Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Margaret A. Tolbert

Margaret A. Tolbert

Research Interests

I am a professor in Chemistry at the University of Colorado in Boulder. My research group focuses on clouds and aerosols in atmospheric chemistry. Research topics include stratospheric ozone depletion, cirrus cloud chemistry, tropospheric clouds and particles, the interaction between clouds and climate, and the chemistry of planetary atmospheres including Titan and Mars. Our work is laboratory-based; we use simulation chambers to identify key atmospheric aerosol processes important in different environments. Novel laboratory techniques include aerosol optical levitation, aerosol mass spectrometry, and aerosol optical techniques such as photo acoustic and Raman spectroscopies. 

Current Research

Research in the Tolbert Group is focused on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, specifically determining the chemical, physical, and optical properties of atmospheric particulate. One area of recent emphasis has been the determination of aerosol phase state. Aerosol phase is important for heterogeneous chemistry, aerosol climate effects, and visibility reduction due to aerosols. The process of deliquescence refers to a crystalline particle taking up water at a specific relative humidity to become an aqueous droplet and is well understood. The converse process, efflorescence, is a nucleation event whereby an aqueous droplet nucleates to reform the crystalline phase. Despite being studied for decades, the efflorescence of atmospheric aerosols remains uncertain.

We have developed a new optical levitation technique to probe aerosol efflorescence of freely floating uncharged particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). In particular, we examine a novel efflorescence path—contact efflorescence initiated by a collision between two aerosol particles. In the figure below, we illustrate what might happen when an amorphous particle (simulating an organic aerosol in the atmosphere) collides with an aqueous droplet of sodium chloride (salt). The light scattering by the levitated particles is shown in green while the illustrations depict the corresponding physical processes. In panel A, the light scattering by the salt appears as a series of horizontal lines, indicative of Mie scattering from a liquid droplet. The organic particle is approaching from below and a collision has not yet occurred. Panel B shows the results of a collision below 68 percent RH that caused nucleation to form crystalline sodium chloride, where the linear light scattering pattern has been replaced by random scattering due to the crystal facets. For very high values of RH above 69 percent, instead of nucleation, the salt droplet simply captures the organic particle, slightly disrupting the linear light scattering pattern, Panel C. Of note: when the salt droplet has immersed the organic particle, a much lower RH is required for efflorescence.

This study shows that the same particle can cause salt to effloresce at a much higher RH if it is in contact with the foreign nucleus rather than being immersed in the droplet. Thus, there is a fundamental difference between nucleation from the “outside-in” and nucleation from the “inside-out.” These studies have revealed a new aerosol process of possible importance in the atmosphere, so called “contact-efflorescence.” Ongoing studies are probing the atmospheric significance of contact efflorescence in a variety of environments.

 



panel A: light scattering by the salt appears as a series of horizontal lines, indicative of Mie scattering from a liquid droplet. Panel B shows the results of a collision below 68 percent RH that caused nucleation to form crystalline sodium chloride,

Honors and Awards

  • CU Distinguished Professor, 2010 Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology
  • 2009 Hazel Barnes Prize
  • 2007 Guggenheim Fellowship
  • 2005 National Academy of Sciences Member
  • 2004 NASA Group Achievement Award
  • Crystal-Face Science Team
  • 2003 NASA Group Achievement Award SOLVE Experiment
  • 2001 BFA Award for Excellence in Research
  • Scholarly and Creative Work, 2001

View Publications

  • Rivera-Valentin, EG; Gough, RV; Chevrier, VF; Primm, KM; Martinez, GM; Tolbert, M (2018), Constraining the Potential Liquid Water Environment at Gale Crater, Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 123 (5) 1156-1167, issn: 2169-9097, ids: GJ0VM, doi: 10.1002/2018JE005558
  • Horst, SM; He, C; Ugelow, MS; Jellinek, AM; Pierrehumbert, RT; Tolbert, MA (2018), Exploring the Atmosphere of Neoproterozoic Earth: The Effect of O-2 on Haze Formation and Composition. Astrophys. J. Version: 1 858 (2) , Art. No. 119, issn: 0004-637X, ids: GH0BA, doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabd7d
  • Horst, SM; Yoon, YH; Ugelow, MS; Parker, AH; Li, R; de Gouw, JA; Tolbert, MA (2018), Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition. Icarus Version: 1 301 136-151, issn: 0019-1035, ids: FP8IZ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.039
  • Ushijima, SB; Davis, RD; Tolbert, MA (2018), Immersion and Contact Efflorescence Induced by Mineral Dust Particles. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 122 (5) 1303-1311, issn: 1089-5639, ids: FW0AZ, doi: 10.1021/acsjpca.7b12075, PubMed ID: 29332388
  • Gough, RV, J Wong, JL Dickson, JS Levy, JW Head, DR Marchant and MA Tolbert (2017), Brine formation via deliquescence by salts found near Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Laboratory experiments and field observational results. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 476 189-198, issn: 0012-821X, ids: FI8NN, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.08.003
  • Nuding, DL; Gough, RV; Venkateswaran, KJ; Spry, JA; Tolbert, MA (2017), Laboratory Investigations on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Deliquescent Salt Mars Analog Environments. Astrobiology Version: 1 17 (10) 997-1008, issn: 1531-1074, ids: FK1YD, doi: 10.1089/ast.2016.1545, PubMed ID: 29048223
  • Primm, KM; Gough, RV; Chevrier, VF; Tolbert, MA (2017), Freezing of perchlorate and chloride brines under Mars-relevant conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Version: 1 212 211-220, issn: 0016-7037, ids: FA9SZ, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.06.012
  • Primm, KM; Schill, GP; Veghte, DP; Freedman, MA; Tolbert, MA (2017), Depositional ice nucleation on NX illite and mixtures of NX illite with organic acids. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 74 (1) 55-69, issn: 0167-7764, ids: EP6EY, doi: 10.1007/s10874-016-9340-x
  • Ugelow, MS; Zarzana, KJ; Day, DA; Jimenez, JL; Tolbert, MA (2017), The optical and chemical properties of discharge generated organic haze using in-situ real-time techniques. Icarus Version: 1 294 1-13, issn: 0019-1035, ids: EY1OH, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.04.028
  • Davis, RD; Tolbert, MA (2017), Crystal nucleation initiated by transient ion-surface interactions at aerosol interfaces. Sci. Adv. Version: 1 3 (7) , Art. No. e1700425, issn: 2375-2548, ids: FI0CH, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1700425
  • Hasenkopf, CA; Veghte, DP; Schill, GP; Lodoysamba, S; Freedman, MA; Tolbert, MA (2016), Ice nucleation, shape, and composition of aerosol particles in one of the most polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 139 222-229, issn: 1352-2310, ids: DQ3HR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.037
  • Hicks, RK; Day, DA; Jimenez, JL; Tolbert, MA (2016), Follow the Carbon: Isotopic Labeling Studies of Early Earth Aerosol. Astrobiology Version: 1 16 (11) 822-830, issn: 1531-1074, ids: EC6ZB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2015.1436, PubMed ID: 27870584
  • Gough, RV; Chevrier, VF; Tolbert, MA (2016), Formation of liquid water at low temperatures via the deliquescence of calcium chloride: Implications for Antarctica and Mars. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 131 79-87, issn: 0032-0633, ids: DY1LT, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2016.07.006
  • Hiranuma, N; Augustin-Bauditz, S; Bingemer, H; Budke, C; Curtius, J; Danielczok, A; Diehl, K; Dreischmeier, K; Ebert, M; Frank, F; Hoffmann, N; Kandler, K; Kiselev, A; Koop, T; Leisner, T; Mohler, O; Nillius, B; Peckhaus, A; Rose, D; Weinbruch, S; Wex, H; Boose, Y; DeMott, PJ; Hader, JD; Hill, TCJ; Kanji, ZA; Kulkarni, G; Levin, EJT; McCluskey, CS; Murakami, M; Murray, BJ; Niedermeier, D; Petters, MD; OSullivan, D; Saito, A; Schill, GP; Tajiri, T; Tolbert, MA; Welti, A; Whale, TF; Wright, TP; Yamashita, K (2015), A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (5) 2489-2518, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CC7PE, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015
  • Davis, RD; Lance, S; Gordon, JA; Tolbert, MA (2015), Long Working-Distance Optical Trap for in Situ Analysis of Contact-Induced Phase Transformations. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (12) 6186-6194, issn: 0003-2700, ids: CL2DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00809, PubMed ID: 25961113
  • Davis, RD; Lance, S; Gordon, JA; Ushijima, SB; Tolbert, MA (2015), Contact efflorescence as a pathway for crystallization of atmospherically relevant particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 112 (52) 15815-15820, issn: 0027-8424, ids: CZ6TU, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1522860113, PubMed ID: 26668396
  • Hicks, RK; Day, DA; Jimenez, JL; Tolbert, MA (2015), Elemental Analysis of Complex Organic Aerosol Using Isotopic Labeling and Unit-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 87 (5) 2741-2747, issn: 0003-2700, ids: CC8IM, doi: 10.1021/ac504014g, PubMed ID: 25645140
  • Nuding, DL; Davis, RD; Gough, RV; Tolbert, MA (2015), The aqueous stability of a Mars salt analog: Instant Mars. J. Geophys. Res.-Planets Version: 1 120 (3) 588-598, issn: 2169-9097, ids: CF9AY, doi: 10.1002/2014JE004722
  • Schill, G. P., Genareau, K., Tolbert, M. A. (2015), Deposition and immersion mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman spectroscopy. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. Version: 1 15 (2) , issn: 16807375, doi: 10.5194/ACPD-15-1385-2015
  • Schill, GP; Genareau, K; Tolbert, MA (2015), Deposition and immersion-mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 15 (13) 7523-7536, issn: 1680-7316, ids: CM8UT, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-7523-2015
  • Thalman, R; Zarzana, KJ; Tolbert, MA; Volkamer, R (2014), Rayleigh scattering cross-section measurements of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and air. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. Version: 1 147 171-177, issn: 0022-4073, ids: AN6GY, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.05.030
  • Sihvonen, SK; Schill, GP; Lyktey, NA; Veghte, DP; Tolbert, MA; Freedman, MA (2014), Chemical and Physical Transformations of Aluminosilicate Clay Minerals Due to Acid Treatment and Consequences for Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 118 (38) 8787-8796, issn: 1089-5639, ids: AP9JM, doi: 10.1021/jp504846g, PubMed ID: 25211030
  • Nuding, DL; Rivera-Valentin, EG; Davis, RD; Gough, RV; Chevrier, VF; Tolbert, MA (2014), Deliquescence and efflorescence of calcium perchlorate: An investigation of stable aqueous solutions relevant to Mars. Icarus Version: 1 243 420-428, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AT0OO, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.036
  • Robinson, CB; Schill, GP; Tolbert, MA (2014), Optical growth of highly viscous organic/sulfate particles. J. Atmos. Chem. Version: 1 71 (2) 145-156, issn: 0167-7764, ids: AO6ZM, doi: 10.1007/s10874-014-9287-8
  • Cable, ML; Horst, SM; He, C; Stockton, AM; Mora, MF; Tolbert, MA; Smith, MA; Willis, PA (2014), Identification of primary amines in Titan tholins using microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 403 99-107, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AP7GZ, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.028
  • Zarzana, KJ; Cappa, CD; Tolbert, MA (2014), Sensitivity of Aerosol Refractive Index Retrievals Using Optical Spectroscopy. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (11) 1133-1144, issn: 0278-6826, ids: AR7OL, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2014.963498
  • Schill, GP; Tolbert, MA (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Sea-Spray Aerosol Using Raman Microscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 118 (50) 29234-29241, issn: 1932-7447, ids: AX2FP, doi: 10.1021/jp505379j
  • Yoon, YH; Horst, SM; Hicks, RK; Li, R; de Gouw, JA; Tolbert, MA (2014), The role of benzene photolysis in Titan haze formation. Icarus Version: 1 233 233-241, issn: 0019-1035, ids: AE1KX, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.02.006
  • Schill, GP; De Haan, DO; Tolbert, MA (2014), Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Secondary Organic Aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (3) 1675-1682, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AA3TL, doi: 10.1021/es4046428, PubMed ID: 24410444
  • Hawkins, LN; Baril, MJ; Sedehi, N; Galloway, MM; De Haan, DO; Schill, GP; Tolbert, MA (2014), Formation of Semisolid, Oligomerized Aqueous SOA: Lab Simulations of Cloud Processing. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 48 (4) 2273-2280, issn: 0013-936X, ids: AB4QD, doi: 10.1021/es4049626, PubMed ID: 24428707
  • Horst, SM; Tolbert, MA (2014), THE EFFECT OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON PLANETARY HAZE FORMATION. Astrophys. J. Version: 1 781 (1) , Art. No. 53, issn: 0004-637X, ids: 286AE, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/53
  • Gough, RV; Chevrier, VF; Tolbert, MA (2014), Formation of aqueous solutions on Mars via deliquescence of chloride-perchlorate binary mixtures. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 393 73-82, issn: 0012-821X, ids: AG0KG, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.002
  • Schill, GP; Tolbert, MA (2013), Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (9) 4681-4695, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 144LR, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-4681-2013
  • Baustian, KJ; Wise, ME; Jensen, EJ; Schill, GP; Freedman, MA; Tolbert, MA (2013), State transformations and ice nucleation in amorphous (semi-)solid organic aerosol. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (11) 5615-5628, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 164AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-5615-2013
  • Horst, SM; Tolbert, MA (2013), IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 770 (1) , Art. No. L10, issn: 2041-8205, ids: 155CR, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/770/1/L10
  • Robinson, CB; Schill, GP; Zarzana, KJ; Tolbert, MA (2013), Impact of Organic Coating on Optical Growth of Ammonium Sulfate Particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (23) 13339-13346, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 266CH, doi: 10.1021/es4023128, PubMed ID: 24144443
  • Trainer, MG; Sebree, JA; Yoon, YH; Tolbert, MA (2013), THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS. Astrophys. J. Lett. Version: 1 766 (1) , Art. No. L4, issn: 2041-8205, ids: 103WH, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/766/1/L4
  • Connelly, BM; De Haan, DO; Tolbert, MA (2012), Heterogeneous Glyoxal Oxidation: A Potential Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 6180-6187, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp211502e, PubMed ID: 22510110
  • Schill, GP; Tolbert, MA (2012), Depositional Ice Nucleation on Monocarboxylic Acids: Effect of the O:C Ratio. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (25) 6817-6822, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 965LR, doi: 10.1021/jp301772q, PubMed ID: 22646721
  • Wise, ME; Baustian, KJ; Koop, T; Freedman, MA; Jensen, EJ; Tolbert, MA (2012), Depositional ice nucleation onto crystalline hydrated NaCl particles: a new mechanism for ice formation in the troposphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 12 (2) 1121-1134, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 892YL, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-1121-2012
  • Trainer, MG; Jimenez, JL; Yung, YL; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2012), Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N-2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation. Astrobiology Version: 1 12 (4) 315-326, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 929LK, doi: 10.1089/ast.2011.0754, PubMed ID: 22519972
  • Baustian, KJ; Cziczo, DJ; Wise, ME; Pratt, KA; Kulkarni, G; Hallar, AG; Tolbert, MA (2012), Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. D06217, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 918GK, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016784
  • Zarzana, KJ; De Haan, DO; Freedman, MA; Hasenkopf, CA; Tolbert, MA (2012), Optical Properties of the Products of alpha-Dicarbonyl and Amine Reactions in Simulated Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 46 (9) 4845-4851, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 933GO, doi: 10.1021/es2040152, PubMed ID: 22515474
  • Gough, RV; Chevrier, VF; Baustian, KJ; Wise, ME; Tolbert, MA (2011), Laboratory studies of perchlorate phase transitions: Support for metastable aqueous perchlorate solutions on Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 312 (4-Mar) 371-377, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 880ID, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.10.026
  • Hasenkopf, CA; Freedman, MA; Beaver, MR; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2011), Potential Climatic Impact of Organic Haze on Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 11 (2) 135-149, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 739DJ, doi: 10.1089/ast.2010.0541, PubMed ID: 21417943
  • Gough, RV; Turley, JJ; Ferrell, GR; Cordova, KE; Wood, SE; DeHaan, DO; Mckay, CP; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2011), Can rapid loss and high variability of Martian methane be explained by surface H2O2?. Planet Space Sci. Version: 1 59 (3-Feb) 238-246, issn: 0032-0633, ids: 724AP, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.09.018
  • De Haan, DO; Hawkins, LN; Kononenko, JA; Turley, JJ; Corrigan, AL; Tolbert, MA; Jimenez, JL (2011), Formation of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers by Methylglyoxal and Amines in Simulated Evaporating Cloud Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 45 (3) 984-991, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 711HG, doi: 10.1021/es102933x, PubMed ID: 21171623
  • Connelly, BM; Tolbert, MA (2010), Reaction of Isoprene on Thin Sulfuric Acid Films: Kinetics, Uptake, and Product Analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (12) 4603-4608, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 608WP, doi: 10.1021/es100708b, PubMed ID: 20499904
  • Baustian, KJ; Wise, ME; Tolbert, MA (2010), Depositional ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 10 (5) 2307-2317, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 568ER, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-2307-2010
  • Gough, RV; Tolbert, MA; McKay, CP; Toon, OB (2010), Methane adsorption on a martian soil analog: An abiogenic explanation for methane variability in the martian atmosphere. Icarus Version: 1 207 (1) 165-174, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 584KJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.030
  • Hasenkopf, CA; Beaver, MR; Trainer, MG; Dewitt, HL; Freedman, MA; Toon, OB; McKay, CP; Tolbert, MA (2010), Optical properties of Titan and early Earth haze laboratory analogs in the mid-visible. Icarus Version: 1 207 (2) 903-913, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 597VS, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.015
  • Freedman, MA; Baustian, KJ; Wise, ME; Tolbert, MA (2010), Characterizing the Morphology of Organic Aerosols at Ambient Temperature and Pressure. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 82 (19) 7965-7972, issn: 0003-2700, ids: 655NT, doi: 10.1021/ac101437w, PubMed ID: 20726528
  • Wise, ME; Baustian, KJ; Tolbert, MA (2010), Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6693-6698, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0913018107, PubMed ID: 20388912
  • DeWitt, HL; Hasenkopf, CA; Trainer, MG; Farmer, DK; Jimenez, JL; McKay, CP; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2010), The Formation of Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Aerosols under Varying Laboratory Conditions: Implications for Early Earth. Astrobiology Version: 1 10 (8) 773-781, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 682JL, doi: 10.1089/ast.2009.9455, PubMed ID: 21087157
  • Trainer, MG; Tolbert, MA; McKay, CP; Toon, OB (2010), Limits on the trapping of atmospheric CH4 in martian polar ice analogs. Icarus Version: 1 208 (1) 192-197, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 611RJ, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.02.006
  • Beaver, MR; Freedman, MA; Hasenkopf, CA; Tolbert, MA (2010), Cooling Enhancement of Aerosol Particles Due to Surfactant Precipitation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 114 (26) 7070-7076, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 617LO, doi: 10.1021/jp102437q, PubMed ID: 20536216
  • Wise, ME; Baustian, KJ; Tolbert, MA (2009), Laboratory studies of ice formation pathways from ammonium sulfate particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (5) 1639-1646, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 418FA, doi: 10.5194/acp-9-1639-2009
  • Trainer, MG; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2009), Measurements of Depositional Ice Nucleation on Insoluble Substrates at Low Temperatures: Implications for Earth and Mars. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 113 (6) 2036-2040, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 404EW, doi: 10.1021/jp805140p
  • De Haan, DO; Tolbert, MA; Jimenez, JL (2009), Atmospheric condensed-phase reactions of glyoxal with methylamine. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L11819, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 458FN, doi: 10.1029/2009GL037441
  • DeWitt, HL; Trainer, MG; Pavlov, AA; Hasenkopf, CA; Aiken, AC; Jimenez, JL; McKay, CP; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2009), Reduction in Haze Formation Rate on Prebiotic Earth in the Presence of Hydrogen. Astrobiology Version: 1 9 (5) 447-453, issn: 1531-1074, ids: 464TB, doi: 10.1089/ast.2008.0289, PubMed ID: 19566425
  • Freedman, MA; Hasenkopf, CA; Beaver, MR; Tolbert, MA (2009), Optical Properties of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Composed of Dicarboxylic Acids and Ammonium Sulfate. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (48) 13584-13592, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 522ZE, doi: 10.1021/jp906240y, PubMed ID: 19877658
  • De Haan, DO; Corrigan, AL; Tolbert, MA; Jimenez, JL; Wood, SE; Turley, JJ (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Self-Reactions of Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal in Evaporating Droplets. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (21) 8184-8190, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 510QT, doi: 10.1021/es902152t, PubMed ID: 19924942
  • De Haan, DO; Corrigan, AL; Smith, KW; Stroik, DR; Turley, JJ; Lee, FE; Tolbert, MA; Jimenez, JL; Cordova, KE; Ferrell, GR (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol-Forming Reactions of Glyoxal with Amino Acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (8) 2818-2824, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 432ZK, doi: 10.1021/es803534f, PubMed ID: 19475956
  • Beaver, MR; Garland, RM; Hasenkopf, CA; Baynard, T; Ravishankara, AR; Tolbert, MA (2008), A laboratory investigation of the relative humidity dependence of light extinction by organic compounds from lignin combustion. Environ. Res. Lett. Version: 1 3 (4) , Art. No. 45003, issn: 1748-9326, ids: 442YW, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045003
  • Curtis, DB; Hatch, CD; Hasenkopf, CA; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA; McKay, CP; Khare, BN (2008), Laboratory studies of methane and ethane adsorption and nucleation onto organic particles: Application to Titans clouds. Icarus Version: 1 195 (2) 792-801, issn: 0019-1035, ids: 304SD, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.02.003
  • Hatch, CD; Gough, RV; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA (2008), Heterogeneous nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate on clay minerals: Relevance to Type Ia polar stratospheric clouds. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 112 (2) 612-620, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 250GE, doi: 10.1021/jp075828n, PubMed ID: 18052146
  • Casale, MT; Richman, AR; Elrod, MJ; Garland, RM; Beaver, MR; Tolbert, MA (2007), Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 41 (29) 6212-6224, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 214QE, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.04.002
  • Garland, RM; Ravishankara, AR; Lovejoy, ER; Tolbert, MA; Baynard, T (2007), Parameterization for the relative humidity dependence of light extinction: Organic-ammonium sulfate aerosol. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D19) , Art. No. D19303, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 218WF, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008179
  • Gamblin, B; Toon, OB; Tolbert, MA; Kondo, Y; Takegawa, N; Irie, H; Koike, M; Hudson, PK; Ballenthin, JO; Hunton, DE; Miller, TM; Viggiano, AA; Anderson, BE; Avery, M; Sachse, GW; Guenther, K; Sorenson, C; Mahoney, MJ (2007), Nitric acid condensation on ice: 2. Kinetic limitations, a possible "cloud clock\ for determining cloud parcel lifetime. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D12) , Art. No. D12209, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 185AG, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006049
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