Treatment and Consequences for Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 118 (38) 8787-8796, issn: 1089-5639, ids: AP9JM, doi: 10.1021/jp504846g, PubMed ID: 25211030
  • Zarzana, KJ, CD Cappa and MA Tolbert (2014), Sensitivity of Aerosol Refractive Index Retrievals Using Optical Spectroscopy. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (11) 1133-1144, issn: 0278-6826, ids: AR7OL, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2014.963498
  • Thalman, R, KJ Zarzana, MA Tolbert and R Volkamer (2014), Rayleigh scattering cross-section measurements of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and air. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. Version: 1 147 171-177, issn: 0022-4073, ids: AN6GY, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.05.030
  • Robinson, CB, GP Schill and MA Tolbert (2014), Optical growth of highly viscous organic/sulfate particles. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 71 (2) 145-156, issn: 0167-7764, ids: AO6ZM, doi: 10.1007/s10874-014-9287-8
  • Yoon, YH, SM Horst, RK Hicks, R Li, JA de Gouw and MA Tolbert (2014), The role of benzene photolysis in Titan haze formation. Icarus Version: 1 233 233-241, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AE1KX, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.02.006
  • Cable, ML, SM Horst, C He, AM Stockton, MF Mora, MA Tolbert, MA Smith and PA Willis (2014), Identification of primary amines in Titan tholins using microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 403 99-107, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AP7GZ, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.028
  • Hawkins, LN, MJ Baril, N Sedehi, MM Galloway, DO De Haan, GP Schill and MA Tolbert (2014), Formation of Semisolid, Oligomerized Aqueous SOA: Lab Simulations of Cloud Processing. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (4) 2273-2280, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AB4QD, doi: 10.1021/es4049626, PubMed ID: 24428707
  • Baustian, KJ, ME Wise, EJ Jensen, GP Schill, MA Freedman and MA Tolbert (2013), State transformations and ice nucleation in amorphous (semi-)solid organic aerosol. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (11) 5615-5628, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 164AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-5615-2013
  • Robinson, CB, GP Schill, KJ Zarzana and MA Tolbert (2013), Impact of Organic Coating on Optical Growth of Ammonium Sulfate Particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (23) 13339-13346, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 266CH, doi: 10.1021/es4023128, PubMed ID: 24144443
  • Trainer, MG, JA Sebree, YH Yoon and MA Tolbert (2013), THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 766 (1) , Art. No. L4, issn: 2041-8205, ids: 103WH, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/766/1/L4
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2013), Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (9) 4681-4695, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 144LR, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-4681-2013
  • Horst, SM and MA Tolbert (2013), IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 770 (1) , Art. No. L10, issn: 2041-8205, ids: 155CR, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/770/1/L10
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian, T Koop, MA Freedman, EJ Jensen and MA Tolbert (2012), Depositional ice nucleation onto crystalline hydrated NaCl particles: a new mechanism for ice formation in the troposphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 12 (2) 1121-1134, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 892YL, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-1121-2012
  • Baustian, KJ, DJ Cziczo, ME Wise, KA Pratt, G Kulkarni, AG Hallar and MA Tolbert (2012), Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. D06217, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 918GK, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016784
  • Trainer, MG, JL Jimenez, YL Yung, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2012), Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N-2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation. Astrobiology Version: 1 12 (4) 315-326, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 929LK, doi: 10.1089/ast.2011.0754, PubMed ID: 22519972
  • Zarzana, KJ, DO De Haan, MA Freedman, CA Hasenkopf and MA Tolbert (2012), Optical Properties of the Products of alpha-Dicarbonyl and Amine Reactions in Simulated Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 46 (9) 4845-4851, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 933GO, doi: 10.1021/es2040152, PubMed ID: 22515474
  • Connelly, BM, DO De Haan and MA Tolbert (2012), Heterogeneous Glyoxal Oxidation: A Potential Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 6180-6187, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp211502e, PubMed ID: 22510110
  • Schill, GP and MA Tolbert (2012), Depositional Ice Nucleation on Monocarboxylic Acids: Effect of the O:C Ratio. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (25) 6817-6822, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 965LR, doi: 10.1021/jp301772q, PubMed ID: 22646721
  • Gough, RV, JJ Turley, GR Ferrell, KE Cordova, SE Wood, DO DeHaan, CP Mckay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2011), Can rapid loss and high variability of Martian methane be explained by surface H2O2?. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 59 (3-Feb) 238-246, issn: 0032-0633, ids: 724AP, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.09.018
  • De Haan, DO, LN Hawkins, JA Kononenko, JJ Turley, AL Corrigan, MA Tolbert and JL Jimenez (2011), Formation of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers by Methylglyoxal and Amines in Simulated Evaporating Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 45 (3) 984-991, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 711HG, doi: 10.1021/es102933x, PubMed ID: 21171623
  • Gough, RV, VF Chevrier, KJ Baustian, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2011), Laboratory studies of perchlorate phase transitions: Support for metastable aqueous perchlorate solutions on Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 312 (4-Mar) 371-377, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 880ID, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.10.026
  • Hasenkopf, CA, MA Freedman, MR Beaver, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2011), Potential Climatic Impact of Organic Haze on Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 11 (2) 135-149, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 739DJ, doi: 10.1089/ast.2010.0541, PubMed ID: 21417943
  • Trainer, MG, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and OB Toon (2010), Limits on the trapping of atmospheric CH4 in martian polar ice analogs. Icarus Version: 1 208 (1) 192-197, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 611RJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.02.006
  • Baustian, KJ, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2010), Depositional ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 10 (5) 2307-2317, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 568ER, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-2307-2010
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian and MA Tolbert (2010), Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6693-6698, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0913018107, PubMed ID: 20388912
  • Gough, RV, MA Tolbert, CP McKay and OB Toon (2010), Methane adsorption on a martian soil analog: An abiogenic explanation for methane variability in the martian atmosphere. Icarus Version: 1 207 (1) 165-174, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 584KJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.030
  • Hasenkopf, CA, MR Beaver, MG Trainer, HL Dewitt, MA Freedman, OB Toon, CP McKay and MA Tolbert (2010), Optical properties of Titan and early Earth haze laboratory analogs in the mid-visible. Icarus Version: 1 207 (2) 903-913, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 597VS, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.015
  • Connelly, BM and MA Tolbert (2010), Reaction of Isoprene on Thin Sulfuric Acid Films: Kinetics, Uptake, and Product Analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (12) 4603-4608, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 608WP, doi: 10.1021/es100708b, PubMed ID: 20499904
  • Beaver, MR, MA Freedman, CA Hasenkopf and MA Tolbert (2010), Cooling Enhancement of Aerosol Particles Due to Surfactant Precipitation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 114 (26) 7070-7076, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 617LO, doi: 10.1021/jp102437q, PubMed ID: 20536216
  • Freedman, MA, KJ Baustian, ME Wise and MA Tolbert (2010), Characterizing the Morphology of Organic Aerosols at Ambient Temperature and Pressure. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 82 (19) 7965-7972, issn: 0003-2700, ids: 655NT, doi: 10.1021/ac101437w, PubMed ID: 20726528
  • DeWitt, HL, CA Hasenkopf, MG Trainer, DK Farmer, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2010), The Formation of Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Aerosols under Varying Laboratory Conditions: Implications for Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 10 (8) 773-781, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 682JL, doi: 10.1089/ast.2009.9455, PubMed ID: 21087157
  • De Haan, DO, AL Corrigan, KW Smith, DR Stroik, JJ Turley, FE Lee, MA Tolbert, JL Jimenez, KE Cordova and GR Ferrell (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol-Forming Reactions of Glyoxal with Amino Acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (8) 2818-2824, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 432ZK, doi: 10.1021/es803534f, PubMed ID: 19475956
  • De Haan, DO, MA Tolbert and JL Jimenez (2009), Atmospheric condensed-phase reactions of glyoxal with methylamine. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L11819, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 458FN, doi: 10.1029/2009GL037441
  • DeWitt, HL, MG Trainer, AA Pavlov, CA Hasenkopf, AC Aiken, JL Jimenez, CP McKay, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2009), Reduction in Haze Formation Rate on Prebiotic Earth in the Presence of Hydrogen. Astrobiology Version: 1 9 (5) 447-453, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 464TB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2008.0289, PubMed ID: 19566425
  • Freedman, MA, CA Hasenkopf, MR Beaver and MA Tolbert (2009), Optical Properties of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Composed of Dicarboxylic Acids and Ammonium Sulfate. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (48) 13584-13592, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 522ZE, doi: 10.1021/jp906240y, PubMed ID: 19877658
  • De Haan, DO, AL Corrigan, MA Tolbert, JL Jimenez, SE Wood and JJ Turley (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Self-Reactions of Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal in Evaporating Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (21) 8184-8190, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 510QT, doi: 10.1021/es902152t, PubMed ID: 19924942
  • Trainer, MG, OB Toon and MA Tolbert (2009), Measurements of Depositional Ice Nucleation on Insoluble Substrates at Low Temperatures: Implications for Earth and Mars. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 113 (6) 2036-2040, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 404EW, doi: 10.1021/jp805140p
  • Wise, ME, KJ Baustian and MA Tolbert (2009), Laboratory studies of ice formation pathways from ammonium sulfate particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (5) 1639-1646, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 418FA, doi: 10.5194/acp-9-1639-2009
  • Beaver, MR, RM Garland, CA Hasenkopf, T Baynard, AR Ravishankara and MA Tolbert (2008), A laboratory investigation of the relative humidity dependence of light extinction by organic compounds from lignin combustion. Environ. Res. Lett. Version: 1 3 (4) , Art. No. 45003, issn: 1748-9326, ids: 442YW, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045003
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  • KOEHLER, BG, LS MCNEILL, AM MIDDLEBROOK and MA TOLBERT (1993), FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED STUDIES OF THE INTERACTION OF HCL WITH MODEL POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD FILMS. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 98 (D6) 10563-10571, issn: 0148-0227, ids: LJ840, doi: 10.1029/93JD00586
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  • REIHS, CM, DM GOLDEN and MA TOLBERT (1990), NITRIC-ACID UPTAKE BY SULFURIC-ACID-SOLUTIONS UNDER STRATOSPHERIC CONDITIONS - DETERMINATION OF HENRY LAW SOLUBILITY. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 95 (D10) 16545-16550, issn: 2169-897X, ids: EB202, doi: 10.1029/JD095iD10p16545
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  • TOLBERT, MA, MN SPENCER, DL HUESTIS and MJ ROSSI (1988), HIGH-DENSITY CHEMI-LUMINESCENCE STUDIES - EXPLOSIVE DECOMPOSITION OF SOLID-PHASE TETRAMETHYLDIOXETANE. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A-Chem. Version: 1 42 (1) 73-85, issn: 1010-6030, ids: M4803, doi: 10.1016/1010-6030(88)80050-9
  • TOLBERT, MA, MJ ROSSI and DM GOLDEN (1988), ANTARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION CHEMISTRY - REACTIONS OF N2O5 WITH H2O AND HCL ON ICE SURFACES. Science Version: 1 240 (4855) 1018-1021, issn: 0036-8075, ids: N4529, doi: 10.1126/science.240.4855.1018, PubMed ID: 17731714
  • TOLBERT, MA, DL HUESTIS and MJ ROSSI (1988), HIGH-TEMPERATURE DECOMPOSITION OF TETRAMETHYLDIOXETANE - MEASUREMENTS OF GAS-PHASE CHEMIEXCITATION YIELDS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (14) 4094-4099, issn: 0022-3654, ids: P3198, doi: 10.1021/j100325a022
  • TOLBERT, MA, MJ ROSSI and DM GOLDEN (1988), HETEROGENEOUS INTERACTIONS OF CHLORINE NITRATE, HYDROGEN-CHLORIDE, AND NITRIC-ACID WITH SULFURIC-ACID SURFACES AT STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 15 (8) 847-850, issn: 0094-8276, ids: P5074, doi: 10.1029/GL015i008p00847
  • TOLBERT, MA, MJ ROSSI, R MALHOTRA and DM GOLDEN (1987), REACTION OF CHLORINE NITRATE WITH HYDROGEN-CHLORIDE AND WATER AT ANTARCTIC STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES. Science Version: 1 238 (4831) 1258-1260, issn: 0036-8075, ids: K9813, doi: 10.1126/science.238.4831.1258, PubMed ID: 17744363
  • TOLBERT, MA, ML MANDICH, LF HALLE and JL BEAUCHAMP (1986), ACTIVATION OF ALKANES BY RUTHENIUM, RHODIUM, AND PALLADIUM IONS IN THE GAS-PHASE - STRIKING DIFFERENCES IN REACTIVITY OF 1ST-ROW AND 2ND-ROW METAL-IONS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 108 (19) 5675-5683, issn: 0002-7863, ids: E0584, doi: 10.1021/ja00279a003, PubMed ID: 22175311
  • TOLBERT, MA and JL BEAUCHAMP (1986), HOMOLYTIC AND HETEROLYTIC BOND-DISSOCIATION ENERGIES OF THE 2ND-ROW GROUP-8, GROUP-9, AND GROUP-10 DIATOMIC TRANSITION-METAL HYDRIDES - CORRELATION WITH ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 90 (21) 5015-5022, issn: 0022-3654, ids: E3471, doi: 10.1021/j100412a029
  • TOLBERT, MA and JL BEAUCHAMP (1986), MECHANISTIC AND KINETIC-STUDY OF ALKANE ACTIVATION BY TI+ AND V+ IN THE GAS-PHASE - LIFETIMES OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 108 (24) 7509-7517, issn: 0002-7863, ids: F0090, doi: 10.1021/ja00284a012, PubMed ID: 22283250
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  • TOLBERT, MA and JL BEAUCHAMP (1984), ACTIVATION OF CARBON HYDROGEN AND CARBON CARBON BONDS BY TRANSITION-METAL IONS IN THE GAS-PHASE - EXHIBITION OF UNIQUE REACTIVITY BY SCANDIUM IONS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 106 (26) 8117-8122, issn: 0002-7863, ids: TY647, doi: 10.1021/ja00338a019
  • SCOTT, GW, JH CLARK, MA TOLBERT, SP WEBB, AJ COX and G RENZ (1983), SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF THE SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL PROPERTIES OF TUNABLE, SINGLE, PICOSECOND PULSES FROM A SHORT CAVITY DYE-LASER. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. Version: 1 19 (4) 544-550, issn: 0018-9197, ids: QR367, doi: 10.1109/JQE.1983.1071892
  • CHI, IC, LE LAUFE, SD GARDNER and MA TOLBERT (1980), EPIDEMIOLOGIC-STUDY OF RISK-FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY FOLLOWING FEMALE STERILIZATION. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Version: 1 136 (6) 768-773, issn: 0002-9378, ids: JK531