Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

William M. Lewis Jr.

Research Interests

My field of study is limnology, which is the ecological analysis of lakes, streams, and wetlands. I do my research and teaching through the CIRES Center for Limnology, which offers analytical services and opportunities for field work in all aquatic environments of Colorado. Research projects as well as graduate and undergraduate studies in limnology typically incorporate analyses and interpretation from physics, chemistry, and biology as an interdisciplinary mix that facilitates the understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Some fields of special interest for me and my graduate students at CU have been biogeochemistry, food webs, and biological production. In limnology, biogeochemistry, which is based on analysis of element cycling in ecosystems, has been used frequently to study the effects of humans on biological processes in aquatic environments through nutrients or toxins. Food web studies are frequently based on use of tracers such as stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the rates at which biomass for groups of organisms are processed through the food web by grazing, predation, and decomposition. The study of biological production, which is critical to human interest in the yield of biomass from aquatic ecosystems, focuses on factors that restrict or magnify the amount of production per unit area in ecosystems, and takes into account the influences of humans on biological production.

Current Research

Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen

Much of my current work with students and other collaborators focuses on environmental cycling of nitrogen in numerous aquatic environments of Colorado. One example is the South Platte River below Denver, which receives a large amount of treated wastewater from Denver and its suburbs. Our recent studies show that the South Platte River below Denver supports very high rates of denitrification, which converts nitrate to N2, an inert gas that is released to the atmosphere. This process is environmentally favorable because excessive nitrate derived from wastewater causes nuisance growth of algae and aquatic vascular plants.

Analysis of Food Webs in Lakes

Recent PhD graduate Thomas Detmer led an ambitious project in Rocky Mountain National Park related to the influence of fish on food webs. The RMNP has lakes with fish and lakes that lack fish. In comparing these lakes, Detmer showed that fish very strongly suppress the presence of large invertebrates such as stoneflies, thus shifting the composition of aquatic invertebrates in the lakes, as expected. Contrary to expectation, however, he showed that loss of the large invertebrates was compensated by a great increase in the abundance of small invertebrates. Ecologically speaking, the small invertebrates took the place of the larger invertebrates in the food web, so that changes in food web functions were negligible. This is an example of ecological resilience.

Production of Aquatic Biomass

Aquatic environments create new biomass through photosynthesis, which is conducted by algae and aquatic vascular plants. Our research on both lakes and streams in Colorado shows that photosynthesis is controlled in some cases by P, a nutrient, and sometimes by N, also a nutrient. In the past, limnologists have thought that P is a master nutrient, and that N does not commonly control production through photosynthesis. Our experiments in Colorado, and similar work conducted elsewhere, support a new view of nitrogen as a commonly limiting nutrient for aquatic photosynthesis.



Summary of nitrogen fluxes relevant to concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and nitrate (NO3-), important pollutants in the South Platte River below Denver.

Honors and Awards

  • CU Boulder Distinguished Research Lectureship, 2018-2019
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2017
  • Baldi Award, International Society for Limnology, 2010
  • Chair, National Research Council Committee on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin, 2001-2003
  • Sustained Achievement Award of the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation, 1996
  • Recipient of the Naumann-Thienemann Medal of the International Society for Limnology, 1999
  • Member of the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 1993-1999
  • Past President, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 2000-2002

View Publications

  • Alcocer, J; Roberson, J; Oseguera, LA; Lewis, WM. (May 2020). Rhythmic episodes of heating and cooling control thermal stratification of two tropical high mountain lakes. AQUATIC SCIENCES , 82(3). 10.1007/s00027-020-00731-1
  • Detmer, T; Lewis, WM. (SEP 2019). Influences of fish on food web structure and function in mountain lakes. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 64(9), 1572-1583. 10.1111/fwb.13352
  • Lewis, W., James H. McCutchan, Jr., Jennifer Roberson. (2019). Effects of climatic change on temperature and thermal structure of a mountain reservoir. Water Resour. Res.. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018WR023555
  • Lewis, WM; McCutchan, JH; Roberson, J. (MAR 2019). Effects of Climatic Change on Temperature and Thermal Structure of a Mountain Reservoir. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 55(3), 1988-1999. 10.1029/2018WR023555
  • Detmer, T, JH McCutchan and WM Lewis. (2017). Trophic interactions across lake-stream boundaries in mountain lakes. INLAND WATERS, 7(4), 440-448. 10.1080/20442041.2017.1382936
  • Detmer, TM, JH McCutchan and WM Lewis. (MAR 2017). Predator driven changes in prey size distribution stabilize secondary production in lacustrine food webs. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 62(2), 592-605. 10.1002/lno.10446
  • Robertson, DS, WM Lewis, PM Sheehan and OB Toon. (JUL 2013). K-Pg extinction patterns in marine and freshwater environments: The impact winter model. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES, 118(3), 1006-1014. 10.1002/jgrg.20086
  • Robertson, DS, WM Lewis, PM Sheehan and OB Toon. (MAR 2013). K-Pg extinction: Reevaluation of the heat-fire hypothesis. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES, 118(1), 329-336. 10.1002/jgrg.20018
  • Rhoades, CC, JH McCutchan, LA Cooper, D Clow, TM Detmer, JS Briggs, JD Stednick, TT Veblen, RM Ertz, GE Likens and WM Lewis. (29-Jan 2013). Biogeochemistry of beetle-killed forests: Explaining a weak nitrate response. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 110(5), 1756-1760. 10.1073/pnas.1221029110
  • Anthony, JL and WM Lewis. (JUL 2012). Low boundary layer response and temperature dependence of nitrogen and phosphorus releases from oxic sediments of an oligotrophic lake. AQUATIC SCIENCES, 74(3), 611-617. 10.1007/s00027-012-0255-6
  • Lewis, WM. (2011). Global primary production of lakes: 19th Baldi Memorial Lecture. INLAND WATERS, 1(1), 1-28. 10.5268/IW-1.1.384
  • Lewis, WM, WA Wurtsbaugh and HW Paerl. (15-Dec 2011). Rationale for Control of Anthropogenic Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Reduce Eutrophication of Inland Waters. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 45(24), 10300-10305. 10.1021/es202401p
  • Clow, DW, C Rhoades, J Briggs, M Caldwell and WM Lewis. (JUN 2011). Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA. APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY, 26, S174-S178. 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.096
  • Segura, C, JH McCutchan, WM Lewis and J Pitlick. (MAY-JUN 2011). The influence of channel bed disturbance on algal biomass in a Colorado mountain stream. ECOHYDROLOGY, 4(3), 411-421. 10.1002/eco.142
  • Lewis, WM and JH McCutchan. (SEP 2010). Ecological responses to nutrients in streams and rivers of the Colorado mountains and foothills. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 55(9), 1973-1983. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02431.x
  • Lewis, WM, JF Saunders and JH McCutchan. (2008). Application of a nutrient-saturation concept to the control of algal growth in lakes. LAKE AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT, 24(1), 41-46. 10.1080/07438140809354049
  • Lewis, WM and WA Wurtsbaugh. (2008). Control of Lacustrine Phytoplankton by Nutrients: Erosion of the Phosphorus Paradigm. INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF HYDROBIOLOGY, 93(5-Apr), 446-465. 10.1002/iroh.200811065
  • Higgins, TM, JH McCutchan and WM Lewis. (JUL 2008). Nitrogen ebullition in a Colorado plains river. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 89(3), 367-377. 10.1007/s10533-008-9225-4
  • Gardner, EM, DM McKnight, WM Lewis and MP Miller. (FEB 2008). Effects of nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton in an alpine lake, Colorado, USA. ARCTIC ANTARCTIC AND ALPINE RESEARCH, 40(1), 55-64. 10.1657/1523-0430(07-002)[GARDNER]2.0.CO;2
  • McGrath, CC and WM Lewis. (SEP 2007). Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY, 136(5), 1381-1392. 10.1577/T07-017.1
  • Cronin, G, JH McCutchan, J Pitlick and WM Lewis. (AUG 2007). Use of Shields stress to reconstruct and forecast changes in river metabolism. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 52(8), 1587-1601. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01790.x
  • Rodriguez, MA, KO Winemiller, WM Lewis and DCT Baechle. (APR-JUN 2007). The freshwater habitats, fishes, and fisheries of the Orinoco River basin. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM HEALTH & MANAGEMENT, 10(2), 140-152. 10.1080/14634980701350686
  • Sedarat, A, MJ Sterling, MA Fuhrman, WM Lewis and M Saric. (DEC 2006). Achalasia as a cause of congestive heart failure. Gastrointest. Endosc., 64(6), 1026-1028.
  • Cronin, G, WM Lewis and MA Schiehser. (JUL 2006). Influence of freshwater macrophytes on the littoral ecosystem structure and function of a young Colorado reservoir. AQUATIC BOTANY, 85(1), 37-43. 10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.01.011
  • Kaushal, SS, WM Lewis and JH McCutchan. (FEB 2006). Land use change and nitrogen enrichment of a Rocky Mountain watershed. ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, 16(1), 299-312. 10.1890/05-0134
  • McCutchan, JH and WM Lewis. (JUL 2006). Groundwater flux and open-channel estimation of stream metabolism: response to Hall and Tank. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY-METHODS, 4, 213-215. 10.4319/lom.2006.4.213
  • Pribyl, AL, JH McCutchan, WM Lewis and JF Saunders. (APR 2005). Whole-system estimation of denitrification in a plains river: a comparison of two methods. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 73(3), 439-455. 10.1007/s10533-004-0565-4
  • Kaushal, SS and WM Lewis. (JUN 2005). Fate and transport of organic nitrogen in minimally disturbed montane streams of Colorado, USA. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 74(3), 303-321. 10.1007/s10533-004-4723-5
  • Ortiz-Zayas, JR, WM Lewis, JF Saunders, JH McCutchan and FN Scatena. (DEC 2005). Metabolism of a tropical rainforest stream. JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 24(4), 769-783. 10.1899/03-094.1
  • Saunders, JF, M Murphy, M Clark and ML Lewis. (OCT 2004). The influence of climate variation on the estimation of low flows used to protect water quality: A nationwide assessment. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, 40(5), 1339-1349. 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2004.tb01590.x
  • McCutchan, JH, WM Lewis, C Kendall and CC McGrath. (AUG 2003). Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. OIKOS, 102(2), 378-390. 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12098.x
  • Niyogi, DK, WM Lewis and DM McKnight. (JUN 2003). Direct and indirect effects of mine drainage on bacterial processes in mountain streams. JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 22(2), 276-291. 10.2307/1467998
  • Saunders, JF and WM Lewis. (FEB 2003). Implications of climatic variability for regulatory low flows in the South Platte River basin, Colorado. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, 39(1), 33-45. 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb01559.x
  • Kaushal, SS and WM Lewis. (AUG 2003). Patterns in the chemical fractionation of organic nitrogen in Rocky Mountain streams. ECOSYSTEMS, 6(5), 483-492. 10.1007/s10021-003-0175-3
  • McCutchan, JH, JF Saunders, AL Pribyl and WM Lewis. (2003). Open-channel estimation of denitrification. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY-METHODS, 1, 74-81.
  • Niyogi, DK, DM McKnight and WM Lewis. (SEP 2002). Fungal communities and biomass in mountain streams affected by mine drainage. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 155(2), 255-271.
  • McCutchan, JH, JF Saunders, WM Lewis and MG Hayden. (JAN 2002). Effects of groundwater flux on open-channel estimates of stream metabolism. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 47(1), 321-324. 10.4319/lo.2002.47.1.0321
  • McCutchan, JH and WM Lewis. (MAY 2002). Relative importance of carbon sources for macroinvertebrates in a Rocky Mountain stream. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 47(3), 742-752. 10.4319/lo.2002.47.3.0742
  • Niyogi, DK, WM Lewis and DM McKnight. (SEP 2002). Effects of stress from mine drainage on diversity, biomass, and function of primary producers in mountain streams. ECOSYSTEMS, 5(6), 554-567. 10.1007/s10021-002-0182-9
  • Lewis, WM. (APR 2002). Yield of nitrogen from minimally disturbed watersheds of the United States. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 57(1), 375-385. 10.1023/A:1015709128245
  • Ricard, CS, JM Jakubowski, JW Verbsky, MA Barbieri, WM Lewis, GE Fernandez, M Vogel, C Tsou, V Prasad, PD Stahl, G Waksman and CM Cheney. (SEP 2001). Drosophila rab GDI mutants disrupt development but have normal rab membrane extraction. Genesis, 31(1), 17-29.
  • Lewis, WM, SK Hamilton, MA Rodriguez, JF Saunders and MA Lasi. (JUN 2001). Foodweb analysis of the Orinoco floodplain based on production estimates and stable isotope data. JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 20(2), 241-254. 10.2307/1468319
  • Sjodin, A, WM Lewis and JF Saunders. (MAR 2001). Analysis of groundwater exchange for a large plains river in Colorado (USA). HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, 15(4), 609-620. 10.1002/hyp.173
  • Niyogi, DK, WM Lewis and DM McKnight. (APR 2001). Litter breakdown in mountain streams affected by mine drainage: Biotic mediation of abiotic controls. ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, 11(2), 506-516. 10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0506:LBIMSA]2.0.CO;2
  • Lewis, WM, SK Hamilton, MA Lasi, M Rodriguez and JF Saunders. (AUG 2000). Ecological determinism on the Orinoco floodplain. BIOSCIENCE, 50(8), 681-692. 10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0681:EDOTOF]2.0.CO;2
  • Smith, LK, WM Lewis, JP Chanton, G Cronin and SK Hamilton. (NOV 2000). Methane emissions from the Orinoco River floodplain, Venezuela. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 51(2), 113-140. 10.1023/A:1006443429909
  • Groppo, JG, TL Robl, WM Lewis and CJ McCormick. (AUG 1999). Classification and froth flotation of fly ash for producing high quality pozzolan. Miner. Metall. Process., 16(3), 34-36.
  • Niyogi, DK, DM McKnight and WM Lewis. (MAY 1999). Influences of water and substrate quality for periphyton in a montane stream affected by acid mine drainage. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 44(3), 804-809. 10.4319/lo.1999.44.3_part_2.0804
  • Lewis, WM, JM Melack, WH McDowell, M McClain and JE Richey. (JUL 1999). Nitrogen yields from undisturbed watersheds in the Americas. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 46(3-Jan), 149-162. 10.1007/BF01007577
  • Downing, JA, M McClain, R Twilley, JM Melack, J Elser, NN Rabalais, WM Lewis, RE Turner, J Corredor, D Soto, A Yanez-Arancibia, JA Kopaska and RW Howarth. (JUL 1999). The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-cycle of tropical aquatic ecosystems: Current conditions and projected changes. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 46(3-Jan), 109-148. 10.1007/BF01007576
  • Skaggs, RL, M Lores, WM Lewis and JW Birks. (15-Aug 1998). Detection of argon by Penning ionization and competitive absorption using a sensitized photoionization detector. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 70(16), 3493-3497. 10.1021/ac9802022
  • McCutchan, JH, WM Lewis and JF Saunders. (JUN 1998). Uncertainty in the estimation of stream metabolism from open-channel oxygen concentrations. JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 17(2), 155-164. 10.2307/1467959
  • Vavilova, VV and WM Lewis. (1998). Temporal and altitudinal variations in the attached algae of mountain streams in Colorado. HYDROBIOLOGIA, 390(3-Jan), 99-106. 10.1023/A:1003526306724
  • Rodriguez, MA and WM Lewis. (FEB 1997). Structure of fish assemblages along environmental gradients in floodplain lakes of the Orinoco River. ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS, 67(1), 109-128. 10.1890/0012-9615(1997)067[0109:SOFAAE]2.0.CO;2
  • Sjodin, AL, WM Lewis and JF Saunders. (DEC 1997). Denitrification as a component of the nitrogen budget for a large plains river. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 39(3), 327-342. 10.1023/A:1005884117467
  • Friedman, JM, WR Osterkamp and WM Lewis. (JAN 1996). The role of vegetation and bed-level fluctuations in the process of channel narrowing. GEOMORPHOLOGY, 14(4), 341-351. 10.1016/0169-555X(95)00047-9
  • Friedman, JM, WR Osterkamp and WM Lewis. (OCT 1996). Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a Great Plains flood. ECOLOGY, 77(7), 2167-2181. 10.2307/2265710
  • Arenz, RF, WM Lewis and JF Saunders. (20-May 1996). Determination of chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon from reflectance data for Colorado reservoirs. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, 17(8), 1547-1566. 10.1080/01431169608948723
  • LEWIS, WM and JF SAUNDERS. (JUL 1995). IMPROVEMENTS IN STREAM AMMONIA MODELS BY SIMULTANEOUS COMPUTATION OF EXTREMES IN FLOW AND WATER CHEMISTRY. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 29(7), 1796-1801. 10.1021/es00007a016
  • FRIEDMAN, JM, ML SCOTT and WM LEWIS. (JUL-AUG 1995). RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST USING IRRIGATION, ARTIFICIAL DISTURBANCE, AND NATURAL SEEDFALL. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 19(4), 547-557. 10.1007/BF02471966
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA and WM LEWIS. (SEP 1994). REGULATION AND STABILITY IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF NEOTROPICAL FLOODPLAIN LAKES. OECOLOGIA, 99(2-Jan), 166-180. 10.1007/BF00317098
  • MUELLER, JP, WM LEWIS, JT GREEN and JC BURNS. (JAN-FEB 1993). YIELD AND QUALITY OF SILAGE CORN AS ALTERED BY JOHNSONGRASS INFESTATION. Agron. J., 85(1), 49-52.
  • SPAK, DR, JM DIPAOLA, WM LEWIS and CE ANDERSON. (MAR-APR 1993). TALL FESCUE SWARD DYNAMICS .2. INFLUENCE OF 4 PLANT-GROWTH REGULATORS. Crop Sci., 33(2), 304-310.
  • HAMILTON, SK, WM LEWIS and SJ SIPPEL. (MAR 1992). ENERGY-SOURCES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS IN THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN - EVIDENCE FROM STABLE ISOTOPES. OECOLOGIA, 89(3), 324-330. 10.1007/BF00317409
  • MORRIS, DP and WM LEWIS. (SEP 1992). NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF BACTERIOPLANKTON GROWTH IN LAKE DILLON, COLORADO. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 37(6), 1179-1192. 10.4319/lo.1992.37.6.1179
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS. (DEC 1992). STABLE CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN ALGAE AND DETRITUS FROM THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 56(12), 4237-4246. 10.1016/0016-7037(92)90264-J
  • MITTON, JB and WM LEWIS. (APR 1992). HETEROZYGOSITY AND LIFE-HISTORY VARIATION IN BONY FISHES - RESPONSE. EVOLUTION, 46(2), 576-577. 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1992.tb02063.x
  • UNGER, PA and WM LEWIS. (APR 1991). POPULATION ECOLOGY OF A PELAGIC FISH, XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE (ATHERINIDAE), IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. ECOLOGY, 72(2), 440-456. 10.2307/2937186
  • LEWIS, WM. (DEC 1990). COMPARISONS OF PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN TEMPERATE AND TROPICAL LAKES. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 35(8), 1838-1845. 10.4319/lo.1990.35.8.1838
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA and WM LEWIS. (SUM 1990). DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF FISH COMMUNITIES OF ORINOCO FLOODPLAIN LAKES. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, 6(3), 319-328.
  • HAMILTON, SK, SJ SIPPEL, WM LEWIS and JF SAUNDERS. (MAR 1990). ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND EVIDENCE FOR ITS REDUCTION BY MACROPHYTE MATS IN 2 ORINOCO FLOODPLAIN LAKES. JOURNAL OF PLANKTON RESEARCH, 12(2), 345-363. 10.1093/plankt/12.2.345
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS. (NOV-DEC 1990). PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FRINGING FLOODPLAIN OF THE ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA. INTERCIENCIA, 15(6), 491-500.
  • RODRIGUEZ, MA, SE RICHARDSON and WM LEWIS. (DEC 1990). NOCTURNAL BEHAVIOR AND ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF A DRIFTWOOD CATFISH, ENTOMOCORUS-GAMEROI (AUCHENIPTERIDAE). BIOTROPICA, 22(4), 435-438. 10.2307/2388565
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS. (OCT 1990). BASIN MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKES ON THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 119(4), 393-425.
  • LEWIS, WM. (JUN 1989). FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR ANOMALOUS SIZE SCALING OF RESPIRATION IN PHYTOPLANKTON. JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, 25(2), 395-397. 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1989.tb00136.x
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (SEP 1989). TRANSPORT OF MAJOR SOLUTES AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS AND DISCHARGE IN THE APURE RIVER, VENEZUELA. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 8(2), 101-113.
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (MAR 1989). ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE LOWER ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 34(2), 397-409. 10.4319/lo.1989.34.2.0397
  • TWOMBLY, S and WM LEWIS. (MAR 1989). FACTORS REGULATING CLADOCERAN DYNAMICS IN A VENEZUELAN FLOODPLAIN LAKE. JOURNAL OF PLANKTON RESEARCH, 11(2), 317-333. 10.1093/plankt/11.2.317
  • MITTON, JB and WM LEWIS. (DEC 1989). RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GENETIC-VARIABILITY AND LIFE-HISTORY FEATURES OF BONY FISHES. EVOLUTION, 43(8), 1712-1723. 10.2307/2409387
  • LEWIS, WM and JF SAUNDERS. (MAY 1989). CONCENTRATION AND TRANSPORT OF DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED SUBSTANCES IN THE ORINOCO RIVER. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 7(3), 203-240. 10.1007/BF00004218
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (SEP 1988). COMPOSITION AND SEASONALITY OF THE ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. JOURNAL OF PLANKTON RESEARCH, 10(5), 957-985. 10.1093/plankt/10.5.957
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (16-May 1988). ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND TRANSPORT IN A TROPICAL WHITE-WATER RIVER. HYDROBIOLOGIA, 162(2), 147-155. 10.1007/BF00014537
  • MORRIS, DP and WM LEWIS. (DEC 1988). PHYTOPLANKTON NUTRIENT LIMITATION IN COLORADO MOUNTAIN LAKES. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 20(3), 315-327. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1988.tb00457.x
  • LEWIS, WM. (JUN 1988). PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN THE ORINOCO RIVER. ECOLOGY, 69(3), 679-692. 10.2307/1941016
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (DEC 1988). DYNAMICS AND CONTROL MECHANISMS IN A TROPICAL ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY (LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA). ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS, 58(4), 337-353. 10.2307/1942544
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (SEP 1988). ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE CAURA RIVER, VENEZUELA. BIOTROPICA, 20(3), 206-214. 10.2307/2388235
  • SAUNDERS, JF and WM LEWIS. (1988). TRANSPORT OF PHOSPHORUS, NITROGEN, AND CARBON BY THE APURE RIVER, VENEZUELA. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 5(3), 323-342. 10.1007/BF02180071
  • NETO, JR, CC KOHLER and WM LEWIS. (JAN 1987). WATER REUSE SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION OF FINGERLING FISHES IN BRAZIL WITH EMPHASIS ON SOUTH-AMERICAN CATFISHES (RHAMDIA-QUELENS AND RHAMDIA-SAPO). Trop. Agric., 64(1), 2-6.
  • LEWIS, WM and PJ CLARK. (APR 1987). RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION - ANGLIA CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECTS. PROC INST CIVIL ENG PT 1, 82, 247-268.
  • LEVINE, SN and WM LEWIS. (APR 1987). A NUMERICAL-MODEL OF NITROGEN-FIXATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 17(2), 265-274. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1987.tb01047.x
  • LUNDBERG, JG, WM LEWIS, JF SAUNDERS and F MAGOLECCIA. (3-Jul 1987). A MAJOR FOOD WEB COMPONENT IN THE ORINOCO RIVER CHANNEL - EVIDENCE FROM PLANKTIVOROUS ELECTRIC FISHES. SCIENCE, 237(4810), 81-83. 10.1126/science.237.4810.81
  • HAMILTON, SK and WM LEWIS. (NOV 1987). CAUSES OF SEASONALITY IN THE CHEMISTRY OF A LAKE ON THE ORINOCO RIVER FLOODPLAIN, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 32(6), 1277-1290. 10.4319/lo.1987.32.6.1277
  • LEWIS, WM, SK HAMILTON, SL JONES and DD RUNNELS. (1987). MAJOR ELEMENT CHEMISTRY, WEATHERING AND ELEMENT YIELDS FOR THE CAURA RIVER DRAINAGE, VENEZUELA. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, 4(2), 159-181. 10.1007/BF02180153
  • LEWIS, WM. (1987). TROPICAL LIMNOLOGY. ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS, 18, 159-184. 10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001111
  • LEWIS, WM and DP MORRIS. (MAR 1986). TOXICITY OF NITRITE TO FISH - A REVIEW. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY, 115(2), 183-195. 10.1577/1548-8659(1986)115<183:TONTF>2.0.CO;2
  • CRESSA, C and WM LEWIS. (OCT 1986). ECOLOGICAL ENERGETICS OF CHAOBORUS IN A TROPICAL LAKE. OECOLOGIA, 70(3), 326-331. 10.1007/BF00379492
  • LEWIS, WM, JF SAUNDERS, SN LEVINE and FH WEIBEZAHN. (MAY 1986). ORGANIC-CARBON IN THE CAURA RIVER, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 31(3), 653-656. 10.4319/lo.1986.31.3.0653
  • LEWIS, WM. (5-Aug 1986). PHYTOPLANKTON SUCCESSION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. HYDROBIOLOGIA, 138, 189-203. 10.1007/BF00027240
  • LEWIS, WM. (OCT 1986). NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSSES FROM A NUTRIENT-POOR TROPICAL MOIST FOREST. ECOLOGY, 67(5), 1275-1282. 10.2307/1938683
  • LEWIS, WM, T FROST and D MORRIS. (MAY 1986). STUDIES OF PLANKTONIC BACTERIA IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 106(3), 289-305.
  • LEWIS, WM. (FEB 1986). EVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETATIONS OF ALLELOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN PHYTOPLANKTON ALGAE. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 127(2), 184-194. 10.1086/284477
  • MCCARTY, LB, JM DIPAOLA, WM LEWIS and WB GILBERT. (1985). TALL FESCUE RESPONSE TO PLANT-GROWTH RETARDANTS AND FERTILIZER SOURCES. Agron. J., 77(3), 476-480.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1985). WORLD-HEALTH-ORGANIZATION, GUIDELINES ON ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS. Sci. Total Environ., 47(DEC), 83-91.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1985). NUTRIENT SCARCITY AS AN EVOLUTIONARY CAUSE OF HAPLOIDY. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 125(5), 692-701. 10.1086/284372
  • LEWIS, WM, MC GRANT and SK HAMILTON. (1985). EVIDENCE THAT FILTERABLE PHOSPHORUS IS A SIGNIFICANT ATMOSPHERIC LINK IN THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE. OIKOS, 45(3), 428-432. 10.2307/3565578
  • LEVINE, SN and WM LEWIS. (1985). THE HORIZONTAL HETEROGENEITY OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 30(6), 1240-1245. 10.4319/lo.1985.30.6.1240
  • LEWIS, WM. (1985). PROTOZOAN ABUNDANCES IN THE PLANKTON OF 2 TROPICAL LAKES. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 104(3), 337-343.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1984). THE DIATOM SEX CLOCK AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 123(1), 73-80. 10.1086/284187
  • LEWIS, WM. (1984). A 5-YEAR RECORD OF TEMPERATURE, MIXING, AND STABILITY FOR A TROPICAL LAKE (LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA). ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 99(3), 340-346.
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS. (1984). COST AND SPEED OF LOCOMOTION FOR ROTIFERS. OECOLOGIA, 61(3), 289-292. 10.1007/BF00379624
  • LEWIS, WM, MC GRANT and JF SAUNDERS. (1984). CHEMICAL-PATTERNS OF BULK ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN THE STATE OF COLORADO. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 20(11), 1691-1704. 10.1029/WR020i011p01691
  • UNGER, PA, WM LEWIS and DH MCCLEARN. (1984). NONVISUAL FEEDING IN A VISUAL PLANKTIVORE, XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE. OECOLOGIA, 64(2), 280-283. 10.1007/BF00376883
  • LEWIS, WM and SN LEVINE. (1984). THE LIGHT RESPONSE OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 29(4), 894-900. 10.4319/lo.1984.29.4.0894
  • LEVINE, SN and WM LEWIS. (1984). DIEL VARIATION OF NITROGEN-FIXATION IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 29(4), 887-893. 10.4319/lo.1984.29.4.0887
  • CRESSA, C and WM LEWIS. (1984). GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS IN A TROPICAL CHAOBORUS SPECIES AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 100(1), 21-28.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1983). INTERRUPTION OF SYNTHESIS AS A COST OF SEX IN SMALL ORGANISMS. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 121(6), 825-834. 10.1086/284106
  • LEWIS, WM. (1983). A REVISED CLASSIFICATION OF LAKES BASED ON MIXING. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES, 40(10), 1779-1787. 10.1139/f83-207
  • LEWIS, WM. (1983). COLLECTION OF AIRBORNE MATERIALS BY A WATER-SURFACE. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 28(6), 1242-1246. 10.4319/lo.1983.28.6.1242
  • LEWIS, WM. (1983). TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND MIXING IN LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 28(2), 273-286. 10.4319/lo.1983.28.2.0273
  • LEWIS, WM. (1983). INTERCEPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC FIXED NITROGEN AS AN ADAPTIVE ADVANTAGE OF SCUM FORMATION IN BLUE-GREEN-ALGAE. JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, 19(4), 534-536. 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1983.00534.x
  • UNGER, PA and WM LEWIS. (1983). SELECTIVE PREDATION WITH RESPECT TO BODY SIZE IN A POPULATION OF THE FISH XENOMELANIRIS-VENEZUELAE (ATHERINIDAE). ECOLOGY, 64(5), 1136-1144. 10.2307/1937824
  • LEWIS, WM. (1982). CHANGES IN PH AND BUFFERING CAPACITY OF LAKES IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 27(1), 167-172. 10.4319/lo.1982.27.1.0167
  • GRANT, MC and WM LEWIS. (1982). CHEMICAL LOADING RATES FROM PRECIPITATION IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. TELLUS, 34(1), 74-88.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1982). VERTICAL EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES IN A LARGE TROPICAL LAKE. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 27(1), 161-163. 10.4319/lo.1982.27.1.0161
  • LEWIS, WM and W RIEHL. (1982). PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGY IN LAKE-VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. INTERNATIONALE REVUE DER GESAMTEN HYDROBIOLOGIE, 67(3), 297-322.
  • LEWIS, WM and JI WADDINGTON. (1981). WHO INTERNATIONAL DRINKING-WATER STANDARDS REVISED. Sci. Total Environ., 18(APR), 285-292.
  • SMITH, KM and WM LEWIS. (1981). PARTIAL SYNTHESIS OF CHLOROPHYLL-A FROM RHODOCHLORIN. Tetrahedron, 37(Suppl. 9), 399-403.
  • LEWIS, WM and FH WEIBEZAHN. (1981). CHEMISTRY OF A 7.5-M SEDIMENT CORE FROM LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 26(5), 907-924. 10.4319/lo.1981.26.5.0907
  • LEWIS, WM and FH WEIBEZAHN. (1981). ACID-RAIN AND MAJOR SEASONAL-VARIATION OF HYDROGEN-ION LOADING IN A TROPICAL WATERSHED. ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA, 32(3), 236-238.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1981). PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY AND NUTRIENT LOADING BY PRECIPITATION IN A TROPICAL WATERSHED. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 17(1), 169-181. 10.1029/WR017i001p00169
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS. (1981). PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN COPEPODS. SCIENCE, 214(4527), 1349-1350. 10.1126/science.214.4527.1349
  • BRADBURY, JP, B LEYDEN, M SALGADOLABOURIAU, WM LEWIS, C SCHUBERT, MW BINFORD, DG FREY, DR WHITEHEAD and FH WEIBEZAHN. (1981). LATE QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF LAKE VALENCIA, VENEZUELA. SCIENCE, 214(4527), 1299-1305. 10.1126/science.214.4527.1299
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1981). EFFECT OF THE MAY-JUNE MOUNT ST-HELENS ERUPTIONS ON PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY IN CENTRAL COLORADO. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 15(9), 1539-1542. 10.1016/0004-6981(81)90136-0
  • LEWIS, WM and F WEIBEZAHN. (1981). THE CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE ORINOCO AND CARONI RIVERS, VENEZUELA. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 91(4), 521-528.
  • SMITH, KM, JAP BAPTISTADEALMEIDA and WM LEWIS. (1980). STUDIES OF SPIRO-CHLORIN FORMATION USING PORPHYRIN AMIDES. J. Heterocycl. Chem., 17(3), 481-487.
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1980). ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED-STATES. SCIENCE, 207(4427), 176-177. 10.1126/science.207.4427.176
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1980). EFFECT OF URBAN SOURCES ON ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED-STATES - REPLY. SCIENCE, 210(4473), 1043-1043. 10.1126/science.210.4473.1043-a
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS. (1980). METABOLIC UNIFORMITY OVER THE ENVIRONMENTAL-TEMPERATURE RANGE IN BRACHIONUS-PLICATILIS (ROTIFERA). HYDROBIOLOGIA, 73(3-Jan), 145-147. 10.1007/BF00019439
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS. (1980). THE NATURE AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF METABOLIC CHANGES DURING THE LIFE-HISTORY OF COPEPODS. ECOLOGY, 61(2), 259-264. 10.2307/1935183
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1980). RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SNOW COVER AND WINTER LOSSES OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES FROM A MOUNTAIN WATERSHED. ARCTIC AND ALPINE RESEARCH, 12(1), 11-17. 10.2307/1550586
  • LEWIS, WM and JF SAUNDERS. (1979). 2 NEW INTEGRATING SAMPLERS FOR ZOOPLANKTON, PHYTOPLANKTON, AND WATER CHEMISTRY. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 85(2), 244-249.
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1979). CHANGES IN THE OUTPUT OF IONS FROM A WATERSHED AS A RESULT OF THE ACIDIFICATION OF PRECIPITATION. ECOLOGY, 60(6), 1093-1097. 10.2307/1936955
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1979). RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STREAM DISCHARGE AND YIELD OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES FROM A COLORADO MOUNTAIN WATERSHED. SOIL SCIENCE, 128(6), 353-363. 10.1097/00010694-197912000-00007
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS. (1979). METABOLIC RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE-CHANGE IN A TROPICAL FRESHWATER COPEPOD (MESOCYCLOPS-BRASILIANUS) AND THEIR ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE. OECOLOGIA, 42(2), 123-138. 10.1007/BF00344853
  • EPP, RW and WM LEWIS. (1979). SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN BRACHIONUS-PLICATILIS (ROTIFERA) - EVOLUTIONARY AND ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE. EVOLUTION, 33(3), 919-928. 10.2307/2407655
  • DEINFANTE, A, O INFANTE, M MARQUEZ, WM LEWIS and FH WEIBEZAHN. (1979). CONDITIONS LEADING TO MASS MORTALITY OF FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON IN LAKE VALENCIA VENEZUELA. ACTA CIENTIFICA VENEZOLANA, 30(1), 67-73.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1978). ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSION IN A TROPICAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY AND A NEW MEASURE OF SUCCESSION RATE. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 112(984), 401-414. 10.1086/283282
  • LEWIS, WM. (1978). COMPARISON OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN ZOOPLANKTON OF A LAKE BY MEANS OF VARIANCE COMPONENTS. ECOLOGY, 59(4), 666-671.
  • LEWIS, WM and MC GRANT. (1978). SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL INTERPRETATION OF PRECIPITATION FOR MASS BALANCE STUDIES. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 14(6), 1098-1104. 10.1029/WR014i006p01098
  • LEWIS, WM. (1978). COMPOSITIONAL, PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL AND ELEMENTARY STRUCTURAL-ANALYSIS OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE - LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 66(1), 213-226. 10.2307/2259189
  • LEWIS, WM. (1978). DYNAMICS AND SUCCESSION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE - LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 66(3), 849-880. 10.2307/2259300
  • LEWIS, WM. (1978). SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN A TROPICAL LAKE (LAKE LANAO, PHILIPPINES). INTERNATIONALE REVUE DER GESAMTEN HYDROBIOLOGIE, 63(5), 619-635. 10.1002/iroh.19780630508
  • EIVAZI, F, WM LEWIS and KM SMITH. (1977). FRAGMENTATION REACTIONS OF BILINDIONES. Tetrahedron Lett.(35), 3083-3086.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1977). COMMENTS ON ANALYSIS OF GRAZING IN LAKE ERKEN. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 22(5), 966-967. 10.4319/lo.1977.22.5.0966
  • LEWIS, WM. (1977). FEEDING SELECTIVITY OF A TROPICAL CHAOBORUS POPULATION. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 7(4), 311-325. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1977.tb01679.x
  • LEWIS, WM. (1977). NET GROWTH-RATE THROUGH TIME AS AN INDICATOR OF ECOLOGICAL SIMILARITY AMONG PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES. ECOLOGY, 58(1), 149-157. 10.2307/1935116
  • LEWIS, WM. (1977). ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SHAPES OF ABUNDANCE-FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR COEXISTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES. ECOLOGY, 58(4), 850-859. 10.2307/1936220
  • LEWIS, WM and D CANFIELD. (1977). DISSOLVED ORGANIC-CARBON IN SOME DARK VENEZUELAN WATERS AND A REVISED EQUATION FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC-CARBON. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 79(4), 441-445.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1976). SURFACE/VOLUME RATIO - IMPLICATIONS FOR PHYTOPLANKTON MORPHOLOGY. SCIENCE, 192(4242), 885-887. 10.1126/science.192.4242.885
  • LEWIS, WM. (1976). OBSERVATIONS ON SUPERFICIAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURES OF SOME LAKES IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED-STATES. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 6(1), 49-57. 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1976.tb01590.x
  • SATCHELL, DP, SD CRAWFORD and WM LEWIS. (1975). STATUS OF SEDIMENT FROM CATFISH PRODUCTION PONDS AS A FERTILIZER AND SOIL CONDITIONER. PROGRESSIVE FISH-CULTURIST, 37(4), 191-193.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1975). THEORETICAL COMPARISON OF ATTENUATION OF LIGHT ENERGY AND QUANTA IN WATERS OF DIVERGENT OPTICAL-PROPERTIES. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 75(3), 285-296.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1974). EFFECTS OF FIRE ON NUTRIENT MOVEMENT IN A SOUTH-CAROLINA PINE FOREST. Ecology, 55(5), 1120-1127.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1974). ANALYSIS OF SURFACE SLICKS IN A RESERVOIR RECEIVING HEATED EFFLUENT. ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, 74(3), 304-315.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1974). PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN PLANKTON COMMUNITY OF A TROPICAL LAKE. Ecol. Monogr., 44(4), 377-409.
  • LEWIS, WM and JA TYBURCZY. (1974). AMOUNTS AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SOME FRESHWATERS OF SOUTHEASTERN US. Arch. Hydrobiol., 74(1), 8-17.
  • COPE, WA, TW WALDREP, DS CHAMBLEE and WM LEWIS. (1973). EVALUATION OF HERBICIDES IN ESTABLISHMENT OF ALFALFA, LADINO WHITE CLOVER, AND CROWNVETCH. Agron. J., 65(5), 820-825.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1973). THERMAL REGIME OF LAKE LANAO (PHILIPPINES) AND ITS THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR TROPICAL LAKES. Limnol. Oceanogr., 18(2), 200-217.
  • LEWIS, WM. (1970). MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYPRINODONTOIDS FOR INHABITING OXYGEN DEFICIENT WATERS. Copeia(2), 319-&.