Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Elizabeth Weatherhead Group

Understanding the Earth Through Expert Analysis of Observations

Dr. Weatherhead has received a number of awards for her scientific work on weather, climate, stratospheric ozone, UV radiation and unmanned aircraft.  proud to share a number of awards including the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for her contributions on understanding the Arctic climate. She has led a number of successful groups to develop programs and increase scientific activity in a number of areas (Arctic research, unmanned aircraft, renewable energy and weather forecasting).  She is a demonstrated leader, equally comfortable working with leaders in industry and academia. Most recently, she brought together leaders from academia, public sector and private sector to identify a path for the US to become significantly better at weather forecasting.  Currently she is working with the international community to understand trends in tropospheric ozone around the globe. 

She has given senate testimony on Arctic weather, led a group of scientists to the hill to discuss weather forecasting, and maintains strong ties with the White House and State Department on issues of the environment.  She most recently (2014) was invited by the State Department to visit India and discuss new Indian-US relations with respect to atmospheric science.

Scientifically, she is often asked to consult on a variety of topics within atmospheric science that require high level statistical or technical expertise. Her background in solar radiation and its affects on all levels of the atmosphere have resulted in a number of publications and governmental reports. Her work on detecting changes in ozone culminated in the cover story on ozone recovery for Nature in 2006. Since then she has worked to establish defensible criteria for identifying when one weather forecasting model is better than another--even when the improvement is extremely small.  In January, 2017, she published a paper in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society on solar radiation; currently she has papers under review on satellite overlap and the value of surface networks.

Current research interests include the interface between weather and climate, renewable energy, particularly wind and solar, through a better understanding of long-term and short-term resources and predictability.  She taught environmental statistics in Spring, 2016, developing a new course that was well received by the highly talented students at CU who took the course.

In 2013 she was recognized by the University of Colorado for her work in advocating for women and minorities.

Project Development

2001-2006      Arctic Research

                      This effort, supported by the US Dept. of State and NOAA, developed a fifteen country effort to examine Arctic pollution, climate change and ozone depletion.  Dr. Weatherhead worked with the Dept. of State to complete two major assessments, where she was both lead author and a part of the executive team to define the scope and roles of participants.  She coordinated closely with the White House' Arctic Research Commission, leading the ARC to a set of meetings in Boulder to plan priorities for future work.

2006-2010      Unmanned Aircraft

                      Unmanned aircraft were considered somewhere between science fiction and a joke in 2006.  Betsy Weatherhead and Prof. Brian Argrow developed the Civilian Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, bringing together leaders from DoD, DHS, FAA, ICAO and academia to identify first applications for Unmanned Aircraft to test their safety and efficacy in a variety of applications.  Dr. Weatherhead led two groups:  one to explore meltponds over Greenland and one to evaluate images from unmanned aircraft over the Bering Sea.  The international group she founded to coordinate UAS efforts still exists and NOAA now has a fully funded UAS program which operates in conjunction with NASA.

2010-2012      Renewable Energy

                      Dr. Weatherhead worked closely with Dr. Melinda Marquis, NOAA, to identify key areas for the government to work on renewable energy.  She helped gather individuals, write proposals and clarify appropriate roles for improving weather forecasting that has resulted in a funded renewable energy program involving collaboration of both NOAA and DOE.  In the process, she led a set of international leaders to the AAAS meeting in Vancouver to work out appropriate roles for academia and government in supporting renewable energy research.  She continues to chair the renewable energy sessions at AGU each year, encouraging the next generation of scientists to contribute to this important field.

2012-2015      Weather Forecast Improvement

                      As the US continued to lose ground in its forecasting capabilities compared to a number of competitors in 2012, Dr. Weatherhead pulled together leaders from the public, private and academic communities to identify key steps to make advancements in weather.  The group worked together to identify key areas of agreement and then communicated those key findings broadly.  Dr. Weatherhead chaired four American Meteorological Society Summer Community Meetings, numerous face to face Forecast Improvement Group meetings and continues to work tirelessly to improve forecasting capabilities.  Her leadership in this area has been saluted by a number of organizations, including NOAA and AMS.

2016-2017      Developing the weather forecast system of the future

                     NOAA is advancing weather forecasting through the Next Generation Global Prediction System.  Dr. Weatherhead is proud to be a part of this effort, working to develop techniques for testing and verifying small improvements in forecasts.

2015-2017      Planning Observing Systems

                    Observations are the key to all decisions that affect water planning, severe weather mitigation, energy usage and resource management.  Dr. Weatherhead is working with colleagues to develop careful, and financially defensible approaches for planning the observing systems of the future.

Projects of Elizabeth Weatherhead: 

NGGPS:  Statistical Considerations in Evaluation Weather Forecasts

GRUAN:  Evaluation of Surface Observing Networks

TOAR: Trends and Changes in Trends in Tropospheric Ozone

COSSEs:  Climate Observing System Simulation Experiments


Current Projects

Climate OSSE References

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Climate Observing System Simulation Experiments

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AMS / UCAR Congressional Visits September 12, 2012

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American Meteorological Society

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World Meteorological Organization

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Wind Forecasting

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UV Radiation Page

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Unmanned Aircraft Systems

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Ultraviolet Radiation

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Renewable Energy

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Ozone Recovery

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Ionosonde Analysis

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Ice Seal Analysis - results from unmanned aircraft flights

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Developmental Testbed Center (DTC)

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Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

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Analysis of Solar Renewable Energy

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Analysis of Solar Radiation Data

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April, 2017:  University of Colorado celebrated Earth Day with a wide variety of activities!  Betsy joined fellow panelists Steve Fenberg, state senator from Boulder and former head of New Era; Christina Gosnell, energy analyst; Suzanne Jones, head of Ecocycle and Boulder mayor; and Michael LeDesma, EPA attorney.  Students were interested in how to prepare for a career they would enjoy and find meaningful as opposed to a job.  The lively discussion was well attended and thoughtfully moderated.



February, 2017:  Betsy and Greg Bodeker, along with five additional co-authors submitted a paper on how well a surface monitoring network, such as GRUAN, can observe changes in the environment.  We hope this will be the beginning of many conversations on the subject as there are many criteria we use to evaluate observing entworks.

January, 2017:  AMS Annual Meeting in Seattle was one of the best ever, as it was dedicated to observations.  Betsy presented on the work she had developed with Ramaswamy (GFDL) and Bruce Wielicki (NASA/Langley).  The room was packed (helped that it was directly after the presidential forum) and the idea of coordinating climate observations was well received.

December, 2016:  Newly submitted Climate Observing System Simulation Experiment (C-OSSE) paper addressing the amount of time needed to overlap satellites in order to create long-term climate records.  Betsy is proud to have worked on this with esteemed colleagues Jerry Harder (CU Boulder), Eduardo Araujo (MDC) and six others.  The idea for the paper was Jerry's idea; Eduardo worked at bridging the data analysis communities with teh solar physics communities as well as carrying out the calculations.

November, 2017:  The American Meteorological Society awards Elizabeth C.Weatherhead "For Outstanding Service as Member and Chair, Forecast Improvement Group." 

May, 2016:  As one of the few climate scientists, Betsy participated in the 6th Workshop on the Impact of Various Observing Systems on NWP, presenting statistical techniques for evaluating observations for both weather and climate purposes.

April, 2016:  Betsy participated in the 8th  WMO GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) Implementation and Coordination Meeting in Boulder where she presented work showing how representative individual stations can be at monitoring monthly variations around the world.  Discussions at that meeting encouraged this work be turned into a publication which Betsy is working on with Greg Bodeker, GRUAN Co-Chair.

March, 2016: Betsy participated in the WMO Global Climate Observing System Meeting in Amsterdam where she gave a presentation on planning the climate observing systems of the future.

February, 2016: Drs. Weatherhead, Ramaswamy and Wielicki led a discussion of the US GLobal Change Research Program on organizing future climate observations around the World Climate Research Program's Grand Challenges.

January, 2016: Dr. Weatherhead participated in the Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society. At this meeting, she was honored for her work in founding and leading the Forecast Improvement Group and handed leadership of this group to the capable hands of Neil Jacobs.

December, 2015 For the eighth year, Dr. Weatherhead co-organized the Wind, Solar and Marine Renewable Energy sessions at AGU and gave an oral presentation on evaluating proposed climate observing systems.

September, 2015 Drs. Weatherhead and Wielicki presented ideas on how to structure a planned climate observing system to the US Global Change Research Program in Washington, DC.

July, 2015: Betsy and Prof. Steve Greybush lead a group of experts in discussions of timescales of predictability. The differences between intrinsic and practical limits of predictability were clarified and experts gave their opinions on the obstacles to improved predictability on short (0-24 hour), medium (1-7 day) and long (weeks to months) timescales.

May, 2015: All four renewable energy sessions submitted by Betsy Weatherhead and colleagues are accepted for AGU's Fall Meeting Betsy hosts Brian Argrow for a seminar on Unmanned Aircraft and its role in weather forecasting. Betsy chairs AMS Forecast Improvement Group Executive Committee Meeting FIQAS Team concludes Icing Product Assessment for submission.

April, 2015: Dr. Weathrhead participates in workshop to examine NASA's role in weather chaired byXubin Zeng (U. Arizona) and Tsengdar Lee

Weatherhead, E. C.. B. Wielicki, V. Ramaswamy, 2017, Designing the Climate Observing System of the Future, Submitted to AGU's Earth's Future.

Weatherhead, E. C., J. Harder and E. Araujo:  How long do satellites need to overlap?”, Submitted to EGU's Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

Weatherhead, Betsy, Aapo Tanskanen, Amy Stevermer, Signe Bech Andersen, Antti Arola, John Austin, Germar Bernhard et al. "Ozone and ultraviolet radiation." (2005): 151-182.

World Meteorological Organization, 1997, Guidelines for Site Quality Control of UV Monitoring No. 126, Les Diablarets, Switzerland

World Meteorological Organization, 1997, Report of the WMO-WHO Meeting of Experts on Standardization of UV Indices and their dissemination to the public, Global Atmospheric Watch No. 127, Les Diablarets, Switzerland

World Meteorological Organization, 1994, Report of the WMO/STUK Intercomparison of Erythemailly-Weighted Solar UV Radiometers, Global Atmospheric Watch No. 112, Les Diablarets, Switzerland

World Meteorological Organization, 1994, Report of the WMO Meeting of Experts on UV-B Measurements, Data Quality and Standardization of UV Indices, Global Atmospheric Watch No. 95, Les Diablarets, Switzerland

World Meteorological Organization, 1994, Report of the WMO Meeting of Experts on Broadband UV Radiometers, Global Atmospheric Watch No. 120, Garmisch-Partenkirchen.  

World Health Organizaion, 1994, Ultraviolet Radiation, Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) 160, Geneva

Weatherhead, E.C., Stevermer, A.J. and Schwartz, B.E., 2002. Detecting environmental changes and trends. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 27(6), pp.399-403.

Reinsel, G.C., Miller, A.J., Weatherhead, E.C., Flynn, L.E., Nagatani, R.M., Tiao, G.C. and Wuebbles, D.J., 2005. Trend analysis of total ozone data for turnaround and dynamical contributions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D16).

Weatherhead, E. C., G. Bodeker and A. Fasso, “Spatial Coverage of Finite Monitoring Stations,” SUubmitted to AMS' Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

Bruhwiler, L.M., Basu, S., Bergamaschi, P., Bousquet, P., Dlugokencky, E., Houweling, S., Ishizawa, M., Kim, H.S., Locatelli, R., Maksyutov, S. and Montzka, S., S. Pandey,P. K. Patra, G. Petron, M. Saunois, C. Sweeney, S. Schwietzke, P. Tans,E. C. Weatherhead, 2017. US CH4 emissions from oil and gas production: Have recent large increases been detected?. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(7), pp.4070-4083.

Weatherhead, Elizabeth C., and Christopher Clack. "SOLAR RENEWABLE ENERGY The Important and Challenging Role for Meteorology." (2017): 19-22.

Martinez-Levasseur, L., M.A. Birch-Machin, A., Bowman, D. Gendron, E. Weatherhead, R. J. Knell and K. Acevedo-Whitehouse., Whales use distinct strategies to counteract solar ultraviolet radiation, Nature (2013)

Crowe, W., K.D. Davis, A. la Cour-Harbo, T. Vihma, S. Lesenkov, R. Eppi, E.C. Weatherhead, P. Liu, M. Raustein, M. Abrahamsson, K-S. Johansen, D. Marshall, “Enabling Science use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring, AMAP 6 (2012)

International Arctic Science Committe, 1994.  Effects of increased ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic: an interdisciplinary report on the state of knowledge and research needs.  UNEP, 2, Oslo, Norway.

Scientific Committe on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), 1992. Effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on global ecosystems., Sardinia, CEC/UNEP.

Weatherhead, E., (2011) Solar Renewable Energy. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (in review).

Weatherhead, E. and G. Frederick (2011), Building a Stronger Weather and Climate Enterprise: Keeping the Economy Moving. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (accepted, in press).

Mulac, B. and R. Storvold and E. C. Weatherhead, 2011: Remote Sensing in the Arctic with Unmanned Aircraft: Helping Scientists to Achieve Their Goals. ISPR Journal, 116.

Fischer, E. F., D. A. Jaffe and E. C. Weatherhead, 2011: Free tropospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate and ozone at Mount Bachelor: Causes of Variability and Timescales for Trend Detection. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi: 10.5194/acpd-11-4105-2011.

Marquis, M., S. Albers and E. C. Weatherhead, 2011: For Better Integration, Improve the Forecast. Solar Today, 25 , 52 pp.

Weatherhead, E; Gearheard, S; Barry, RG (2010), Changes in weather persistence: Insight from Inuit knowledge. Glob. Environ. Change-Human Policy Dimens., 20 Sp. Iss. SI (3) 523-528, issn: 0959-3780, ids: 626NZ, doi: 0.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.02.002, Published AUG 2010.

Fischer, E. F., D. A. Jaffe and E. C. Weatherhead, 2011: Free tropospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate and ozone at Mount Bachelor: Causes of Variability and Timescales for Trend Detection. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi: 10.5194/acpd-11-4105-2011.

Argrow, B; Weatherhead, E; Frew, EW (2009), Real-Time Participant Feedback from the Symposium for Civilian Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. J. Intell. Robot. Syst., 54 Sp. Iss. SI (3-Jan) 87-103, issn: 0921-0296, ids: 423GN, doi: 10.1007/s10846-008-9259-9, Published MAR 2009.

Miller, A.J., Cai, A., Tiao, G., Wuebbles, D.J., Flynn, L.E., Yang, S.K., Weatherhead, E.C., Fioletov, V., Petropavlovskikh, I., Meng, X.L. and Guillas, S., 2006. Examination of ozonesonde data for trends and trend changes incorporating solar and Arctic oscillation signals. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D13).

Crowe, W., Davis, K.D., la Cour-Harbo, A., Vihma, T., Lesenkov, S., Eppi, R., Weatherhead, E.C., Liu, P., Raustein, M., Abrahamsson, M. and Johansen, K.S., 2012. Enabling Science use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring. Arctic Monitoring and Asessment Programme (AMAP).

Whiteman, D., K. Vermeesch, L. Oman and E. Weatherhead, 2011: The relative importance of random error and observation frequency in detecting trends in upper tropospheric water vapor. Journal of Geophysical Researach, D21118, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016610.

Weatherhead, E. C, and S. B. Andersen, The search for signs of recovery of the ozone layer.  Nature.  May 4;441(7089):39-45, 2006.

Andersen, S. B., E. C. Weatherhead, A. Stevermer, J. Austin, C. Brühl, E. L. Fleming. J. de Grandpré, V. Grewe, I. Isaksen, G. Pitari, R. W. Portmann, B. Rognerud, J. E. Rosenfield, S. Smyshlyaev, T. Nagashima, G. J. M. Velders, D. K. Weisenstein,  and J. Xia, Comparison of recent modeled and observed trends in total column ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, D02303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006091, 2006 .

Miller, A. J.,  A. Cai, G. Tiao, D. J. Wuebbles, L. E. Flynn, S.-K. Yang, E. C. Weatherhead, V. Fioletov, I, Petropavlovskikh, X.-L. Meng, S, Guillas, R. M. Nagatani, G. C. Reinsel, Examination of ozonesonde data for trends and trend changes incorporating solar and Arctic oscillation signals, JGR, VOL. 111, D13305, doi:10.1029/2005JD006684, 2006.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (a) Determine the trends in UV-B flux at the individual Brewer sites, at groups of similar sites and/or across the network. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (b) Analyze the factors affecting the observations and trends at each site (and across the network, as appropriate) including correlations with changes in the ozone column, changes in stratospheric ozone, changes in ground level ozone, changes attributable to other pollutants or atmospheric constituents, , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (c) Analyze the major factors affecting the UV-B flux, including solar angle, latitude, elevation, cloud cover, pollution levels and composition, , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (d) Analyze the direct versus indirect exposures to UV-B radiation and the factors affecting the ratio. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (e) Compare the UV-B flux measurements with the predictions of the National Weather Service Ozone Watch Program, together with an analysis of the differences and potential causes for the discrepancies. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (f) Compare the Brewer UV-B measurements with those of the Tropospheric Ultraviolet (TUV) Model, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements, and provide an analysis of the differences of those measurements and the causes of those differences. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (g) Compare the UV-B measurements with air pollution measurements to determine the effects of tropospheric air pollution on UV-B exposures. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (h) Compare trends in UV-B flux measured by the network at mid-latitudes in the United States to United National Environmental Program (UNEP) data. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (i) Determine the effect of clouds/haze/aerosols on UV-B exposure. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (j) Analyze the directional diffuse (cloudless) sky irradiance in the 290-325 nm (UVB and 325-400nm (UV-A) wavelength bands as a function of aerosol optical depth.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (k) Analyze the directional diffuse sky irradiance in the 290-400nm (UV-B and UVA) wavelength band as a function of cloud cover, cloud type, cloud depth. , Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (l) Analyze the reflectance (spectral albedo) for key materials (snow, beach sand, concrete, asphalt and water) in the 290nm-400nm (UV-B and UV-A) wavelength band, as appropriate for the network measurement sites, Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2006: (m) Analyze the bi-directional reflectance (forward-scattering and back-scattering) for key materials (snow, beach sand, concrete, asphalt and water) in the 290nm – 400nm (UV-B and UV-A) wavelength band, as appropriate for the network, Anonymous peer review carried bout by EPA, RTP, NC.

Reinsel, G. C., Miller, A. J.; Weatherhead, E. C.; Flynn, L. E.; Nagatani, R. M.; Tiao, G. C.; Wuebbles, D. J., “Trend analysis of total ozone data for turnaround and dynamical contributions,“ Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 110, Issue D16, CiteID D16306, 2005.

Weatherhead, E. C. and A. Tanskanen, Ultraviolet Radiation, in Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), pp. 144. ISBN 0521617782. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, December 2004.

Källén, E., V. Kattsov, J. Walsh, and E. Weatherhead. "Report from the arctic climate impact assessment modeling and scenarios workshop." Stockholm, January (2001): 29-31.

Noonan, G. J., E. C. Weatherhead, S. Gearheard, and R. Barry. "Arctic weather change: linking Indigenous (Inuit) observations with the surface temperature record." In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2005.

Mulaca, B., Storvoldb, R. and Weatherhead, E., 2011, April. Remote sensing in the Arctic with unmanned aircraft: Helping scientists to achieve their goals. In Proceedings of 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Sydney, Australia (pp. 10-15).

Thomason, L.W., Peter, T., Bekki, S., Bingemer, H., Brogniez, C., Carslaw, K., Deshler, T., Hamill, P., Kärcher, B., Notholt, J. and Weatherhead, E., 2004. Report on the Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties: New Data Record, but no Trend. SPARC Newsletter, 23, pp.12-15.

Weatherhead, E. C., and A. Stevermer. "Ultraviolet radiation." Encyclopedia of global environmental change 1 (2001).

Crocker, R. I., J. A. Maslanik, S. E. Palo, C. Fowler, J. Adler, U. C. Herzfeld, M. M. Fladeland, E. C. Weatherhead, and M. Angier. "Performance assessment of a small LIDAR altimeter deployed on unmanned aircraft for glacier and sea ice surface topography profiling." In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2009.

Reinsel, G.C., Weatherhead, E.C., Tiao, G.C., Miller, A.J., Nagatani, R.M., Wuebbles, D.J. and Flynn, L.E., 2001. On detection of turnaround and recovery in trend for ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, pp.10-1029.

Frederick, John E., and Elizabeth C. Weatherhead. Temporal changes in surface ultraviolet radiation: a study of the robertson-berger meter and dobson data records.T Photochemistry and photobiology 56, no. 1 (1992): 123-131.

Bodeker, G. E., D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, P. Braesicke, V. Eyring, D. W. Fahey, E. Manzini et al. "The ozone layer in the 21st Century, Chapter 6 in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project—Report No. 50, 572 pp." World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2007).

Okada, S., E. Weatherhead, I. Targoff, R. Wesley, F. W. Miller, Global surface ultraviolet radiation intensity may modulate the clinical and immunologic expression of autoimmune muscle disease, Arthritis and Rheumatism, (48) 8, pages 2285-2293, 2003.

Reinsel, G. C., E. Weatherhead, G C. Tiao, A. J. Miller,  R. Nagatani, D. Wuebbles, and L. E. Flynn, “On detection of turnaround and recovery in trend for ozone, J. Geophys. Res. VOL. 107, NO. D10, 4078, doi:10.1029/2001JD000500, 2002

Weatherhead, E.C., A.J. Stevermer, and B.E. Schwartz, Detecting Environmental Changes and Trends, Phys. Chem. of Earth, A/B/C, 27(6):399-403, 2002.

Jamison, B. D., R. S. Collander, E. C. Weatherhead,  “Scientific ballooning in the next century: goals and challenges.  Advances in Space Research, 30, 2002.

Stevermer, A., E. C. Weatherhead, Detecting Trends in vertically resolved ozone records, Eos Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall ., Abstract : A11C-04, 2001

Weatherhead, E.C., D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, J. Shreffler, Temperature Dependence of the Brewer Ultraviolet Data, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24):34121-34129, 2001.

Weatherhead, E. C., A. Stevermer, Ultraviolet Radiation in Encyclopedia of Environmental Change, Wiley, UK, 2001.

Weatherhead, E. C., A. J. Stevermer and B. Schwartz, Detecting environmental changes and trends, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth,  27, pages 399-403, doi. [clear] doi:10.1016/S1474-7065(02)00019-0 .

Weatherhead, E.C., G.C. Reinsel, G.C. Tiao, C.H. Jackman, A.J. Stevermer, E.L. Fleming, L. Bishop, J. DeLuisi, T. Keller, J. Herman, R. McPeters, S. Hollandsworth-Frith, S.J. Oltmans, D.J. Wuebbles, J.B. Kerr, A.J. Miller, J. Herman, R. McPeters, R.M. Nagatani, and J. E. Frederick, Detecting the recovery of total column ozone—how long will it take?, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, 2000.

Weatherhead, E.C., G.C.Reinsel, G.C. Tiao, C.H. Jackman, E.L.Fleming, L. Bishop, J. DeLuisi, T. Keller, J. Herman, R. McPeters, D. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, D. J. Wuebbles, J.B. Kerr, A.J. Miller, R.M. Nagatani, and J. E. Frederick, Detecting the Recovery of Total Column Ozone, J. Geophys. Res. D17(105):22,201-22,210, 2000.

Weatherhead, E.C., G.C. Reinsel, G.C. Tiao, and J.E. Frederick, Detecting climate change:  statistical considerations, in Long Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere, edited by G. Beig, 2000.

Seckmeyer, G. , A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C.R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R.L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy ,K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, A. Webb, 1999, Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation Part 1: Spectral instruments , WMO Global Atmospheric Watch #125, WMO TD No. 1066.

Kaye, J. A., B. B. Hicks, E. C. Weatherhead, C. S. Long, and J. Slusser, Global Change:  US interagency UV monitoring program, EOS, 8 (10) p. 113, AGU, doi. 10.1029/99EO00075, 1999.

Diaz, Susana, Vitali Fioletov, Jay Herman, Liisa Jalkanen, Serm Janjai, Berit Kjeldstad,  Takashi Koideg, Gunther Seckmeyerh, Paul Simoni, Betsy Weatherhead, and Ann Webbk "Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation." In AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1100, no. 1, pp. 663-666. AIP, 2009.

Dehne, K., U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb. "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation."

Reinsel G.C. et al., Update of Umkehr ozone profile data trend analysis through 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D19):23881-23898, 1999.

Weatherhead, E.C. G.C. Reinsel, G.C. Tiao, J.E. Frederick, X.L. Meng, D. Choi, W.K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. Wuebbles, J. Kerr and A.J. Miller, Factors affecting the detection of trends:  statistical considerations and applications to environmental data, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D14):17,149-17,161, 1998.

Weatherhead, E.C. and 62 other authors, Ozone, UV and Climate Change, in “AMAP Scientific Assessment Report.” 859 pp., 1998.

Weatherhead, E.C., UV Indices – Communicating UV Levels to the Public, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Publication No. 6, pp. 737-738, 1998.

Weatherhead, E. C., L. Bruhwiler, W. Dabberdt, P. Pisano, A. Ray, S. Rayder, J. Stalker, A. Stern and W. Thomas, 2011.  Building a stronger weather and climate enterrprise: keeping the economy moving.  American Meteorological Society, 

Miller, A.J., Cai, A., Tiao, G., Wuebbles, D.J., Flynn, L.E., Yang, S.K., 0, Fioletov, V., Petropavlovskikh, I., Meng, X.L. and Guillas, S., 2006. Examination of ozonesonde data for trends and trend changes incorporating solar and Arctic oscillation signals. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D13).

DeLuisi, J. et al., Solar UV Monitoring Network Operations and Data Quality Assurance with TOMS Observations, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Publication No. 6, pp. 603-618, 1998.

DeLuisi, J.J., J.A. AUugustine, E.C. Weatherhead, B. Hicks, D. Matt, and C.V. Alonso. The GCIP Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD)II. PVolume, 4 Second International Scientific Conference on the Global Energy and Water Cycle, June 17-21, Washington, DC, 407-408 (1996). 

Weatherhead, E.C., G.C. Tiao, G.C. Reinsel, J.E. Frederick, J.J. DeLuisi, D. Choi and W.K. Tam, Analysis of Long-term Behavior of Ultraviolet-B Radiation Measured by Robertson-Berger Meters at 14 Sites in the United States, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D7):8737-8754, 1997.

Weatherhead, E.C. and C.M. Morseth, Climate Change, Ozone, Ultraviolet Radiation and Their Effects, in “Environmental Pollution in the Arctic” pub. AMAP, Tromso, Norway, 435 pp., 1997.

Weatherhead, E.C. and A.R. Webb, International Response to the Challenge of Measuring UV Radiation, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 72:223-229, 1997.

Weatherhead, E.C., “Climate Change, Ozone and UV Radiation:  Assessment Conclusions,” Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program’s Symposium, Tromso, Norway, 1997.

IPCC, Regional Impacts of climate change:  the arctic and antarctic, edited by J. T. Everett and B. B. Fitzharris, 1997.

Webb, A. and E. Weatherhead, Current Status of UV Measurements, NATO ASI Series 1 Global Change, 52:267-278, 1997.

Weatherhead, E.C., Worldwide Monitoring and Trend Analysis, in “Measurements and Trends of Terrestrial UVB Radiation in Europe” edited by Brian L. Diffey, IDEA, Via Edolo, 42 - 20125, Italy, 1996.

Madronich, S., E. Weatherhead, and S. Flocke, Trends in UV Radiation, Intl. J. Env. Studies, 51(3):183-200, 1996.

Weatherhead, E.C., Environmental UVA Radiation, Photochem Photobiol, 63, 1996.

World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria:  Ultraviolet Radiation", World Health Organization, Report No. 157, 1994.

Weatherhead, E.C., Expected changes in irradiances, particularly UV-B, in the biosphere, NATO ASI Series 1 Global Environmental Change, 18:13-14, 1994.

Frederick, J.E., A.E. Koob, A. D. Alberts, and E. C. Weatherhead, Empirical Studies of Tropospheric Transmission in the Ultraviolet: Broadband Measurements, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 32 (12), 1993.

Frederick, J.E., E.C. Weatherhead, and E.K. Haywood, Long-term variations in ultraviolet sunlight reaching the biosphere: calculations for the past three decades, Photochem Photobiol, 54(5), 781-788, 1991.

Frederick, J. E., R. B. Abrams, A. D. Alberts, E. C. Weatherhead, Temporal changes in surface ultraviolet radiation during the Antarctic spring of 1990. Photochem. Photobiol. 1992.

Webb, A. and E. Weatherhead, 1998, Current status of UV measurements, in Solar Ultraviolet Radation, Modeling, Measurements and Effects, edited by C. S. Zerefos, and A. F. Bais, Springer Verlog, NATO ASI Series, Vol 52.

Brodzik, M. J., R. L. Armstrong, E. C. Weatherhead, M. Savoie, K. Knowles, D. A. Robinson, “Regional trend analysis of satellite-derived snow extent and global temperature anomalies, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., 2006.

Hinkelman, L. M., B. A. Wielicki, P. W. Stackhouse Jr., T. Zhang, E. C. Weatherhead, Long-term trends in the surface radiation budget from satellite and ground measurements, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 9, 04653, 2007.

Weatherhead, E. C., G. C. Reinsel, S. B. Andersen, “Methods and Results for Detecting Ozone Recovery”  Proceedings of the XX Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, 1–8 June, (2004). 

Noonan, G. J., E. C. Weatherhead, S. Gearheard, “Arctic weather change: linking indigenous (inuit) observations with the surface temperature record”,  EOS, AGU 2005.

Weatherhead, E.C., G.C. Reinsel, G.C. Tiao, A.J. Stevermer and J.E. Frederick, Trend Detectability in Climatic Variables, 15th Conference On Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Sciences, 12th Conference on Applied Climatology, 8-11 May, 2000

Weatherhead, E. C., 2011-1-25: Solar Energy Forecasting. American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, USA

Weatherhead, E. C., , 2011-12-5: Analysis of detailed, sub-cloud field images of Arctic sea ice. AGU Annual Meeting: In Situ and Field-Based Measurements of the Cryosphere I, San Francisco, CA, USA

Fischer, E., D. Jaffe, and E. Weatherhead, 2011-12-5: Observing Future Changes in the Photochemical Environment over Western North America due to Changes in Foreign Emissions: Lessons from Mount Bachelor. American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA

Weatherhead, E. C., J. Maslanik, U. Herzfeld, B. Young, S. Ferguson, M. Hammill, G. Stenson, P. Boveng, M. Cameron, E. Moreland, R. Angliss, 2011-11-27: Automation Assistance in Gathering and Analyzing Images of Arctic Ice and Seals. 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa, FL

Weatherhead, E. C., 2011, Climate change: latest updates and new challenges. Gabbala Environmental Conference, 2011-11-24: Gabala, Azerbaijan.

Asner, M., V. Papadimitriou, H. Sanders, J. Ting, Y. W. Wah, and E. Weatherhead. "A cluster-finding trigger processor." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 291, no. 3 (1990): 577-586.

Weatherhead, Elizabeth, and Olle Norberg. "Recommendations for Safe and Expeditious use of Unmanned Aircraft to Take Critical Environmental Measurements in the Arctic: Results of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program Workshop of Scientists and Aviation Authorities from the Arctic Countries. Oslo, October, 2008." (2008).
Weatherhead, E.C. and Webb, A.R., 1997. International response to the challenge of measuring solar ultra-violet radiation. Radiation protection dosimetry, 72(3-4), pp.223-229.

Weatherhead, E. C., E. Araujo-Pradere, M. Codrescu, T. Fuller-Rowell, R. Viereck, A. J. Stevermer, and R. Akmaev. "Trends in Ionospheric Measurements: Techniques and Results." In AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts. 2004.

Weatherhead, B., Tanskanen, A., Stevermer, A., Andersen, S.B., Arola, A., Austin, J., Bernhard, G., Browman, H., Fioletov, V., Grewe, V. and Herman, J., Future changes in ozone in the Arctic Future changes in ozone in the Arctic.

Weatherhead, E.C., 1994. Expected changes in irradiances, particularly UV-B, in the biosphere. In Stratospheric ozone depletion/UV-B radiation in the biosphere (pp. 13-13). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

ATOC 1050:  Intro to Atmospheric Sciences

ATOC 4500:  Environmental Statistics

Information on Current Course (Spring, 2016):  ATOC 4500/7500 can be found at Desire2Learn:

January 18, 2018 . Roger Cooke explains the economic value of weather and climate information.

January 4, 2018, Jeff Lazo explains the economic value of weather and weather forecasts.

January, 2017, American Meteorological Society's Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, USA: "Planning the Climate Observing Systems of the Future"  E. C. Weatherhead, V. Ramaswamy and B. Wielicki.

December, 2017, American Geophysical Union's Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA: "Climate Observing System Simulation Experiments: Reducing the Uncertainty in Climate Science," E. C. Weatherhead, V. Ramaswamy and B. Wielicki.

December, 2017, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany:  "Detecting Trends in Environmental Data,"  E. C. Weatherhead

December, 2017, IASS, Potsdam, Germany: "Environmental Data Analysis: Statisical Tools for Addressing Important Environmental Questions," E. C. Weatherhead

Weatherhead, E. C., 2016, “Ozone Recovery: lessons learned,” Edinburgh, Scotland

Weatherhead, E. C., 2016 “Detecting small improvements in weather forecasts,” European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Reading, England.

Weatherhead, E. C. 2016, “Climate Observational Needs,” Beijing, China

Weatherhead, E. C., 2016, “Planning for the future climate observing system,” Amsterdam, NL.

Weatherhead, E.C., Ramaswamy and B. Wielicki, 2015, USGCRP, Planning future observing systems, Washitngton, DC.

Weatherhead, E.C. Ramaswamy and B. Wielicki, 2015, AGU: Roundtable discussion of climate OSSEs, San Francisco, CO.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2015, “Detecting small changes in weather forecasts,” National Weather Service, NCEP, College Park, MD.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2014, Series of 10 lectures given throughout India as a guest of the US State Dept.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2013, DMNS “Uncertainties in Climate Change,” Denver, CO.

Weatherhead, E. C., 2012, AAAS Invited:  Inuit insights into climate Change, Vancouver, CA.

Weatherhead, E. C., 3023, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #A23L-03

Weatherhead, E. C., 2011-3-28: Advances in techniques to understand linkages between ice quality and seal populations:. Arctic Science Summit Week, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Elizabeth Weatherhead
Phone: 303-497-6653

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