Peter Molnar Group
Professor of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder
Fellow, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences
Ph.D., Geology (Seismology), 1970, Columbia University
A.B., Physics, 1965, Oberlin College
Peter Molnar Group in CIRES news
Mohadjer, S., R. Bendick, A. Ischuk, S. Kuzikov, A. Kostuk, U. Saydullaev, S. Lodi, D. M. Kakar, A. Wasy, M. A. Khan, P. Molnar, R. Bilham, and A. V. Zubovich (2010), Partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence in the Pamir-Hindu Kush from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L04305, doi:10.1029/2009GL041737.
Harig, C., P. Molnar, and G. A. Houseman (2010), Lithospheric thinning and localization of deformation during Rayleigh-Taylor instability with nonlinear rheology and implications for intracontinental magmatism, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B02205, doi:10.1029/2009JB006422.
Dayem, K. E., P. Molnar, D. S. Battisti, and G. H. Roe (2010), Lessons learned from oxygen isotopes in modern precipitation applied to interpretation of speleothem records of paleoclimate from eastern Asia, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 295, 219-230.
Molnar, P., W. R. Boos, and D. S. Battisti (2010), Orographic controls on climate and paleoclimate of Asia: Thermal and mechanical roles for the Tibetan Plateau, Annual Reviews of Earth & Planetary Science, 38, 77-102.
Champagnac, J.-D., D.-Y. Yuan, W.-P. Ge, P. Molnar, and W.-J. Zheng (2010), Slip rate at the northeastern front of the Qilian Shan, China, Terra Nova, 22, 180-187.
Molnar, P. (2010), Deuterium and oxygen isotopes, paleoelevations of the Sierra Nevada, and Cenozoic climate, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 122, 1106-1115.
Duret, F., N. M. Shapiro, Z. Cao, V. Levin, P. Molnar, and S. Roecker (2010), Surface wave dispersion across Tibet: Direct evidence for radial anisotropy in the crust, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L16306, doi:10.1029/2010GL043811.
Beavan, J., P. Denys, M. Denham, B. Hager, T. Herring, and P. Molnar (2010), Distribution of present-day vertical deformation across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from 10 years of GPS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L16305, doi:10.1029/2010GL044165.
Molnar, P., and K. E. Dayem (2010), Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength, Geosphere, 6, 444-467.
Hatzfeld, D., and P. Molnar (2010), Comparisons of the kinematics and deep structures of the Zagros and Himalaya and of the Iranian and Tibetan plateaus and geodynamic implications, Rev. Geophys., 48, RG2005, doi:10.1029/2009RG000304.
Dayem, K. E., P. Molnar, M. K. Clark, and G. A. Houseman (2009), Far-field lithospheric deformation in Tibet during continental collision, Tectonics, 28, TC6005, doi:10.1029/2008TC002344.
Dayem, KE; Houseman, GA; Molnar, P (2009), Localization of shear along a lithospheric strength discontinuity: Application of a continuous deformation model to the boundary between Tibet and the Tarim Basin. Tectonics, 28 , doi: 10.1029/2008TC002264
Dayem, KE; Molnar, P; Clark, MK; Houseman, GA (2009), Far-field lithospheric deformation in Tibet during continental collision. Tectonics, 28 , Art. No. TC6005, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002344
Jochum, M; Fox-Kemper, B; Molnar, PH; Shields, C (2009), Differences in the Indonesian seaway in a coupled climate model and their relevance to Pliocene climate and El Nino. Paleoceanography, 24 , Art. No. PA1212, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001678
Molnar, P; Stock, JM (2009), Slowing of India's convergence with Eurasia since 20 Ma and its implications for Tibetan mantle dynamics. Tectonics, 28 , Art. No. TC3001, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002271
Molnar, P. (2009), The state of interactions among tectonics, erosion, and climate: A polemic. GSA Today, 19 (7) 44-45, doi: 10.1130/GSATG00GW.1
Burov, EB; Molnar, R (2008), Small and large-amplitude gravitational instability of an elastically compressible viscoelastic Maxwell solid overlying an inviscid incompressible fluid: Dependence of growth rates on wave number and elastic constants at low Deborah numbers. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 275 (4-Mar) 370-381, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.08.032
Harig, C; Molnar, P; Houseman, GA (2008), Rayleigh-Taylor instability under a shear stress free top boundary condition and its relevance to removal of mantle lithosphere from beneath the Sierra Nevada. Tectonics, 27 (6) , Art. No. TC6019, doi: 10.1029/2007TC002241
Molnar, P (2008), Closing of the Central American Seaway and the ice age: A critical review. Paleoceanography, 23 (1) , Art. No. PA2201, doi: 10.1029/2007PA001574
England, P., P. Molnar, and F. Richter (2007), John Perry's neglected critique of Kelvin's age for the Earth: A missed opportunity in geodynamics, GSA Today, 17(1), 4-9.
Champagnae, JD; Molnar, P; Anderson, RS; Sue, C; Delacou, B (2007), Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps. Geology, 35 (3) 195-198, doi: 10.1130/G23053A.1
Dayem, KE; Noone, DC; Molnar, P (2007), Tropical western Pacific warm pool and maritime continent precipitation rates and their contrasting relationships with the Walker Circulation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112 (D6), Art. No. D06101, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007870
England, PC; Molnar, P; Richter, FM (2007), Kelvin, Perry and the age of the earth. Am. Scientist, 95 (4) 342-349
Garzione, CN; Molnar, P; Libarkin, JC; MacFadden, BJ (2007), Reply to Comment on "Rapid late Miocene rise of the Bolivian Altiplano: Evidence for removal of mantle lithosphere" by Garzione et al. (2006), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 241 (2006) 543-556. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 259 (4-Mar) 630-633, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.04.054
Huybers, P; Molnar, P (2007), Tropical cooling and the onset of North American glaciation. Clim. Past., 3 (3) 549-557
Jaupart, C; Molnar, P; Cottrell, E (2007), Instability of a chemically dense layer heated from below and overlain by a deep less viscous fluid. J. Fluid Mech., 572 433-469, doi: 10.1017/S0022112006003521
Molnar, P (2007), An examination of evidence used to infer late cenozoic "Uplift" of mountain belts and other high terrain: What scientific question does such evidence pose?. J. Geol. Soc. India, 70 (3) 395-410
Molnar, P; Anderson, RS; Anderson, SP (2007), Tectonics, fracturing of rock, and erosion. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 112 (F3) , Art. No. F03014, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000433
Molnar, P; Cane, MA (2007), Early pliocene (pre-Ice Age) El Nino-like global climate: Which El Nino?. Geosphere, 3 (5) 337-365, doi: 10.1130/GES00103.1
Molnar, P; Garzione, CN (2007), Bounds on the viscosity coefficient of continental lithosphere from removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. Tectonics, 26 (2) , Art. No. TC2013, doi: 10.1029/2006TC001964
Zhang, PZ; Molnar, P; Xu, XW (2007), Late Quaternary and present-day rates of slip along the Altyn Tagh Fault, northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics, 26 (5) , Art. No. TC5010, doi: 10.1029/2006TC002014
Anderson, RS; Molnar, P; Kessler, MA (2006), Features of glacial valley profiles simply explained. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 111 (F1) , Art. No. F01004, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000344
Garzione, CN; Molnar, P; Libarkin, JC; MacFadden, BJ (2006), Rapid late Miocene rise of the Bolivian Altiplano: Evidence for removal of mantle lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 241 (4-Mar) 543-556, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.026
Molnar, P; Anderson, RS; Kier, G; Rose, J (2006), Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate, bed load transport, and river incision. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 111 (F2) , Art. No. F02001, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000310
Molnar, P; Houseman, GA; England, PC (2006), Earth science - Palaeo-altimetry of Tibet. Nature, 444 (7117) E4-E4, doi: 10.1038/nature05368
Brown, ET; Molnar, P; Bourles, DL (2005), Comment on "Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion". Science, 309 (5739) , doi: 10.1126/science.1112508
England, P; Molnar, P (2005), Late Quaternary to decadal velocity fields in Asia. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 110 (B12) , Art. No. B12401, doi: 10.1029/2004JB003541
Hilley, GE; Burgmann, R; Zhang, PZ; Molnar, P (2005), Bayesian inference of plastosphere viscosities near the Kunlun Fault, northern Tibet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 (1) , Art. No. L01302, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021658
Molnar, P (2005), Mio-pliocene growth of the Tibetan Plateau and evolution of East Asian climate.Palaeontologia Electronica, 8, 8.1.2A, 23p, 625KB; http://palaeo-electronica.org/paleo/2005_1/molnar2/issue1_05.htm.
Molnar, P (2005), An appreciation. J. Geol. Soc. India, 66 (2) 252-252
Jade, S., B. C. Bhatt, R. Bendick, V. K. Gaur, P. Molnar, M. B. Anand, and D. Kumar (2004), GPS measurements from the Ladakh Himalaya, India: Preliminary tests of plate-like or continuous deformation in Tibet, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 116, 1385-1391.
Wilson, C. K., C. H. Jones, P. Molnar, A. F. Sheehan, and O. S. Boyd (2004), Distributed deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath a continental strike-slip fault zone: Marlborough fault system, South Island, New Zealand, Geology, 32, 837-840.
Cottrell, E., C. Jaupart, and P. Molnar (2004), Marginal stability of thick continental lithosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18612, doi:10.1029/2004GL020332.
Molnar, P., and C. H. Jones (2004), A test of laboratory based rheological parameters of olivine from an analysis of late Cenozoic convective removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Geophys. J. Int., 156, 555-564.
Molnar, P., and G. A. Houseman (2004), Effects of buoyant crust on the gravitational instability of thickened mantle lithosphere at zones of intracontinental convergence, Geophys. J. Int., 158, 1134-1150.
Zhang, P.-Z., Z.-k. Shen, M. Wang, W.-j. Gan, R. Bürgmann, P. Molnar, Q. Wang, Z.-j. Niu, J.-z. Sun, J.-c. Wu, Sun Hanrong, and You Xinzhao (2004), Continuous deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from global positioning system data, Geology, 32, 809-812.
Brown, E. T., R. Bendick, D. L. Bourlès, V. Gaur, P. Molnar, G. M. Raisbeck, and F. Yiou, Early Holocene climate recorded in geomorphological features in Western Tibet, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 199, 141-151, 2003.
Brown, E. T., R. Bendick, D. L. Bourlès, V. K. Gaur, P. Molnar, G. M. Raisbeck, and F. Yiou, Slip rates of the Karakorum fault, Ladakh, India, determined using cosmic ray exposure dating of debris flows and moraines, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JB000100, 2002.
Gilbert, H. J., A. F. Sheehan, K. G. Dueker, and P. Molnar, Receiver functions in the western United States, with implications for upper mantle structure and dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B5), 2229, doi:10.1029/2001JB001194, 2003.
Thompson, S. C., R. J. Weldon, C. M. Rubin, K. Abdrakhmatov, P. Molnar, and G. W. Berger, Late Quaternary slip rates across the central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JB000596, 2002.
Scherwath, M., A. Melhuish, T. Stern, and P. Molnar, Pn anisotropy and distributed upper mantle deformation associated with a continental transform fault, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(8), 10.1029/2001GL014179, 2002.
Abdrakhmatov, K. E., R. Weldon, S. Thompson, D. Burbank, Ch. Rubin, M. Miller, and P. Molnar, Origin, direction, and rate of modern compression in the central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, GEOLOGIYA I GEOFIZIKA (RUSSIAN GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS), 42, 1585-1609, 2001.
Molnar, P., From Plate Tectonics to Continental Tectonics: An Evolving Perspective of Important Research, from a Graduate Student to an Established Curmudgeon, in Plate tectonics: An Insider’s History of the Modern Theory of the Earth, ed. by N. Oreskes, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 288-328, 2001.
Von Herzen, R., C. Ruppel, P. Molnar, M. Nettles, S. Nagihara, and G. Ekström, A Constraint on the shear stress at the Pacific-Australia plate boundary from heat flow and seismicity at the Kermadec forearc, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 6817-6833, 2001.
Stern, T., P. Molnar, D. Okaya, and D. Eberhart-Philips, Teleseismic P wave delays and modes of shortening the mantle lithosphere beneath South Island, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 21,615-21,632, 2000.
Molnar, P., H. J. Anderson, E. Audoine, D. Eberhart-Phillips, K. R. Gledhill, E. R. Klosko, T. V. McEvilly, D. Okaya, M. K. Savage, T. Stern, and F. T. Wu, Continuous Deformation Versus Faulting through the Continental Lithosphere of New Zealand, Science, 286, 516-519, 1999.
Brown, E. T., D. L. Bourlès, B. C. Burchfiel, Deng Qidong, Li Jun, P. Molnar, G. M. Raisbeck, and F. Yiou, Estimation of slip rates in the southern Tien Shan using cosmic ray exposure dates of abandoned alluvial fans, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 110, 377-386, 1998.
Molnar, P., G. A. Houseman, and C. P. Conrad, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and convective thinning of mechanically thickened lithosphere: effects of non-linear viscosity decreasing exponentially with depth and of horizontal shortening of the layer, Geophys. J. Int., 133, 568-584, 1998.
Houseman, G. A., and P. Molnar, Gravitational (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability of a layer with non-linear viscosity and convective thinning of continental lithosphere, Geophys. J. Int., 128, 125-150, 1997.
Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye., S. A. Aldazhanov, B. H. Hager, M. W. Hamburger, T. A. Herring, K. B. Kalabaev, V. I. Makarov, P. Molnar, S. V. Panasyuk, M. T. Prilepin, R. E. Reilinger, I. S. Sadybakasov, B. J. Souter, Yu. A. Trapeznikov, V. Ye. Tsurkov, and A. V. Zubovich, Relatively recent construction of the Tien Shan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day crustal deformation rates, Nature, 384, 450-453, 1996.
Bayarsayhan, Ch., A. Bayasgalan , B. Enhtuvshin, K. W. Hudnut, R. A. Kurushin, P. Molnar, and M. Ölziybat, 1957 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia earthquake as a prototype for southern California's most devastating earthquake, Geology, 24, 579-582, 1996.
Molnar, P. and J. M. Gipson, A bound on the rheology of continental lithosphere using very long baseline interferometry: The velocity of South China with respect to Eurasia, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 545-553, 1996.
Woodward, R. L., and P. Molnar, Lateral heterogeneity in the upper mantle and SS-S traveltime intervals for SS rays reflected from the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 135, 139-148, 1995.
Molnar, P., E. T. Brown, B. C. Burchfiel, Deng Qidong, Feng Xianyue, Li Jun, G. M. Raisbeck, Shi Jianbang, Wu Zhangming, F. Yiou, and You Huichuan, Quaternary climate change and the formation of river terraces across growing anticlines on the north flank of the Tien Shan, China, J. Geol., 102, 583-602, 1994.
England, P., and P. Molnar, Cause and effect among thrust and normal faulting, anatectic melting and exhumation in the Himalaya, in Himalayan Tectonics, Geol. Soc. (of London) Spec. Pub., 74, ed. by P. J. Treloar and M. P. Searle, 401-411, 1993.
Molnar, P., Brace-Goetze strength profiles, the partitioning of strike-slip and thrust faulting at zones of oblique convergence, and the stress-heat flow paradox of the San Andreas fault, Fault Mechanics and Transport Properties in Rocks: A Festschrift in Honor of W. F. Brace, ed. by B. Evans and T.-f. Wong, Academic Press, London, 435-459, 1992.
Burchfiel, B. C., Zhang Peizhen, Wang Yipeng, Zhang Weiqi, Song Fangmin, Deng Qidong, P. Molnar, and L. Royden, Geology of the Haiyuan fault zone, Ningxia-Hui Autonomous Region, China, and its relation to the evolution of the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, Tectonics, 10, 1091-1110, 1991.
Zhang Peizhen, B. C. Burchfiel, P. Molnar, Zhang Weiqi, Jiao Dechen, Deng Qidong, Wang Yipeng, L. Royden, and Song Fangmin, Amount and style of late Cenozoic deformation in the Liupan Shan area, Ningxia Autonomous Region, China, Tectonics, 10, 1111-1129, 1991.
Zhang Peizhen, B. C. Burchfiel, P. Molnar, Zhang Weiqi, Jiao Decheng, Deng Qidong, Wang Yipeng, L. Royden, and Song Fangmin, Late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Ningxia-Hui Autonomous Region, China, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 102, 1484-1498, 1990.
Molnar, P., A review of geophysical constraints on the deep structure of the Tibetan Plateau, the Himalaya, and the Karakorum and their tectonic implications, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., Ser. A, 326, 33-88, 1988.
Molnar, P., and H. Lyon-Caen, Some simple physical aspects of the support, structure, and evolution of mountain belts, in Processes in Continental Lithospheric Deformation, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap. 218, 179-207, 1988.
Molnar, P., F. Pardo-Casas, and J. Stock, The Cenozoic and late Cretaceous evolution of the Indian Ocean basin: Uncertainties in the reconstructed positions of the Indian, African, and Antarctic plates, Basin Res., 1, 23-40, 1988.
Rosa, J. W. C., and P. Molnar, Uncertainties in reconstructions of the Pacific, Farallon, Vancouver, and Kula plates and constraints on the rigidity of the Pacific and Farallon (and Vancouver) plates between 72 and 35 Ma, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 2997-3008, 1988.
Stock, J., and P. Molnar, Uncertainties and implications of the late Cretaceous and Tertiary position of North America relative to the Farallon, Kula, and Pacific plates, Tectonics, 7, 1339-1384, 1988.
Zhang Peizhen, P. Molnar, B. C. Burchfiel, L. Royden, Wang Yipeng, Deng Qidong, Song Fangmin, Zhang Weiqi, and Jiao Decheng, Bounds on the Holocene slip rate of the Haiyuan fault, north-central China, Quaternary Research, 30, 151-164, 1988.
Zhang Peizhen, P. Molnar, Zhang Weiqi, Deng Qidong, Wang Yipeng, B. C. Burchfiel, Song Fangmin, L. Royden, and Jiao Decheng, Bounds on the recurrence interval of major earthquakes along the Haiyuan fault in north-central China, Seismol. Res. Lett., 59, 81-89, 1988.
M.I.T. 1985 Field Geophysics Course and Shawn Biehler, A geophysical investigation of the northern Panamint Valley, Inyo County, California: Evidence for possible low angle normal faulting at shallow depth in the crust, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 10,427-10,441, 1987.
Molnar, P., B. C. Burchfiel, Zhao Ziyun, Liang K'uangyi, Wang Shuji, and Huang Minmin, The geologic evolution of northern Tibet: Results from an expedition to Ulugh Muztagh, Science, 235, 299-304, 1987.
Zhang Weiqi, Jiao Decheng, Zhang Peizhen, P. Molnar, B. C. Burchfiel, Deng Qidong, and Wang Yipeng, Displacement along the Haiyuan fault associated with the great 1920 Haiyuan, China, earthquake, Bull. Seismo. Soc. Amer. 77, 117-181, 1987.
Chang Chengfa, Chen Nansheng, M. P. Coward, Deng Wanming, J. F. Dewey, A. Gansser, N. B. W. Harris, Jin Chengwei, W. S. F. Kidd, M. R. Leeder, Li Huan, Lin Jinlu, Liu Chengjie, Mei Houjun, P. Molnar, Pan Yun, Pan Yusheng, J. A. Pearce, R. M. Shackleton, A. B. Smith, Sun Yiyin, M. Ward, D. Watts, Xu Juntao, Xu Ronghua, Yin Jixiang, and Zhang Yuquan, Preliminary conclusions of the Royal Society and Academia Sinica 1985 geotraverse of Tibet, Nature, 323, 501-507, 1986.
Deng Qidong, Song Fangmin, Zhu Shilong, Li Mengluan, Wang Tielin, Zhang Weiqi, B. C. Burchfiel, P. Molnar, and Zhang Peizhen, Active faulting and tectonics of the Ningxia-Hui Autonomous Region, China, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 4427-4445, 1984.
Grange, F., D. Hatzfeld, P. Cunningham, P. Molnar, S. W. Roecker, G. Suárez, A. Rodriques, and L. Ocola, Microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in southern Peru, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 6139-6152, 1984.
Chen, W.-P. and P. Molnar, Focal depths of intracontinental and intraplate earthquakes and their implications for the thermal and mechanical properties of the lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 4183-4214, 1983.
Suárez, G., P. Molnar and B. C. Burchfiel, Seismicity, fault plane solutions, depth of faulting and active tectonics of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador and southern Colombia, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10,403-10,428, 1983.
Chen, W.-P., J. L. Nábelek, T. J. Fitch, and P. Molnar, An intermediate depth earthquake beneath Tibet: Source characteristics of the event of September 14, 1976, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2863-2876, 1981.
Houseman, G. A., D. P. McKenzie, and P. Molnar, Convective instability of a thickened boundary layer and its relevance for the thermal evolution of continental convergent belts, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 6115-6132, 1981.
Chatelain, J.-L., S. W. Roecker, D. Hatzfeld, and P. Molnar, Microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Hindu-Kush region and their tectonic implications, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 1365-1387, 1980.
Suárez, G. and P. Molnar, Paleomagnetic data and pelagic sediment facies and the motion of the Pacific plate relative to the spin axis since the late Cretaceous, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 5257-5280, 1980.
Khalturin, V. I., T. G. Rautian, and P. Molnar, The spectral content of Pamir-Hindu Kush intermediate depth earthquakes: Evidence for a high-Q zone in the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 2931-2943, 1977.
Molnar, P. and P. Tapponnier, Relation of the tectonics of eastern China to the India-Eurasia collision: Application of slip-line field theory to large-scale continental tectonics, Geology, 5, 212-216, 1977.
Molnar, P., W.-P. Chen, T. J. Fitch, P. Tapponnier, W. E. K. Warsi, and F. T. Wu, Structure and tectonics of the Himalaya: A brief summary of relevant geophysical observations, Collogue Internationaux du CNRS, No. 268, Himalaya: Sciences de la Terre, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 269-294, 1977.
Atwater, T. and P. Molnar, Relative motion of the Pacific and North American plates deduced from sea-floor spreading in the Atlantic, Indian, and South Pacific Oceans, Proc. Conf. on Tectonic Problems of the San Andreas Fault System, Geological Sciences XIII, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford Univ. Publications, 136-148, 1973.