Craig H. Jones
Jones's research focus on the deformation of continents with a special interest in the western United States.
The Western U.S.: Overview
The West is one of the broadest elevated areas on Earth. If you took intro geology, you might think this was because everything in the West was shortened (and so the crust thickened) from about 200 to 50 million years ago, and then this was modified as the thick crust thinned out under its own weight in places like the Basin and Range. Were this the case, there would be little to do. But it is more complex.
Origins of the Sierra Nevada
I've spent much of my career trying to understand the Sierra Nevada. This range's crust was built by the end of the Cretaceous, more than 65 million years ago, yet there are strong arguments that the elevation of the range is young (though this is disputed). This uplift is accompanied by normal faulting on the east side of the Sierra and occured behind a transform plate boundary. I've deployed seismometers in the range many times (1988,1993,1994, 1997, 2005-2007) to try and constrain the earth structure supporting these elevations. Results from these experiments suggests the high Sierra is supported in part by lower density crust and in part by sitting over low density mantle.
That the mantle is low wavespeed under the high Sierra opens the question of just what has happened under the Sierra. A number of observations suggest that an old high density and high wavespeed mafic lower crust has fallen off the bottom of the Sierra, but where is it now? A good candidate is a high wavespeed body (the Isabella anomaly) in the mantle under the southwestern part of the range and the adjoining San Joaquin Valley, but the physical mechanism by which this material moved from under the eastern Sierra to its present position is poorly understood.
Ongoing seismological work seeks to resolve one of the oldest seismological observations in the Sierra and in the process gain some constraints on how material might be falling away from the range. We are trying to reproduce the seismic waveforms recorded on the east side of the Sierra from earthquakes to the west; these seismic arrivals are anomalously late, yet existing seismological models do not predict such arrivals. Hopefully this work will clarify just what is happening near the Moho under the westernmost Sierra.
Having spent many years in the Sierra and been asked many times why study it, I've written a book, The Mountains that Remade America to be published by UC Press in the fall of 2017.
Raising the Rockies and High Plains
The wide extent of the American Cordillera is unexpected for an orogen that was not created by continental collision. The earliest uplifts of modern terrain dated to the end of the Cretaceous when some mountains began to rise out of the seaway and coastal plain that existed at the time. This event, the Laramide Orogeny, has long been attributed to a subducting plate scraping the bottom of North America at this time, but the best physical mechanism--a strong coupling of the two plates--makes predictions at odds with observations. Some years ago we suggested an alternative where subsidence of the Colorado and Wyoming region was key in localizing high stresses so far from the continent's edge. Some ongoing work explores whether such a process will reproduce the observed stresses and early strains in the Rockies.
But at a broader scale, the Rockies are just the deformed part of a broad uplift that includes the High Plains of Wyoming, Colorado, western Kansas, and New Mexico. The absence of deformation of the High Plains limits the processes that could be active. We have suggested that this reflects a novel process where originally garnet-rich lower crust has been altered by water rising through the lithosphere to lower density minerals. If true, this challenges our usual notions of the fate of water rising off a subducting plate and adds a new mechanism to those already known to create high topography. Ongoing work is looking to quantify the amount of topography unaccounted for by any other process (such as sedimentation); longer term goals include finding ways of testing this hypothesis seismically and (in collaboration with colleagues in Geological Sciences) determining the age and extent of any hydration event.
- Levandowski, W; Jones, CH (2015), Linking Sierra Nevada, California, uplift to subsidence of the Tulare basin using a seismically derived density model. Tectonics Version: 1 34 (11) 2349-2358, issn: 0278-7407, ids: DB7BD, doi: 10.1002/2015TC003824
- Jones, CH; Mahan, KH; Butcher, LA; Levandowski, WB; Farmer, GL (2015), Continental uplift through crustal hydration. Geology Version: 1 43 (4) 355-358, issn: 0091-7613, ids: CE8MX, doi: 10.1130/G36509.1
- Molnar, P; England, PC; Jones, CH (2015), Mantle dynamics, isostasy, and the support of high terrain. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (3) 1932-1957, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CG3EF, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011724
- Levandowski, W; Jones, CH; Shen, WS; Ritzwoller, MH; Schulte-Pelkum, V (2014), Origins of topography in the western US: Mapping crustal and upper mantle density variations using a uniform seismic velocity model. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (3) 2375-2396, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AI4OM, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010607
- Jones, CH; Reeg, H; Zandt, G; Gilbert, H; Owens, TJ; Stachnik, J (2014), P-wave tomography of potential convective downwellings and their source regions, Sierra Nevada, California. Geosphere Version: 1 10 (3) 505-533, issn: 1553-040X, ids: AK8BH, doi: 10.1130/GES00961.1
- Unruh, J; Hauksson, E; Jones, CH (2014), Internal deformation of the southern Sierra Nevada microplate associated with foundering lower lithosphere, California. Geosphere Version: 1 10 (1) 107-128, issn: 1553-040X, ids: AK7ZX, doi: 10.1130/GES00936.1
- Levandowski, W; Jones, CH; Reeg, H; Frassetto, A; Gilbert, H; Zandt, G; Owens, TJ (2013), Seismological estimates of means of isostatic support of the Sierra Nevada. Geosphere Version: 1 9 (6) 1552-1561, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 273AZ, doi: 10.1130/GES00905.1
- Farmer, GL; Glazner, AF; Kortemeier, WT; Cosca, MA; Jones, CH; Moore, JE; Schweickert, RA (2013), Mantle lithosphere as a source of postsubduction magmatism, northern Sierra Nevada, California. Geosphere Version: 1 9 (5) 1102-1124, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 273AU, doi: 10.1130/GES00885.1
- Gilbert, H; Yang, Y; Forsyth, DW; Jones, CH; Owens, TJ; Zandt, G; Stachnik, JC (2012), Imaging lithospheric foundering in the structure of the Sierra Nevada. Geosphere Version: 1 8 (6) 1310-1330, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 062OT, doi: 10.1130/GES00790.1
- Jones, CH; Farmer, GL; Sageman, B; Zhong, SJ (2011), Hydrodynamic mechanism for the Laramide orogeny. Geosphere Version: 1 7 (1) 183-201, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 713IT, doi: 10.1130/GES00575.1
- Schulte-Pelkum, V, G Biasi, A Sheehan and C Jones (2011), Differential motion between upper crust and lithospheric mantle in the central Basin and Range. Nature Geosci. Version: 1 4 (9) 619-623, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 814KY, doi: 10.1038/ngeo1229
- Yang, YJ; Ritzwoller, MH; Jones, CH (2011), Crustal structure determined from ambient noise tomography near the magmatic centers of the Coso region, southeastern California. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. Version: 1 12 , Art. No. Q02009, issn: 1525-2027, ids: 723PT, doi: 10.1029/2010GC003362
- Frassetto, AM; Zandt, G; Gilbert, H; Owens, TJ; Jones, CH (2011), Structure of the Sierra Nevada from receiver functions and implications for lithospheric foundering. Geosphere Version: 1 7 (4) 898-921, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 800SL, doi: 10.1130/GES00570.1
- Frassetto, A; Zandt, G; Gilbert, H; Owens, TJ; Jones, CH (2010), Improved imaging with phase-weighted common conversion point stacks of receiver functions. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 182 (1) 368-374, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 608XN, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04617.x
- Mueller, K; Kier, G; Rockwell, T; Jones, CH (2009), Quaternary rift flank uplift of the Peninsular Ranges in Baja and southern California by removal of mantle lithosphere. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC5003, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 493SV, doi: 10.1029/2007TC002227
- Tetreault, J; Jones, CH; Erslev, E; Larson, S; Hudson, M; Holdaway, S (2008), Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for oblique slip in a fault-related fold, Grayback monocline, Colorado. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 120 (8-Jul) 877-892, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 323DC, doi: 10.1130/B26178.1
- Boyd, OS; Savage, MK; Sheehan, AF; Jones, CH (2007), Illuminating the plate interface structure beneath Cook Strait, New Zealand, with receiver functions. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 112 (B6) , Art. No. B06310, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 185DM, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004552
- Zandt, G; Gilbert, H; Owens, TJ; Ducea, M; Saleeby, J; Jones, CH (2004), Active foundering of a continental arc root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Nature Version: 1 431 (7004) 41-46, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 850VC, doi: 10.1038/nature02847, PubMed ID: 15343326
- Jones, CH; Farmer, GL; Unruh, J (2004), Tectonics of Pliocene removal of lithosphere of the Sierra Nevada, California. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 116 (12-Nov) 1408-1422, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 869TH, doi: 10.1130/B25397.1
- Boyd, OS; Jones, CH; Sheehan, AF (2004), Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the Southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Science Version: 1 305 (5684) 660-662, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 842GQ, doi: 10.1126/science.1099181, PubMed ID: 15286370
- Molnar, P; Jones, CH (2004), A test of laboratory based rheological parameters of olivine from an analysis of late Cenozoic convective removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 156 (3) 555-564, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 777VM, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02138.x
- Wilson, CK; Jones, CH; Molnar, P; Sheehan, AF; Boyd, OS (2004), Distributed deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath a continental strike-slip fault zone: Marlborough fault system, South Island, New Zealand. Geology Version: 1 32 (10) 837-840, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 861LD, doi: 10.1130/G20657.1
- Wilson, CK; Jones, CH; Gilbert, HJ (2003), Single-chamber silicic magma system inferred from shear wave discontinuities of the crust and uppermost mantle, Coso geothermal area, California. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 108 (B5) , Art. No. 2226, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 678JZ, doi: 10.1029/2002JB001798
- Jones, CH (2002), User-driven integrated software lives: "Paleomag" paleomagnetics analysis on the Macintosh. Comput. Geosci. Version: 1 28 (10) 1145-1151, Art. No. PII S0098-3004(02)00032-8, issn: 0098-3004, ids: 610DX, doi: 10.1016/S0098-3004(02)00032-8
- Sonder, LJ; Jones, CH (1999), Western United States extension: How the West was widened. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Version: 1 27 417-+, issn: 0084-6597, ids: 204UT, doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.27.1.417
- Jones, CH; Sonder, LJ; Unruh, JR (1999), Lithospheric gravitational potential energy and past orogenesis: Implications for conditions of initial Basin and Range and Laramide deformation: Reply. Geology Version: 1 27 (5) 475-476, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 193QF
- Jones, CH; Sonder, LJ; Unruh, JR (1998), Lithospheric gravitational potential energy and past orogenesis: Implications for conditions of initial basin and range and Laramide deformation. Geology Version: 1 26 (7) 639-642, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 100BX, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0639:LGPEAP>2.3.CO;2
- Jones, CH; Phinney, RA (1998), Seismic structure of the lithosphere from teleseismic converted arrivals observed at small arrays in the southern Sierra Nevada and vicinity, California. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 103 (B5) 10065-10090, issn: 2169-9313, ids: ZM406, doi: 10.1029/97JB03540
- Sheehan, AF; Jones, CH; Savage, MK; Ozalaybey, S; Schneider, JM (1997), Contrasting lithospheric structure between the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin: Initial results from Colorado Plateau - Great Basin PASSCAL experiment. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (21) 2609-2612, issn: 0094-8276, ids: YE985, doi: 10.1029/97GL02782
- Jones, CH; Unruh, JR; Sonder, LJ (1996), The role of gravitational potential energy in active deformation in the southwestern United States. Nature Version: 1 381 (6577) 37-41, issn: 0028-0836, ids: UJ053, doi: 10.1038/381037a0
- Wernicke, B; Clayton, R; Ducea, M; Jones, CH; Park, S; Ruppert, S; Saleeby, J; Snow, JK; Squires, L; Fliedner, M; Jiracek, G; Keller, R; Klemperer, S; Luetgert, J; Malin, P; Miller, K; Mooney, W; Oliver, H; Phinney, R (1996), Origin of high mountains in the continents: The southern Sierra Nevada. Science Version: 1 271 (5246) 190-193, issn: 0036-8075, ids: TP364, doi: 10.1126/science.271.5246.190
- SHEEHAN, AF; ABERS, GA; JONES, CH; LERNERLAM, AL (1995), CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS ACROSS THE COLORADO ROCKY-MOUNTAIN FROM TELESEISMIC RECEIVER FUNCTIONS. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 100 (B10) 20391-20404, issn: 2169-9313, ids: RZ312, doi: 10.1029/95JB01966
- WESNOUSKY, SG; JONES, CH (1994), OBLIQUE SLIP, SLIP PARTITIONING, SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHANGES IN THE REGIONAL STRESS-FIELD, AND THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF ACTIVE FAULTS IN THE BASIN AND RANGE, WESTERN UNITED-STATES. Geology Version: 1 22 (11) 1031-1034, issn: 0091-7613, ids: PP790, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<1031:OSSPSA>2.3.CO;2
- SAVAGE, MK, L LI, JP EATON, CH JONES and JN BRUNE (1994), EARTHQUAKE REFRACTION PROFILES OF THE ROOT OF THE SIERRA-NEVADA. Tectonics Version: 1 13 (4) 803-817, issn: 0278-7407, ids: PB140
- SONDER, LJ, CH JONES, SL SALYARDS and KM MURPHY (1994), VERTICAL AXIS ROTATIONS IN THE LAS-VEGAS VALLEY SHEAR ZONE, SOUTHERN NEVADA - PALEOMAGNETIC CONSTRAINTS ON KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS OF BLOCK ROTATIONS. Tectonics Version: 1 13 (4) 769-788, issn: 0278-7407, ids: PB140
- JONES, CH and SG WESNOUSKY (1992), VARIATIONS IN STRENGTH AND SLIP RATE ALONG THE SAN-ANDREAS FAULT SYSTEM. Science Version: 1 256 (5053) 83-86, issn: 0036-8075, ids: HL822
- JONES, CH; WERNICKE, BP; FARMER, GL; WALKER, JD; COLEMAN, DS; MCKENNA, LW; PERRY, FV (1992), VARIATIONS ACROSS AND ALONG A MAJOR CONTINENTAL RIFT - AN INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE, WESTERN USA. Tectonophysics Version: 1 SYMP ON GEODYNAMICS OF RIFTING 213 (2-Jan) 57-96, GLION MONTREUX, SWITZERLAND, NOV 04-11, 1990, issn: 0040-1951, ids: JW837, doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(92)90252-2
- JONES, CH (1987), IS EXTENSION IN DEATH-VALLEY ACCOMMODATED BY THINNING OF THE MANTLE LITHOSPHERE BENEATH THE SIERRA-NEVADA, CALIFORNIA. Tectonics Version: 1 6 (4) 449-473, issn: 0278-7407, ids: J3488
- NELSON, MR and CH JONES (1987), PALEOMAGNETISM AND CRUSTAL ROTATIONS ALONG A SHEAR ZONE, LAS-VEGAS RANGE, SOUTHERN NEVADA. Tectonics Version: 1 6 (1) 13-33, issn: 0278-7407, ids: F8635