Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Christopher W. Fairall

Research Interests

I am a physicist at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where I heads the Boundary-Layer Observations and Processes team. I have spent decades developing and deploying air-sea interaction observing systems for NOAA ships and aircraft and have participated in nearly 50 research field programs and cruises from the Tropics to the Arctic icecap. My work is devoted to making direct measurements for verifying and improving the representation of air-sea interaction processes (surface evaporation, absorption of heat, generation of waves, uptake of carbon dioxide) in climate models used for climate change projections.

Current Research

Recently Dr. Fairall has been working on analyzing observations from the High Wind Gas exchange Study (HiWinGS) conducted from the Research Vessel Knorr south of Greenland in fall 2013 (Fig. 1). The project was a cooperation of CIRES, NOAA/ESRL, LDEO Columbia University, the University of Connecticut, and the University of Leeds (UK). Observations included air-sea fluxes of several trace gases including CO2 and DMS, whitecap coverage, surface wave spectra, and oceanic bubbles. During the three-month field program, we obtained the first measurements of these parameters with wind speeds exceeding 20 m/s. The data definitively show that parameterizations of whitecap fraction currently used in gas-transfer models are wrong at high wind speeds. We are now using a unique ocean wave model to relate wind and wave characteristics to whitecaps (Fig. 2) and gas transfer. The results are intended to improve NOAA's COARE Gas flux parameterization.



Figure 1. Photograph taken from the bridge of R/V Knorr during the St. Jude’s Day storm in November 2013. The ship was about 200 km south of the southern tip of Greenland. The flux instruments are visible as a cluster on the top of the foremast. Wind speed in the storm topped 25 m/s.

Figure 2. Representation of the dependence of wavebreaking whitecap coverage of the ocean as a function of wind speed (U10) and phase speed (Cp) of the peak of the wave spectrum. The continuous lines are from the University of New South Wales wave model; the symbols are observations from HiWinGS. The legend gives the value of U10 for each model set.

Honors and Awards

  • Member of the NOAA CPPA Science Steering Committee
  • Fellow of the American Meteorological Society
  • AMS Sverdrup Gold Medal winner

View Publications

  • Bharti, V; Fairall, CW; Blomquist, BW; Huang, Y; Protat, A; Sullivan, PP; Siems, ST; Manton, MJ. (16-Dec 2019). Air-Sea Heat and Momentum Fluxes in the Southern Ocean. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 124(23), 12426-12443. 10.1029/2018JD029761
  • Bharti, V; Schulz, E; Fairall, CW; Blomquist, BW; Huang, Y; Protat, A; Siems, ST; Manton, MJ. (SEP 2019). Assessing Surface Heat Flux Products with In Situ Observations over the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY, 36(9), 1849-1861. 10.1175/JTECH-D-19-0009.1
  • Cronin, MF; Gentemann, CL; Edson, J; Ueki, I; Bourassa, M; Brown, S; Clayson, CA; Fairall, CW; Farrar, JT; Gille, ST; Gulev, S; Josey, SA; Kato, S; Katsumata, M; Kent, E; Krug, M; Minnett, PJ; Parfitt, R; Pinker, RT; Stackhouse, PW; Swart, S; Tomita, H; Vandemark, D; AWeller, R; Yoneyama, K; Yu, L; Zhang, DX. (31-Jul 2019). Air-Sea Fluxes With a Focus on Heat and Momentum. FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE, 6. 10.3389/fmars.2019.00430
  • Shinoda, T; Zamudio, L; Guo, YJ; Metzger, EJ; Fairall, CW. (15-Feb 2019). Ocean variability and air-sea fluxes produced by atmospheric rivers. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 9. 10.1038/s41598-019-38562-2
  • Thompson, EJ; Moum, JN; Fairall, CW; Rutledge, SA. (FEB 2019). Wind Limits on Rain Layers and Diurnal Warm Layers. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 124(2), 897-924. 10.1029/2018JC014130
  • Grachev, AA, POG Persson, T Uttal, EA Akish, CJ Cox, SM Morris, CW Fairall, RS Stone, G Lesins, AP Makshtas and IA Repina. (SEP 2018). Seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes at two Arctic terrestrial sites. CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 51(6-May), 1793-1818. 10.1007/s00382-017-3983-4
  • Persson, POG, B Blomquist, P Guest, S Stammerjohn, C Fairall, L Rainville, B Lund, S Ackley and J Thomson. (Nov 2018). Shipboard Observations of the Meteorology and Near-Surface Environment During Autumn Freezeup in the Beaufort/Chukchi Seas. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 123(7), 4930-4969. 10.1029/2018JC013786
  • Guest, P, POG Persson, SP Wang, M Jordan, Y Jin, B Blomquist and C Fairall. (Nov 2018). Low-Level Baroclinic Jets Over the New Arctic Ocean. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 123(6), 4074-4091. 10.1002/2018JC013778
  • Thomson, J; Ackley, S; Girard-Ardhuin, F; Ardhuin, F; Babanin, A; Boutin, G; Brozena, J; Cheng, SK; Collins, C; Doble, M; Fairall, C; Guest, P; Gebhardt, C; Gemmrich, J; Graber, HC; Holt, B; Lehner, S; Lund, B; Meylan, MH; Maksym, T; Montiel, F; Perrie, W; Persson, O; Rainville, L; Rogers, WE; Shen, H; Shen, H; Squire, V; Stammerjohn, S; Stopa, J; Smith, MM; Sutherland, P; Wadhams, P. (DEC 2018). Overview of the Arctic Sea State and Boundary Layer Physics Program. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 123(12), 8674-8687. 10.1002/2018JC013766
  • Dole, RM, JR Spackman, iman, W Otto, O Persson, XW Quan, I RangwalaM Newman, GP Compo, CA Smith, LM Hartten, JJ Barsugli, RS Webb, MP Hoerling, R Cifelli, K Wolter, CD Barnet, M Gehne, R Gelaro, GN Kiladis, S Abbott, E Akish, J Albers, JM Brown, CJ Cox, L Darby, G de Boer, B DeLuisi, J Dias, J Dunion, J Eischeid, C Fairall, A Gambacorta, BK Gorton, A Hoell, J Intrieri, D Jackson, PE Johnston, R Lataitis, KM Mahoney, K McCaffrey, HA McColl, MJ Mueller, D Murrrray, PJ Ne, AJ Ray, D Reynolds, ER Dellaripa, K Rosenlof, N Sakaeda, PD Sardeshmukh, LC Slivinski, L Smith, A Solomon, D Swales, S Tulich, A White, G Wick, MG Winterkorn, DE Wolfe and R Zamora. (MAY 2018). ADVANCING SCIENCE AND SERVICES DURING THE 2015/16 EL NINO The NOAA El Nino Rapid Response Field Campaign. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 99(5), 975-1002. 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0219.1
  • Fairall, CW, SY Matrosov, CR Williams and EJ Walsh. (MAR 2018). Estimation of Rain Rate from Airborne Doppler W-Band Radar in CalWater-2. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY, 35(3), 593-608. 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0025.1
  • Grachev, AA, LS Leo, HJS Fernando, CW Fairall, E Creegan, BW Blomquist, AJ Christman and CM Hocut. (MAY 2018). Air-Sea/Land Interaction in the Coastal Zone. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 167(2), 181-210. 10.1007/s10546-017-0326-2
  • Xu, W, A Lambe, P Silva, WW Hu, T Onasch, L Williams, P Croteau, X Zhang, L Renbaum-Wolff, E Fortner, JL Jimenez, J Jayne, D Worsnop and M Canagaratna. (2018). Laboratory evaluation of species-dependent relative ionization efficiencies in the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 52(6), 626-641. 10.1080/02786826.2018.1439570
  • Ralph, FM, SF Iacobellis, PJ Neiman, JM Cordeira, JR Spackman, DE Waliser, GA Wick, AB White and C Fairall. (SEP 2017). Dropsonde Observations of Total Integrated Water Vapor Transport within North Pacific Atmospheric Rivers. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 18(9), 2577-2596. 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0036.1
  • Blomquist, BW, SE Brumer, CW Fairall, BJ Huebert, CJ Zappa, IM Brooks, M Yang, L Bariteau, J Prytherch, JE Hare, H Czerski, A Matei and RW Pascal. (OCT 2017). Wind Speed and Sea State Dependencies of Air-Sea Gas Transfer: Results From the High Wind Speed Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 122(10), 8034-8062. 10.1002/2017JC013181
  • Neiman, PJ, N Gaggini, CW Fairall, J Aikins, JR Spackman, LR Leung, JW Fan, J Hardin, NR Nalli and AB White. (SEP 2017). An Analysis of Coordinated Observations from NOAAs Ronald H-Brown Ship and G-IV Aircraft in a Landfalling Atmospheric River over the North Pacific during CalWater-2015. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, 145(9), 3647-3669. 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0055.1
  • Collins, CO, B Blomquist, O Persson, B Lund, WE Rogers, J Thomson, D Wang, M Smith, M Doble, P Wadhams, A Kohout, C Fairall and HC Graber. (FEB 2017). Doppler Correction of Wave Frequency Spectra Measured by Underway Vessels. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY, 34(2), 429-436. 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0138.1
  • Brumer, SE, CJ Zappa, BW Blomquist, CW Fairall, A Cifuentes-Lorenzen, JB Edson, IM Brooks and BJ Huebert. (16-Oct 2017). Wave-Related Reynolds Number Parameterizations of CO2 and DMS Transfer Velocities. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 44(19), 9865-9875. 10.1002/2017GL074979
  • Brumer, SE, CJ Zappa, IM Brooks, H Tamura, SM Brown, BW Blomquist, CW Fairall and A Cifuentes-Lorenzen. (SEP 2017). Whitecap Coverage Dependence on Wind and Wave Statistics as Observed during SO GasEx and HiWinGS. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 47(9), 2211-2235. 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0005.1
  • Jung, T, ND Gordon, P Bauer, DH Bromwich, M Chevallier, JJ Day, J Dawson, F Doblas-Reyes, C Fairall, HF Goessling, M Holland, J Inoue, T Iversen, S Klebe, P Lemke, M Losch, A Makshtas, B Mills, P Nurmi, D Perovich, P Reid, IA Renfrew, G Smith, G Svensson, M Tolstykh and QH Yang. (SEP 2016). ADVANCING POLAR PREDICTION CAPABILITIES ON DAILY TO SEASONAL TIME SCALES. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 97(9), 1631-+. 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00246.1
  • Ralph, FM, KA Prather, D Cayan, JR Spackman, P DeMott, M Dettinger, C Fairall, R Leung, D Rosenfeld, S Rutledge, D Waliser, AB White, J Cordeira, A Martin, J Helly and J Intrieri. (JUL 2016). CALWATER FIELD STUDIES DESIGNED TO QUANTIFY THE ROLES OF ATMOSPHERIC RIVERS AND AEROSOLS IN MODULATING US WEST COAST PRECIPITATION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 97(7), 1209-1228. 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00043.1
  • Thomson, J, YL Fan, S Stammerjohn, J Stopa, WE Rogers, F Girard-Ardhuin, F Ardhuin, H Shen, W Perrie, H Shen, S Ackley, A Babanin, QX Liu, P Guest, T Maksym, P Wadhams, C Fairall, O Persson, M Doble, H Graber, B Lund, V Squire, J Gemmrich, S Lehner, B Holt, M Meylan, J Brozena and JR Bidlot. (SEP 2016). Emerging trends in the sea state of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. OCEAN MODELLING, 105, 1-12. 10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.02.009
  • Grachev, AA, LS Leo, S Di Sabatino, HJS Fernando, ER Pardyjak and CW Fairall. (JUN 2016). Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 159(3), 469-494. 10.1007/s10546-015-0034-8
  • Chen, S, M Flatau, TG Jensen, T Shinoda, J Schmidt, P May, J Cummings, M Liu, PE Ciesielski, CW Fairall, RC Lien, DB Baranowski, NH Chi, S de Szoeke and J Edson. (OCT 2015). A Study of CINDY/DYNAMO MJO Suppressed Phase. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 72(10), 3755-3779. 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0348.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson. (JUL 2015). Similarity theory based on the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 141(690), 1845-1856. 10.1002/qj.2488
  • De Szoeke, SP, JB Edson, JR Marion, CW Fairall and L Bariteau. (JAN 2015). The MJO and Air-Sea Interaction in TOGA COARE and DYNAMO. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 28(2), 597-622. 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00477.1
  • Ghate, VP, MA Miller, BA Albrecht and CW Fairall. (JAN 2015). Thermodynamic and Radiative Structure of Stratocumulus-Topped Boundary Layers. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 72(1), 430-451. 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0313.1
  • Coburn, S, I Ortega, R Thalman, B Blomquist, CW Fairall and R Volkamer. (2014). Measurements of diurnal variations and eddy covariance (EC) fluxes of glyoxal in the tropical marine boundary layer: description of the Fast LED-CE-DOAS instrument. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 7(10), 3579-3595. 10.5194/amt-7-3579-2014
  • Moum, JN, SP de Szoeke, WD Smyth, JB Edson, HL DeWitt, AJ Moulin, EJ Thompson, CJ Zappa, SA Rutledge, RH Johnson and CW Fairall. (AUG 2014). AIR-SEA INTERACTIONS FROM WESTERLY WIND BURSTS DURING THE NOVEMBER 2011 MJO IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 95(8), 1185-1199. 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00225.1
  • Blomquist, BW, BJ Huebert, CW Fairall, L Bariteau, JB Edson, JE Hare and WR McGillis. (SEP 2014). Advances in Air-Sea Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 152(3), 245-276. 10.1007/s10546-014-9926-2
  • Fairall, CW, S Pezoa, K Moran and D Wolfe. (28-May 2014). An observation of sea-spray microphysics by airborne Doppler radar. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 41(10), 3658-3665. 10.1002/2014GL060062
  • Mechoso, CR, R Wood, R Weller, CS Bretherton, AD Clarke, H Coe, C Fairall, JT Farrar, G Feingold, R Garreaud, C Grados, J McWilliams, SP de Szoeke, SE Yuter and P Zuidema. (MAR 2014). OCEAN-CLOUD-ATMOSPHERELAND INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PACIFIC. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 95(3), 357-375. 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00246.1
  • Boylan, P, D Helmig, R Staebler, A Turnipseed, C Fairall and W Neff. (16-Mar 2014). Boundary layer dynamics during the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Snow (OASIS) 2009 experiment at Barrow, AK. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 119(5), 2261-2278. 10.1002/2013JD020299
  • Ghate, VP, BA Albrecht, MA Miller, A Brewer and CW Fairall. (JAN 2014). Turbulence and Radiation in Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layers: A Case Study from VOCALS-REx. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY, 53(1), 117-135. 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0225.1
  • Meskhidze, N, MD Petters, K Tsigaridis, T Bates, C ODowd, J Reid, ER Lewis, B Gantt, MD Anguelova, PV Bhave, J Bird, AH Callaghan, D Ceburnis, R Chang, A Clarke, G de Leeuw, G Deane, PJ DeMott, S Elliot, MC Facchini, CW Fairall, L Hawkins, YX Hu, JG Hudson, MS Johnson, KC Kaku, WC Keene, DJ Kieber, MS Long, M Martensson, RL Modini, CL Osburn, KA Prather, A Pszenny, M Rinaldi, LM Russell, M Salter, AM Sayer, A Smirnov, SR Suda, TD Toth, DR Worsnop, A Wozniak and SR Zorn. (OCT 2013). Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of sea spray aerosols. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 14(4), 207-213. 10.1002/asl2.441
  • Edson, JB, V Jampana, RA Weller, SP Bigorre, AJ Plueddemann, CW Fairall, SD Miller, L Mahrt, D Vickers and H Hersbach. (AUG 2013). On the Exchange of Momentum over the Open Ocean. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 43(8), 1589-1610. 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0173.1
  • Vecherin, SN, VE Ostashev, CW Fairall, DK Wilson and L Bariteau. (NOV 2013). Sonic Anemometer as a Small Acoustic Tomography Array. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 149(2), 165-178. 10.1007/s10546-013-9843-9
  • Yang, M, PD Nightingale, R Beale, PS Liss, B Blomquist and C Fairall. (10-Dec 2013). Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 110(50), 20034-20039. 10.1073/pnas.1317840110
  • Bourassa, MA, ST Gille, C Bitz, D Carlson, I Cerovecki, CA Clayson, MF Cronin, WM Drennan, CW Fairall, RN Hoffman, G Magnusdottir, RT Pinker, IA Renfrew, M Serreze, K Speer, LD Talley and GA Wick. (MAR 2013). HIGH-LATITUDE OCEAN AND SEA ICE SURFACE FLUXES: CHALLENGES FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 94(3), 403-423. 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00244.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson. (APR 2013). The Critical Richardson Number and Limits of Applicability of Local Similarity Theory in the Stable Boundary Layer. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 147(1), 51-82. 10.1007/s10546-012-9771-0
  • Rodriguez-Alvarez, N, DM Akos, VU Zavorotny, JA Smith, A Camps and CW Fairall. (JAN 2013). Airborne GNSS-R Wind Retrievals Using Delay-Doppler Maps. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 51(1), 626-641. 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2196437
  • Ganzeveld, L, D Helmig, CW Fairall, J Hare and A Pozzer. (7-Nov 2009). Atmosphere-ocean ozone exchange: A global modeling study of biogeochemical, atmospheric, and waterside turbulence dependencies. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 23. 10.1029/2008GB003301
  • Ghate, VP, BA Albrecht, CW Fairall and RA Weller. (15-Oct 2009). Climatology of Surface Meteorology, Surface Fluxes, Cloud Fraction, and Radiative Forcing over the Southeast Pacific from Buoy Observations. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 22(20), 5527-5540. 10.1175/2009JCLI2961.1
  • Fairall, CW, ML Banner, WL Peirson, W Asher and RP Morison. (2-Oct 2009). Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 114. 10.1029/2008JC004918
  • Zuidema, P, D Painemal, S de Szoeke and C Fairall. (28-Aug 2009). Stratocumulus Cloud-Top Height Estimates and Their Climatic Implications. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 22(17), 4652-4666. 10.1175/2009JCLI2708.1
  • de Szoeke, SP, CW Fairall and S Pezoa. (JAN 2009). Ship Observations of the Tropical Pacific Ocean along the Coast of South America. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 22(2), 458-464. 10.1175/2008JCLI2555.1
  • Serpetzoglou, E, BA Albrecht, P Kollias and CW Fairall. (1-Dec 2008). Boundary Layer, Cloud, and Drizzle Variability in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus Regime. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 21(23), 6191-6214. 10.1175/2008JCLI2186.1
  • Weller, RA, EF Bradley, JB Edson, CW Fairall, I Brooks, MJ Yelland and RW Pascal. (2008). Sensors for physical fluxes at the sea surface: energy, heat, water, salt. OCEAN SCIENCE, 4(4), 247-263. 10.5194/os-4-247-2008
  • Wood, R, KK Comstock, CS Bretherton, C Cornish, J Tomlinson, DR Collins and C Fairall. (25-Jun 2008). Open cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 113(D12). 10.1029/2007JD009371
  • Fairall, CW, T Uttal, D Hazen, J Hare, MF Cronin, N Bond and DE Veron. (FEB 2008). Observations of cloud, radiation, and surface forcing in the equatorial eastern Pacific. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 21(4), 655-673. 10.1175/2007JCLI1757.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson. (MAR 2008). Turbulent measurements in the stable atmospheric boundary layer during SHEBA: ten years after. ACTA GEOPHYSICA, 56(1), 142-166. 10.2478/s11600-007-0048-9
  • Rauber, RM, B Stevens, HT Ochs, C Knight, BA Albrecht, AM Blyth, CW Fairall, JB Jensen, SG Lasher-Trapp, OL Mayol-Bracero, G Vali, JR Anderson, BA Baker, AR Bandy, E Burnet, JL Brenguier, WA Brewer, PRA Brown, P Chuang, WR Cotton, LD Girolamo, B Geerts, H Gerber, S Goke, L Gomes, BG Heikes, JG Hudson, P Kollias, RP Lawson, SK Krueger, DH Lenschow, L Nuijens, DW OSullivan, RA Rilling, DC Rogers, AP Siebesma, E Snodgrass, JL Stith, DC Thornton, S Tucker, CH Twohy and P Zuidema. (DEC 2007). Rain in shallow cumulus over the ocean - The RICO campaign. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 88(12), 1912-1928. 10.1175/BAMS-88-12-1912
  • Kara, AB, AJ Wallcraft, EJ Metzger, HE Hurlburt and CW Fairall. (DEC 2007). Wind stress drag coefficient over the global ocean. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 20(23), 5856-5864. 10.1175/2007JCLI1825.1
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson. (NOV 2007). On the turbulent Prandtl number in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 125(2), 329-341. 10.1007/s10546-007-9192-7
  • Cohen, L, D Helmig, WD Neff, AA Grachev and CW Fairall. (AUG 2007). Boundary-layer dynamics and its influence on atmospheric chemistry at Summit, Greenland. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 41(24), 5044-5060. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.068
  • Grachev, AA, EL Andreas, CW Fairall, PS Guest and POG Persson. (SEP 2007). SHEBA flux-profile relationships in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 124(3), 315-333. 10.1007/s10546-007-9177-6
  • Wolfe, DE, WA Brewer, SC Tucker, AB White, DE White, DC Welsh, D Ruffieux, CW Fairall, M Ratterree, JM Intrieri, BJ McCarty and DC Law. (3-Apr 2007). Shipboard multisensor merged wind profiles from the New England Air Quality Study 2004. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 112(D10). 10.1029/2006JD007344
  • Zuidema, P, C Fairall, LM Hartten, JE Hare and D Wolfe. (MAY 2007). On air-sea interaction at the mouth of the Gulf of California. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 20(9), 1649-1661. 10.1175/JCL14089.1
  • Fairall, CW, D Helmig, L Ganzeveld and J Hare. (25-Jan 2007). Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 7, 443-451. 10.5194/acp-7-443-2007
  • Angevine, WM, JE Hare, CW Fairall, DE Wolfe, RJ Hill, WA Brewer and AB White. (21-Nov 2006). Structure and formation of the highly stable marine boundary layer over the Gulf of Maine. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 111(D23). 10.1029/2006JD007465
  • Zhou, MY, XB Zeng, M Brunke, ZH Zhang and C Fairall. (25-Jan 2006). An analysis of statistical characteristics of stratus and stratocumulus over eastern Pacific. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 33(2). 10.1029/2005GL024796
  • Cronin, MF, NA Bond, CW Fairall and RA Weller. (1-Feb 2006). Surface cloud forcing in the East Pacific stratus deck/cold tongue/ITCZ complex. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 19(3), 392-409.
  • Blomquist, BW, CW Fairall, BJ Huebert, DJ Kieber and GR Westby. (5-Apr 2006). DMS sea-air transfer velocity: Direct measurements by eddy covariance and parameterization based on the NOAA/COARE gas transfer model. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 33(7). 10.1029/2006GL025735
  • Cronin, MF, CW Fairall and MJ McPhaden. (28-Jun 2006). An assessment of buoy-derived and numerical weather prediction surface heat fluxes in the tropical Pacific. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 111(C6). 10.1029/2005JC003324
  • Andreas, EL, KJ Claffey, RE Jordan, CW Fairall, PS Guest, POG Persson and AA Grachev. (25-Jul 2006). Evaluations of the von Karman constant in the atmospheric surface layer. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 559, 117-149. 10.1017/S0022112006000164
  • Zilitinkevich, SS, JCR Hunt, IN Esau, AA Grachev, DP Lalas, E Akylas, M Tombrou, CW Fairall, HJS Fernando, AA Baklanov and SM Joffre. (JUL 2006). The influence of large convective eddies on the surface-layer turbulence. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 132(618), 1423-1456. 10.1256/qj.05.79
  • Fairall, CW, L Bariteau, AA Grachev, RJ Hill, DE Wolfe, WA Brewer, SC Tucker, JE Hare and WM Angevine. (15-Dec 2006). Turbulent bulk transfer coefficients and ozone deposition velocity in the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research into Transport and Transformation. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 111(D23). 10.1029/JD007597
  • Zuidema, P, B Mapes, JL Lin, C Fairall and G Wick. (SEP 2006). The interaction of clouds and dry air in the Eastern tropical Pacific. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 19(18), 4531-4544. 10.1175/JCLI3836.1
  • Higgins, W, D Ahijevych, J Amador, A Barros, EH Berbery, E Caetano, R Carbone, P Ciesielski, R Cifelli, M Cortez-Vazquez, A Douglas, M Douglas, G Emmanuel, C Fairall, D Gochis, D Gutzler, T Jackson, R Johnson, C King, T Lang, MI Lee, D Lettenmaier, R Lobato, V Magana, J Meiten, K Mo, S Nesbitt, F Ocampo-Torres, E Pytlak, P Rogers, S Rutledge, J Schemm, S Schubert, A White, C Williams, A Wood, R Zamora and CD Zhang. (JAN 2006). The NAME 2004 field campaign and modelling strategy. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 87(1), 79-94. 10.1175/BAMS-87-1-79
  • Pyatt, HE, BA Albrecht, C Fairall, JE Hare, N Bond, P Minnis and JK Ayers. (1-Mar 2005). Evolution of marine atmospheric boundary layer structure across the cold tongue-ITCZ complex. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 18(5), 737-753.
  • Wick, GA, JC Ohlmann, CW Fairall and AT Jessup. (NOV 2005). Improved oceanic cool-skin corrections using a refined solar penetration model. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 35(11), 1986-1996.
  • Persson, POG, JE Hare, CW Fairall and WD Ott. (APR 2005). Air-sea interaction processes in warm and cold sectors of extratropical cyclonic storms observed during FASTEX. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 131(607), 877-912. 10.1256/jq.03.181
  • Zuidema, P, ER Westwater, C Fairall and D Hazen. (26-Oct 2005). Ship-based liquid water path estimates in marine stratocumulus. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 110(D20). 10.1029/2005JD005833
  • Grachev, AA, CW Fairall, POG Persson, EL Andreas and PS Guest. (AUG 2005). Stable boundary-layer scaling regimes: The Sheba data. BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY, 116(2), 201-235. 10.1007/s10546-004-2729-0
  • Zabotin, NA and JW Wright. (16-Mar 2004). Phase structure functions for ionospheric radio sounding: Dependence on irregularity scale. RADIO SCIENCE, 39(2). 10.1029/2003RS002882
  • Huebert, BJ, BW Blomquist, JE Hare, CW Fairall, JE Johnson and TS Bates. (14-Dec 2004). Measurement of the sea-air DMS flux and transfer velocity using eddy correlation. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 31(23). 10.1029/2004GL021567
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, CJ Zappa, JD Ware, SP McKenna, EA Terray, JE Hare, CW Fairall, W Drennan, M Donelan, MD DeGrandpre, R Wanninkhof and RA Feely. (28-Aug 2004). Air-sea CO2 exchange in the equatorial Pacific. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 109(C8). 10.1029/2003JC002256
  • Kollias, P, CW Fairall, P Zuidema, J Tomlinson and GA Wick. (30-Nov 2004). Observations of marine stratocumulus in SE Pacific during the PACS 2003 cruise. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 31(22). 10.1029/2004GL020751
  • Hare, JE, CW Fairall, WR McGillis, JB Edson, B Ward and R Wanninkhof. (16-Jul 2004). Evaluation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Coupled-Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment (NOAA/COARE) air-sea gas transfer parameterization using GasEx data. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 109(C8). 10.1029/2003JC001831
  • Fairall, CW, EF Bradley, JE Hare, AA Grachev and JB Edson. (FEB 2003). Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: Updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 16(4), 571-591. 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0571:BPOASF>2.0.CO;2
  • Andreas, EL, CW Fairall, POG Persson and PS Guest. (SEP 2003). Probability distributions for the inner scale and the refractive index structure parameter and their implications for flux averaging. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY, 42(9), 1316-1329. 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1316:PDFTIS>2.0.CO;2
  • Grachev, AA, CW Fairall, JE Hare, JB Edson and SD Miller. (NOV 2003). Wind stress vector over ocean waves. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 33(11), 2408-2429. 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<2408:WSVOOW>2.0.CO;2
  • Andreas, EL, PS Guest, POG Persson, CW Fairall, TW Horst, RE Moritz and SR Semmer. (30-Aug 2002). Near-surface water vapor over polar sea ice is always near ice saturation. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 107(C10). 10.1029/2000JC000411
  • Intrieri, JM, CW Fairall, MD Shupe, POG Persson, EL Andreas, PS Guest and RE Moritz. (SEP-OCT 2002). An annual cycle of Arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 107(C10). 10.1029/2000JC000439
  • Zilitinkevich, SS, AA Grachev and CW Fairall. (2001). Scaling reasoning and field data on the sea surface roughness lengths for scalars. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 58(3), 320-325. 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0320:NACRAF>2.0.CO;2
  • Grachev, AA and CW Fairall. (2001). Upward momentum transfer in the marine boundary layer. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 31(7), 1698-1711. 10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<1698:UMTITM>2.0.CO;2
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, JE Hare and CW Fairall. (15-Aug 2001). Direct covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 106(C8), 16729-16745. 10.1029/2000JC000506
  • McGillis, WR, JB Edson, JD Ware, JWH Dacey, JE Hare, CW Fairall and R Wanninkhof. (SEP 2001). Carbon dioxide flux techniques performed during GasEx-98. MARINE CHEMISTRY, 75(4), 267-280. 10.1016/S0304-4203(01)00042-1
  • Frisch, AS, G Feingold, CW Fairall, T Uttal and JB Snider. (27-Sep 1998). On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 103(D18), 23195-23197. 10.1029/98JD01827
  • Fairall, CW, POG Persson, EF Bradley, RE Payne and SP Anderson. (DEC 1998). A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY, 15(6), 1229-1242. 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<1229:ANLACA>2.0.CO;2
  • Post, MJ, CW Fairall, JB Snider, Y Han, AB White, WL Ecklund, KM Weickmann, PK Quinn, DI Cooper, SM Sekelsky, RE McIntosh, P Minnett and RO Knuteson. (DEC 1997). The Combined Sensor Program: An air-sea science mission in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 78(12), 2797-2815. 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2797:TCSPAA>2.0.CO;2
  • CHERTOCK, B, CW FAIRALL and AB WHITE. (20-Oct 1993). SURFACE-BASED MEASUREMENTS AND SATELLITE RETRIEVALS OF BROKEN CLOUD PROPERTIES IN THE EQUATORIAL PACIFIC. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 98(D10), 18489-18500. 10.1029/93JD01737