Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Climate OSSE References

The following references are published examples of Climate Observing System Simulation Experiments. If anyone has appropriate additions, please send them to

This collection of papers is part of a broader effort to increase the effectiveness of climate observations and assure continued growth of the world's climate observations.


Bamber, J. L. and W. P. Aspinall (2013), An expert judgement assessment of future sea level rise from the ice sheets. Nature Climate Change, 3(4), 424-427.

Bony, S., B. Stevens, D. M. Frierson, C. Jakob, M. Kageyama, R. Pincus, T. G. Shepherd, S. C. Sherwood, A. P. Siebesma, A. H. Sobel, and M. Watanabe (2015), Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity. Nature Geoscience, 8(4), 261-268.

Bruhwiler, L. M. et al. (2017), US CH4 emissions from oil and gas production: Have recent large increases been detected?. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(7), 4070-4083.

Crisp, D., H. R. Pollock, R. Rosenberg, L. Chapsky, R. A. Lee, F. A. Oyafuso, C. Frankenberg, C. W. O'Dell, C. J. Bruegge, G. B. Doran, G.B. and A. Eldering (2017), The on-orbit performance of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) instrument and its radiometrically calibrated products. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 10(1), 59-81.

Diamond, H. J., T. R. Karl, M. A. Palecki, C. B. Baker, J. E. Bell, R. D. Leeper, D. R. Easterling, J. H. Lawrimore, T. P. Meyers, M. R. Helfert, G. Goodge, and . W. Thorne (2013), U.S. Climate Reference Network after One Decade of Operations: Status and Assessment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 485–498. doi:

Dowell, M., P. Lecomte, R. Husband, J. Schulz, T. Mohr, Y. Tahara, R. Eckman, E. Lindstrom, C. Wooldridge, S. Hilding, J.Bates, B. Ryan, J. Lafeuille, and S. Bojinski (2013), Strategy Towards an Architecture for Climate Monitoring from Space. Pp. 39. This report is available from:;;

Free, M., I. Durre, E. Aguilar, D. Seidel, T. C. Peterson, R. E. Eskridge, J. K. Luers, D. Parker, M. Gordon, J. Lanzante, and S. Klein (2002), Creating climate reference datasets: CARDS workshop on adjusting radiosonde temperature data for climate monitoring. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 83(6),891-899.

Fu, L.L. and A. Cazenave, eds., (2000), Satellite altimetry and earth sciences: a handbook of techniques and applications 69, Academic Press.

Ho, S.P., G. Kirchengast,S. Leroy, J. Wickert, A. J., Mannucci, A. Steiner, D. Hunt, D., W. Schreiner, S. Sokolovskiy, C. Ao,and M. Borsche (2009), Estimating the uncertainty of using GPS radio occultation data for climate monitoring: Intercomparison of CHAMP refractivity climate records from 2002 to 2006 from different data centers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114(D23).

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, J. T. Schofield, R. P. Linfield, and K. R. Hardy (1997), Observing Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D19), 23429-23465.

Le Quéré, C., R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, G. P. Peters, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, S. D. Jones, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, and T. A. Boden (2015), Global carbon budget 2014. Earth System Science Data, 7(1), 47-85.

Leroy, S., Dykema, J. A., & Anderson, J. G. (2008), Scalar prediction in climate using data and model. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Submitted to J CLIMATE [available at https://wiki. ucar. edu/download/attachments/20382519/Leroyetal_JClimate2009a_submission. pdf].

MacDonald, A. E. (2005), A global profiling system for improved weather and climate prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 86(12), 1747-1764.

MacLachlan, C., A. Arribas, K. A. Peterson, A. Maidens, D. Fereday, A. A. Scaife, M. Gordon et al. (2015), Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5): a high-resolution seasonal forecast system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 141, no. 689, 1072-1084.

Ohring, G., B. A. Wielicki, B. Emery and R. Datla (2005), Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop. Bulletin of the American Met. Soc., 1303-1313.

Oke, P. R., et al. (2015), Assessing the impact of observations on ocean forecasts and reanalyses, Part 2—Regional applications. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 8 (S1), s63-s79.

Saha, S. S. Moorthi, X. Wu, J. Wang, S.Nadiga, P. Tripp, D. Behringer et al. (2014), The NCEP climate forecast system version 2. Journal of Climate 27(6) 2185-2208.

Shea, Y. L., B. A. Wielicki, S. Sun-Mack, and P. Minnis (2017), Quantifying the dependence of satellite cloud retrievals on absolute instrument calibration. J. Climate.

Weatherhead, E. C., Reinsel, G. C., Tiao, G. C., Meng, X. L., Choi, D., Cheang, W. K., ... & Miller, A. J. (1998). Factors affecting the detection of trends: Statistical considerations and applications to environmental data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(D14), 17-149.

Weatherhead, E. C., G. E. Bodeker, A.Fassò, K.-L. Chang, J. K. Lazo, C. T. M. Clack, CD. F. Hurst, B. Hassler, B. and J. M. English (2017b), Spatial Coverage of Monitoring Networks: A Climate Observing System Simulation Experiment, Applied Met. And Clim.

Weatherhead, E. C., J. Harder, E. A. Araujo-Pradere, G. Bodeker, J. M. English, J. L. E. Flynn, S. Frith, J. K. Lazo, P. Pilewskie, M. Weber, T. N. Woods (2017a), How long do satellites need to overlap? Evaluation of climate data stability from overlapping satellite records. Atmos. Chem. And Phys.

Weatherhead, E.C., A.J. Stevermer, and B.E. Schwartz (2002), Detecting Environmental Changes and Trends, Phys. Chem. of Earth, A/B/C, 27(6), 399-403.

Wielicki, B. A., D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. A., R. Bantges, F. Best, F. and K. Bowman (2013), Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit. Bulle. Am. Met. Soc., 94(10), pp.1519-1539.

Wulder, M. A., J. C. White, J. G. Masek, J. Dwyer, J. and D. P. Roy (2011), Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(2), 747-751.

Xu, L., W. Wu, B. A. Wielicki, Q. Yang, S. H. Kizer, X. Huang, X. Chen, S. Kato, Y. L. Shea and M. G. Mlynczak(2017), Spectrally dependent CLARREO infrared spectrometer calibration requirement for climate change detection. , J. Climate.