Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Christopher W. Fairall

Christopher W. Fairall

Research Interests

I am a physicist at NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, where I heads the Boundary-Layer Observations and Processes team. I have spent decades developing and deploying air-sea interaction observing systems for NOAA ships and aircraft and have participated in nearly 50 research field programs and cruises from the Tropics to the Arctic icecap. My work is devoted to making direct measurements for verifying and improving the representation of air-sea interaction processes (surface evaporation, absorption of heat, generation of waves, uptake of carbon dioxide) in climate models used for climate change projections.

Current Research

Recently Dr. Fairall has been working on analyzing observations from the High Wind Gas exchange Study (HiWinGS) conducted from the Research Vessel Knorr south of Greenland in fall 2013 (Fig. 1). The project was a cooperation of CIRES, NOAA/ESRL, LDEO Columbia University, the University of Connecticut, and the University of Leeds (UK). Observations included air-sea fluxes of several trace gases including CO2 and DMS, whitecap coverage, surface wave spectra, and oceanic bubbles. During the three-month field program, we obtained the first measurements of these parameters with wind speeds exceeding 20 m/s. The data definitively show that parameterizations of whitecap fraction currently used in gas-transfer models are wrong at high wind speeds. We are now using a unique ocean wave model to relate wind and wave characteristics to whitecaps (Fig. 2) and gas transfer. The results are intended to improve NOAA’s COARE Gas flux parameterization.



Figure 1. Photograph taken from the bridge of R/V Knorr during the St. Jude’s Day storm in November 2013. The ship was about 200 km south of the southern tip of Greenland. The flux instruments are visible as a cluster on the top of the foremast. Wind speed in the storm topped 25 m/s.

Figure 2. Representation of the dependence of wavebreaking whitecap coverage of the ocean as a function of wind speed (U10) and phase speed (Cp) of the peak of the wave spectrum. The continuous lines are from the University of New South Wales wave model; the symbols are observations from HiWinGS. The legend gives the value of U10 for each model set.

Honors and Awards

  • Member of the NOAA CPPA Science Steering Committee
  • Fellow of the American Meteorological Society
  • AMS Sverdrup Gold Medal winner

View Publications

  • Fairall, CW, SY Matrosov, CR Williams and EJ Walsh (2018), Estimation of Rain Rate from Airborne Doppler W-Band Radar in CalWater-2. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. Version: 1 35 (3) 593-608, issn: 0739-0572, ids: GB5MB, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0025.1
  • Grachev, AA, LS Leo, HJS Fernando, CW Fairall, E Creegan, BW Blomquist, AJ Christman and CM Hocut (2018), Air-Sea/Land Interaction in the Coastal Zone. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 167 (2) 181-210, issn: 0006-8314, ids: GB1HM, doi: 10.1007/s10546-017-0326-2
  • Xu, W, A Lambe, P Silva, WW Hu, T Onasch, L Williams, P Croteau, X Zhang, L Renbaum-Wolff, E Fortner, JL Jimenez, J Jayne, D Worsnop and M Canagaratna (2018), Laboratory evaluation of species-dependent relative ionization efficiencies in the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 52 (6) 626-641, issn: 0278-6826, ids: GG3YH, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2018.1439570
  • Dole, RM, JR Spackman, M Newman, GP Compo, CA Smith, LM Hartten, JJ Barsugli, RS Webb, MP Hoerling, R Cifelli, K Wolter, CD Barnet, M Gehne, R Gelaro, GN Kiladis, S Abbott, E Akish, J Albers, JM Brown, CJ Cox, L Darby, G de Boer, B DeLuisi, J Dias, J Dunion, J Eischeid, C Fairall, A Gambacorta, BK Gorton, A Hoell, J Intrieri, D Jackson, PE Johnston, R Lataitis, KM Mahoney, K McCaffrey, HA McColl, MJ Mueller, D Murrrray, PJ Neiman, W Otto, O Perssrssrsson, XW Quan, I Rangwala, AJ Ray, D Reynolds, ER Dellaripa, K Rosenlof, N Sakaeda, PD Sardeshmukh, LC Slivinski, L Smith, A Solomon, D Swales, S Tulich, A White, G Wick, MG Winterkorn, DE Wolfe and R Zamora (2018), ADVANCING SCIENCE AND SERVICES DURING THE 2015/16 EL NINO The NOAA El Nino Rapid Response Field Campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 99 (5) 975-1002, issn: 0003-0007, ids: GH8CF, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0219.1
  • Ralph, FM, SF Iacobellis, PJ Neiman, JM Cordeira, JR Spackman, DE Waliser, GA Wick, AB White and C Fairall (2017), Dropsonde Observations of Total Integrated Water Vapor Transport within North Pacific Atmospheric Rivers. J. Hydrometeorol. Version: 1 18 (9) 2577-2596, issn: 1525-755X, ids: FP1DS, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0036.1
  • Neiman, PJ, N Gaggini, CW Fairall, J Aikins, JR Spackman, LR Leung, JW Fan, J Hardin, NR Nalli and AB White (2017), An Analysis of Coordinated Observations from NOAAs Ronald H-Brown Ship and G-IV Aircraft in a Landfalling Atmospheric River over the North Pacific during CalWater-2015. Mon. Weather Rev. Version: 1 145 (9) 3647-3669, issn: 0027-0644, ids: FG0IL, doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0055.1
  • Collins, CO, B Blomquist, O Persson, B Lund, WE Rogers, J Thomson, D Wang, M Smith, M Doble, P Wadhams, A Kohout, C Fairall and HC Graber (2017), Doppler Correction of Wave Frequency Spectra Measured by Underway Vessels. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. Version: 1 34 (2) 429-436, issn: 0739-0572, ids: EL3GM, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0138.1
  • Brumer, SE, CJ Zappa, BW Blomquist, CW Fairall, A Cifuentes-Lorenzen, JB Edson, IM Brooks and BJ Huebert (2017), Wave-Related Reynolds Number Parameterizations of CO2 and DMS Transfer Velocities. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 44 (19) 9865-9875, issn: 0094-8276, ids: FL0SO, doi: 10.1002/2017GL074979
  • Brumer, SE, CJ Zappa, IM Brooks, H Tamura, SM Brown, BW Blomquist, CW Fairall and A Cifuentes-Lorenzen (2017), Whitecap Coverage Dependence on Wind and Wave Statistics as Observed during SO GasEx and HiWinGS. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 47 (9) 2211-2235, issn: 0022-3670, ids: FI6OO, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0005.1
  • Blomquist, BW, SE Brumer, CW Fairall, BJ Huebert, CJ Zappa, IM Brooks, M Yang, L Bariteau, J Prytherch, JE Hare, H Czerski, A Matei and RW Pascal (2017), Wind Speed and Sea State Dependencies of Air-Sea Gas Transfer: Results From the High Wind Speed Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 122 (10) 8034-8062, issn: 2169-9275, ids: FN3JA, doi: 10.1002/2017JC013181
  • Jung, T, ND Gordon, P Bauer, DH Bromwich, M Chevallier, JJ Day, J Dawson, F Doblas-Reyes, C Fairall, HF Goessling, M Holland, J Inoue, T Iversen, S Klebe, P Lemke, M Losch, A Makshtas, B Mills, P Nurmi, D Perovich, P Reid, IA Renfrew, G Smith, G Svensson, M Tolstykh and QH Yang (2016), ADVANCING POLAR PREDICTION CAPABILITIES ON DAILY TO SEASONAL TIME SCALES. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 97 (9) 1631-+, issn: 0003-0007, ids: DZ5PG, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00246.1
  • Ralph, FM, KA Prather, D Cayan, JR Spackman, P DeMott, M Dettinger, C Fairall, R Leung, D Rosenfeld, S Rutledge, D Waliser, AB White, J Cordeira, A Martin, J Helly and J Intrieri (2016), CALWATER FIELD STUDIES DESIGNED TO QUANTIFY THE ROLES OF ATMOSPHERIC RIVERS AND AEROSOLS IN MODULATING US WEST COAST PRECIPITATION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 97 (7) 1209-1228, issn: 0003-0007, ids: DT7GF, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00043.1
  • Thomson, J, YL Fan, S Stammerjohn, J Stopa, WE Rogers, F Girard-Ardhuin, F Ardhuin, H Shen, W Perrie, H Shen, S Ackley, A Babanin, QX Liu, P Guest, T Maksym, P Wadhams, C Fairall, O Persson, M Doble, H Graber, B Lund, V Squire, J Gemmrich, S Lehner, B Holt, M Meylan, J Brozena and JR Bidlot (2016), Emerging trends in the sea state of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Ocean Model. Version: 1 105 1-12, issn: 1463-5003, ids: EA6XG, doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.02.009
  • Grachev, AA, LS Leo, S Di Sabatino, HJS Fernando, ER Pardyjak and CW Fairall (2016), Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 159 (3) 469-494, issn: 0006-8314, ids: DM5TG, doi: 10.1007/s10546-015-0034-8
  • Chen, S, M Flatau, TG Jensen, T Shinoda, J Schmidt, P May, J Cummings, M Liu, PE Ciesielski, CW Fairall, RC Lien, DB Baranowski, NH Chi, S de Szoeke and J Edson (2015), A Study of CINDY/DYNAMO MJO Suppressed Phase. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 72 (10) 3755-3779, issn: 0022-4928, ids: CT2MY, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0348.1
  • De Szoeke, SP, JB Edson, JR Marion, CW Fairall and L Bariteau (2015), The MJO and Air-Sea Interaction in TOGA COARE and DYNAMO. J. Clim. Version: 1 28 (2) 597-622, issn: 0894-8755, ids: AZ4WB, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00477.1
  • Ghate, VP, MA Miller, BA Albrecht and CW Fairall (2015), Thermodynamic and Radiative Structure of Stratocumulus-Topped Boundary Layers. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 72 (1) 430-451, issn: 0022-4928, ids: AY1WA, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0313.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2015), Similarity theory based on the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 141 (690) 1845-1856, issn: 0035-9009, ids: CP9HE, doi: 10.1002/qj.2488
  • Moum, JN, SP de Szoeke, WD Smyth, JB Edson, HL DeWitt, AJ Moulin, EJ Thompson, CJ Zappa, SA Rutledge, RH Johnson and CW Fairall (2014), AIR-SEA INTERACTIONS FROM WESTERLY WIND BURSTS DURING THE NOVEMBER 2011 MJO IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 95 (8) 1185-1199, issn: 0003-0007, ids: AQ1PD, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00225.1
  • Boylan, P, D Helmig, R Staebler, A Turnipseed, C Fairall and W Neff (2014), Boundary layer dynamics during the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Snow (OASIS) 2009 experiment at Barrow, AK. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 119 (5) 2261-2278, issn: 2169-897X, ids: AE3OL, doi: 10.1002/2013JD020299
  • Coburn, S, I Ortega, R Thalman, B Blomquist, CW Fairall and R Volkamer (2014), Measurements of diurnal variations and eddy covariance (EC) fluxes of glyoxal in the tropical marine boundary layer: description of the Fast LED-CE-DOAS instrument. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 7 (10) 3579-3595, issn: 1867-1381, ids: AT2AE, doi: 10.5194/amt-7-3579-2014
  • Blomquist, BW, BJ Huebert, CW Fairall, L Bariteau, JB Edson, JE Hare and WR McGillis (2014), Advances in Air-Sea Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 152 (3) 245-276, issn: 0006-8314, ids: AN2JI, doi: 10.1007/s10546-014-9926-2
  • Mechoso, CR, R Wood, R Weller, CS Bretherton, AD Clarke, H Coe, C Fairall, JT Farrar, G Feingold, R Garreaud, C Grados, J McWilliams, SP de Szoeke, SE Yuter and P Zuidema (2014), OCEAN-CLOUD-ATMOSPHERELAND INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PACIFIC. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 95 (3) 357-375, issn: 0003-0007, ids: AG1TE, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00246.1
  • Ghate, VP, BA Albrecht, MA Miller, A Brewer and CW Fairall (2014), Turbulence and Radiation in Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layers: A Case Study from VOCALS-REx. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. Version: 1 53 (1) 117-135, issn: 1558-8424, ids: AA0FD, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0225.1
  • Fairall, CW, S Pezoa, K Moran and D Wolfe (2014), An observation of sea-spray microphysics by airborne Doppler radar. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 41 (10) 3658-3665, issn: 0094-8276, ids: AJ4AC, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060062
  • Edson, JB, V Jampana, RA Weller, SP Bigorre, AJ Plueddemann, CW Fairall, SD Miller, L Mahrt, D Vickers and H Hersbach (2013), On the Exchange of Momentum over the Open Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 43 (8) 1589-1610, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 201JB, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0173.1
  • Vecherin, SN, VE Ostashev, CW Fairall, DK Wilson and L Bariteau (2013), Sonic Anemometer as a Small Acoustic Tomography Array. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 149 (2) 165-178, issn: 0006-8314, ids: 228XG, doi: 10.1007/s10546-013-9843-9
  • Yang, M, PD Nightingale, R Beale, PS Liss, B Blomquist and C Fairall (2013), Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (50) 20034-20039, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 266YY, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317840110, PubMed ID: 24277830
  • Bourassa, MA, ST Gille, C Bitz, D Carlson, I Cerovecki, CA Clayson, MF Cronin, WM Drennan, CW Fairall, RN Hoffman, G Magnusdottir, RT Pinker, IA Renfrew, M Serreze, K Speer, LD Talley and GA Wick (2013), HIGH-LATITUDE OCEAN AND SEA ICE SURFACE FLUXES: CHALLENGES FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 94 (3) 403-423, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 122OO, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00244.1
  • Rodriguez-Alvarez, N, DM Akos, VU Zavorotny, JA Smith, A Camps and CW Fairall (2013), Airborne GNSS-R Wind Retrievals Using Delay-Doppler Maps. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing Version: 1 51 (1) 626-641, issn: 0196-2892, ids: 077IO, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2196437
  • Meskhidze, N, MD Petters, K Tsigaridis, T Bates, C ODowd, J Reid, ER Lewis, B Gantt, MD Anguelova, PV Bhave, J Bird, AH Callaghan, D Ceburnis, R Chang, A Clarke, G de Leeuw, G Deane, PJ DeMott, S Elliot, MC Facchini, CW Fairall, L Hawkins, YX Hu, JG Hudson, MS Johnson, KC Kaku, WC Keene, DJ Kieber, MS Long, M Martensson, RL Modini, CL Osburn, KA Prather, A Pszenny, M Rinaldi, LM Russell, M Salter, AM Sayer, A Smirnov, SR Suda, TD Toth, DR Worsnop, A Wozniak and SR Zorn (2013), Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of sea spray aerosols. Atmos. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 14 (4) 207-213, issn: 1530-261X, ids: 239NV, doi: 10.1002/asl2.441
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2013), The Critical Richardson Number and Limits of Applicability of Local Similarity Theory in the Stable Boundary Layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 147 (1) 51-82, issn: 0006-8314, ids: 098RX, doi: 10.1007/s10546-012-9771-0
  • Ghate, VP, BA Albrecht, CW Fairall and RA Weller (2009), Climatology of Surface Meteorology, Surface Fluxes, Cloud Fraction, and Radiative Forcing over the Southeast Pacific from Buoy Observations. J. Clim. Version: 1 22 (20) 5527-5540, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 510HY, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2961.1
  • de Szoeke, SP, CW Fairall and S Pezoa (2009), Ship Observations of the Tropical Pacific Ocean along the Coast of South America. J. Clim. Version: 1 22 (2) 458-464, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 413IN, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2555.1
  • Ganzeveld, L, D Helmig, CW Fairall, J Hare and A Pozzer (2009), Atmosphere-ocean ozone exchange: A global modeling study of biogeochemical, atmospheric, and waterside turbulence dependencies. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle Version: 1 23 , Art. No. GB4021, issn: 0886-6236, ids: 516YQ, doi: 10.1029/2008GB003301
  • Fairall, CW, ML Banner, WL Peirson, W Asher and RP Morison (2009), Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 114 , Art. No. C10001, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 502MK, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004918
  • Zuidema, P, D Painemal, S de Szoeke and C Fairall (2009), Stratocumulus Cloud-Top Height Estimates and Their Climatic Implications. J. Clim. Version: 1 22 (17) 4652-4666, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 488UL, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2708.1
  • Fairall, CW, T Uttal, D Hazen, J Hare, MF Cronin, N Bond and DE Veron (2008), Observations of cloud, radiation, and surface forcing in the equatorial eastern Pacific. J. Clim. Version: 1 21 (4) 655-673, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 263VQ, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1757.1
  • Serpetzoglou, E, BA Albrecht, P Kollias and CW Fairall (2008), Boundary Layer, Cloud, and Drizzle Variability in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus Regime. J. Clim. Version: 1 21 (23) 6191-6214, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 384OM, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2186.1
  • Weller, RA, EF Bradley, JB Edson, CW Fairall, I Brooks, MJ Yelland and RW Pascal (2008), Sensors for physical fluxes at the sea surface: energy, heat, water, salt. Ocean Sci. Version: 1 4 (4) 247-263, issn: 1812-0784, ids: 407RD, doi: 10.5194/os-4-247-2008
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2008), Turbulent measurements in the stable atmospheric boundary layer during SHEBA: ten years after. Acta Geophys. Version: 1 56 (1) 142-166, issn: 1895-7455, ids: 247TZ, doi: 10.2478/s11600-007-0048-9
  • Wood, R, KK Comstock, CS Bretherton, C Cornish, J Tomlinson, DR Collins and C Fairall (2008), Open cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 113 (D12) , Art. No. D12207, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 321MQ, doi: 10.1029/2007JD009371
  • Kara, AB, AJ Wallcraft, EJ Metzger, HE Hurlburt and CW Fairall (2007), Wind stress drag coefficient over the global ocean. J. Clim. Version: 1 20 (23) 5856-5864, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 239RG, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1825.1
  • Fairall, CW, D Helmig, L Ganzeveld and J Hare (2007), Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 7 443-451, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 129RT, doi: 10.5194/acp-7-443-2007
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2007), SHEBA flux-profile relationships in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 124 (3) 315-333, issn: 0006-8314, ids: 195MX, doi: 10.1007/s10546-007-9177-6
  • Rauber, RM, B Stevens, HT Ochs, C Knight, BA Albrecht, AM Blyth, CW Fairall, JB Jensen, SG Lasher-Trapp, OL Mayol-Bracero, G Vali, JR Anderson, BA Baker, AR Bandy, E Burnet, JL Brenguier, WA Brewer, PRA Brown, P Chuang, WR Cotton, LD Girolamo, B Geerts, H Gerber, S Goke, L Gomes, BG Heikes, JG Hudson, P Kollias, RP Lawson, SK Krueger, DH Lenschow, L Nuijens, DW OSullivan, RA Rilling, DC Rogers, AP Siebesma, E Snodgrass, JL Stith, DC Thornton, S Tucker, CH Twohy and P Zuidema (2007), Rain in shallow cumulus over the ocean - The RICO campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 88 (12) 1912-1928, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 250XH, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-12-1912
  • Wolfe, DE, WA Brewer, SC Tucker, AB White, DE White, DC Welsh, D Ruffieux, CW Fairall, M Ratterree, JM Intrieri, BJ McCarty and DC Law (2007), Shipboard multisensor merged wind profiles from the New England Air Quality Study 2004. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D10) , Art. No. D10S15, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 155ME, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007344
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson (2007), On the turbulent Prandtl number in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Boundary Layers 125 (2) 329-341, Dubrovnik, CROATIA, APR 18-22, 2006, issn: 0006-8314, ids: 214IB, doi: 10.1007/s10546-007-9192-7
  • Cohen, L, D Helmig, WD Neff, AA Grachev and CW Fairall (2007), Boundary-layer dynamics and its influence on atmospheric chemistry at Summit, Greenland. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 41 (24) 5044-5060, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 203PL, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.068
  • Zuidema, P, C Fairall, LM Hartten, JE Hare and D Wolfe (2007), On air-sea interaction at the mouth of the Gulf of California. J. Clim. Version: 1 20 (9) 1649-1661, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 167TE, doi: 10.1175/JCL14089.1
  • Zuidema, P, B Mapes, JL Lin, C Fairall and G Wick (2006), The interaction of clouds and dry air in the Eastern tropical Pacific. J. Clim. Version: 1 19 (18) 4531-4544, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 090XI, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3836.1
  • Blomquist, BW, CW Fairall, BJ Huebert, DJ Kieber and GR Westby (2006), DMS sea-air transfer velocity: Direct measurements by eddy covariance and parameterization based on the NOAA/COARE gas transfer model. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (7) , Art. No. L07601, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 033VF, doi: 10.1029/2006GL025735
  • Cronin, MF, CW Fairall and MJ McPhaden (2006), An assessment of buoy-derived and numerical weather prediction surface heat fluxes in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Version: 1 111 (C6) , Art. No. C06038, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 062JV, doi: 10.1029/2005JC003324
  • Fairall, CW, L Bariteau, AA Grachev, RJ Hill, DE Wolfe, WA Brewer, SC Tucker, JE Hare and WM Angevine (2006), Turbulent bulk transfer coefficients and ozone deposition velocity in the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research into Transport and Transformation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D23) , Art. No. D23S20, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 118LD, doi: 10.1029/JD007597
  • Cronin, MF, NA Bond, CW Fairall and RA Weller (2006), Surface cloud forcing in the East Pacific stratus deck/cold tongue/ITCZ complex. J. Clim. Version: 1 19 (3) 392-409, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 020QQ
  • Zilitinkevich, SS, JCR Hunt, IN Esau, AA Grachev, DP Lalas, E Akylas, M Tombrou, CW Fairall, HJS Fernando, AA Baklanov and SM Joffre (2006), The influence of large convective eddies on the surface-layer turbulence. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 132 (618) 1423-1456, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 087ST, doi: 10.1256/qj.05.79
  • Zhou, MY, XB Zeng, M Brunke, ZH Zhang and C Fairall (2006), An analysis of statistical characteristics of stratus and stratocumulus over eastern Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (2) , Art. No. L02807, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 008FM, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024796
  • Angevine, WM, JE Hare, CW Fairall, DE Wolfe, RJ Hill, WA Brewer and AB White (2006), Structure and formation of the highly stable marine boundary layer over the Gulf of Maine. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D23) , Art. No. D23S22, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 110HJ, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007465
  • Higgins, W, D Ahijevych, J Amador, A Barros, EH Berbery, E Caetano, R Carbone, P Ciesielski, R Cifelli, M Cortez-Vazquez, A Douglas, M Douglas, G Emmanuel, C Fairall, D Gochis, D Gutzler, T Jackson, R Johnson, C King, T Lang, MI Lee, D Lettenmaier, R Lobato, V Magana, J Meiten, K Mo, S Nesbitt, F Ocampo-Torres, E Pytlak, P Rogers, S Rutledge, J Schemm, S Schubert, A White, C Williams, A Wood, R Zamora and CD Zhang (2006), The NAME 2004 field campaign and modelling strategy. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 87 (1) 79-94, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 009VB, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-1-79
  • Andreas, EL, KJ Claffey, RE Jordan, CW Fairall, PS Guest, POG Persson and AA Grachev (2006), Evaluations of the von Karman constant in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Fluid Mech. Version: 1 559 117-149, issn: 0022-1120, ids: 074SP, doi: 10.1017/S0022112006000164
  • Zuidema, P, ER Westwater, C Fairall and D Hazen (2005), Ship-based liquid water path estimates in marine stratocumulus. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D20) , Art. No. D20206, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 981RT, doi: 10.1029/2005JD005833
  • Grachev, AA, CW Fairall, POG Persson, EL Andreas and PS Guest (2005), Stable boundary-layer scaling regimes: The Sheba data. Bound.-Layer Meteor. Version: 1 116 (2) 201-235, issn: 0006-8314, ids: 969AA, doi: 10.1007/s10546-004-2729-0
  • Persson, POG, JE Hare, CW Fairall and WD Ott (2005), Air-sea interaction processes in warm and cold sectors of extratropical cyclonic storms observed during FASTEX. Quat. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 131 (607) 877-912, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 924FK, doi: 10.1256/jq.03.181
  • Pyatt, HE, BA Albrecht, C Fairall, JE Hare, N Bond, P Minnis and JK Ayers (2005), Evolution of marine atmospheric boundary layer structure across the cold tongue-ITCZ complex. J. Clim. Version: 1 18 (5) 737-753, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 909RQ
  • Wick, GA, JC Ohlmann, CW Fairall and AT Jessup (2005), Improved oceanic cool-skin corrections using a refined solar penetration model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 35 (11) 1986-1996, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 993TI
  • Hare, JE, CW Fairall, WR McGillis, JB Edson, B Ward and R Wanninkhof (2004), Evaluation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Coupled-Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment (NOAA/COARE) air-sea gas transfer parameterization using GasEx data. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 109 (C8) , Art. No. C08S11, issn: 2169-9275, ids: 839QC, doi: 10.1029/2003JC001831
  • Zabotin, NA and JW Wright (2004), Phase structure functions for ionospheric radio sounding: Dependence on irregularity scale. Radio Sci. Version: 1 39 (2) , Art. No. RS2003, issn: 0048-6604, ids: 806NO, doi: 10.1029/2003RS002882
  • Huebert, BJ, BW Blomquist, JE Hare, CW Fairall, JE Johnson and TS Bates (2004), Measurement of the sea-air DMS flux and transfer velocity using eddy correlation. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (23) , Art. No. L23113, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 881QC, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021567
  • Kollias, P, CW Fairall, P Zuidema, J Tomlinson and GA Wick (2004), Observations of marine stratocumulus in SE Pacific during the PACS 2003 cruise. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (22) , Art. No. L22110, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 877PR, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020751
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, CJ Zappa, JD Ware, SP McKenna, EA Terray, JE Hare, CW Fairall, W Drennan, M Donelan, MD DeGrandpre, R Wanninkhof and RA Feely (2004), Air-sea CO2 exchange in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 109 (C8) , Art. No. C08S02, issn: 2169-9275, ids: 850MR, doi: 10.1029/2003JC002256
  • Grachev, AA, CW Fairall, JE Hare, JB Edson and SD Miller (2003), Wind stress vector over ocean waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 33 (11) 2408-2429, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 735GF, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<2408:WSVOOW>2.0.CO;2
  • Fairall, CW, EF Bradley, JE Hare, AA Grachev and JB Edson (2003), Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: Updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. J. Clim. Version: 1 16 (4) 571-591, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 644HP, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0571:BPOASF>2.0.CO;2
  • Andreas, EL, CW Fairall, POG Persson and PS Guest (2003), Probability distributions for the inner scale and the refractive index structure parameter and their implications for flux averaging. J. Appl. Meteorol. Version: 1 42 (9) 1316-1329, issn: 0894-8763, ids: 717KR, doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1316:PDFTIS>2.0.CO;2
  • Andreas, EL, PS Guest, POG Persson, CW Fairall, TW Horst, RE Moritz and SR Semmer (2002), Near-surface water vapor over polar sea ice is always near ice saturation. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 107 (C10) , Art. No. 8033, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 633YD, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000411
  • Intrieri, JM, CW Fairall, MD Shupe, POG Persson, EL Andreas, PS Guest and RE Moritz (2002), An annual cycle of Arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 107 (C10) , Art. No. 8039, issn: 2169-9275, ids: 638JN, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000439
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, JD Ware, JWH Dacey, JE Hare, CW Fairall and R Wanninkhof (2001), Carbon dioxide flux techniques performed during GasEx-98. Mar. Chem. Version: 1 75 (4) 267-280, issn: 0304-4203, ids: 470CP, doi: 10.1016/S0304-4203(01)00042-1
  • Zilitinkevich, SS, AA Grachev and CW Fairall (2001), Scaling reasoning and field data on the sea surface roughness lengths for scalars. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 58 (3) 320-325, issn: 0022-4928, ids: 393BT, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0320:NACRAF>2.0.CO;2
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, JE Hare and CW Fairall (2001), Direct covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans Version: 1 106 (C8) 16729-16745, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 460UB, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000506
  • Grachev, AA and CW Fairall (2001), Upward momentum transfer in the marine boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Version: 1 31 (7) 1698-1711, issn: 0022-3670, ids: 450ZM, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<1698:UMTITM>2.0.CO;2
  • Fairall, CW, POG Persson, EF Bradley, RE Payne and SP Anderson (1998), A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. Version: 1 15 (6) 1229-1242, issn: 0739-0572, ids: 165LM, doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<1229:ANLACA>2.0.CO;2
  • Frisch, AS, G Feingold, CW Fairall, T Uttal and JB Snider (1998), On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 103 (D18) 23195-23197, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 126PT, doi: 10.1029/98JD01827
  • Post, MJ, CW Fairall, JB Snider, Y Han, AB White, WL Ecklund, KM Weickmann, PK Quinn, DI Cooper, SM Sekelsky, RE McIntosh, P Minnett and RO Knuteson (1997), The Combined Sensor Program: An air-sea science mission in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 78 (12) 2797-2815, issn: 0003-0007, ids: YZ885, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2797:TCSPAA>2.0.CO;2
  • CHERTOCK, B, CW FAIRALL and AB WHITE (1993), SURFACE-BASED MEASUREMENTS AND SATELLITE RETRIEVALS OF BROKEN CLOUD PROPERTIES IN THE EQUATORIAL PACIFIC. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 98 (D10) 18489-18500, issn: 0148-0227, ids: MD722, doi: 10.1029/93JD01737