Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Brian T. Kress

Research Interests

Space Particle Instruments Team Lead within NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Solar and Terrestrial Physics (STP) group. The NCEI STP group supports design, assembly and calibration of space weather instruments flown on NOAA’s satellites. The STP group also works on scientific algorithm development and operational research for the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Current research interests include magnetospheric physics, transport and energization in the Earth’s radiation belts, and geomagnetic cutoffs of solar energetic particles in the near-Earth space environment.

Current Research

Selected Publications

Kress, B. T., J. V. Rodriguez, A. Boudouridis, T. G. Onsager, B. K. Dichter, G. E. Galica, and S. Tsui (2021), Observations from NOAA's Newest Solar Proton Sensor. Space Weather, 19, e2021SW002750. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021SW002750

Kress, B. T., J. V. Rodriguez, and T. G. Onsager (2020). The GOES-R space environment in situ suite (SEISS): Measurement of energetic particles in geospace. In J. G. Steven, T. J. Schmit, J. Daniels, and R. J. Redmon (Eds.), The GOES-R Series (pp. 243–250), Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814327-8.00020-2

Kress, B. T., M. K. Hudson, R. S. Selesnick, C. J. Mertens, and M. Engel (2015), Modeling geomagnetic cutoffs for space weather applications, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JA020899

Kress, B. T., M. K. Hudson, and J. Paral (2014), Rebuilding of the Earth's outer electron belt during 8-10 October 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 749–754. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058588

Kress, B. T., J. V. Rodriguez, J. E. Mazur, and M. Engel (2013), Modeling solar proton access to geostationary spacecraft with geomagnetic cutoffs. J. Adv. Space Res., 52, 1939–1948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.08.019

Kress, B. T., M. K. Hudson, A. Y. Ukhorskiy, and H.-R. Mueller (2012), Nonlinear radial transport in the Earth's radiation belts, in Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 199, Editors: D. Summers, I. R. Mann, D. N. Baker, and M. Schulz, pp. 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GM001333

Kress, B. T., C. J. Mertens, and M. Wiltberger (2010), Solar energetic particle cutoff variations during the 29-31 October 2003 geomagnetic storm, Space Weather Journal, 8, S05001. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009SW000488

* Please see CV for a complete list.



View Publications

  • Bregou EJ; Hudson MK; Kress BT; Qin M; Selesnick RS. (Jun 2022). Gleissberg Cycle Dependence of Inner Zone Proton Flux. Space Weather. 10.1029/2022sw003072
  • Hartinger MD; Takahashi K; Drozdov AY; Shi X; Usanova ME; Kress B. (Apr 2022). ULF Wave Modeling, Effects, and Applications: Accomplishments, Recent Advances, and Future. Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences , 9. 10.3389/fspas.2022.867394
  • Park J; Min KW; Seo H; Kim E-J; Ryu K; Sohn J; Seon J; Yoo J-H; Lee S; Kress B. (Aug 2021). Multi-Year Statistics of LEO Energetic Electrons as Observed by the Korean NextSat-1. Space Weather , 19(8). 10.1029/2021SW002787
  • Kress BT; Rodriguez JV; Boudouridis A; Onsager TG; Dichter BK; Galica GE; Tsui S. (Jul 2021). Observations from NOAA's Newest Solar Proton Sensor. Space Weather. 10.1029/2021sw002750
  • Li Z; Engel M; Hudson M; Kress B; Patel M; Qin M; Selesnick R. (Jul 2021). Solar Energetic Proton Access to the Inner Magnetosphere During the September 7-8, 2017 Event. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics , 126(7). 10.1029/2021JA029107
  • Filwett RJ; Jaynes AN; Baker DN; Kanekal SG; Kress B; Blake JB. (Jun 2020). Solar Energetic Proton Access to the Near-Equatorial Inner Magnetosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics , 125(6). 10.1029/2019JA027584
  • Boudouridis A; Rodriguez JV; Kress BT; Dichter BK; Onsager TG. (Apr 2020). Development of a Bowtie Inversion Technique for Real-Time Processing of the GOES-16/-17 SEISS MPS-HI Electron Channels. Space Weather , 18(4). 10.1029/2019SW002403
  • Baker DN; Zhao H; Li X; Kanekal SG; Jaynes AN; Kress BT; Rodriguez J; Singer HJ; Claudepierre SG; Fennell JF. (Dec 2019). Comparison of Van Allen Probes Energetic Electron Data With Corresponding GOES-15 Measurements: 2012-2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics , 124(12), 9924-9942. 10.1029/2019JA027331
  • Qin, MR; Hudson, M; Kress, B; Selesnick, R; Engel, M; Li, Z; Shen, XC. (May 2019). Investigation of Solar Proton Access Into the Inner Magnetosphere on 11 September 2017. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 124(5). 10.1029/2018JA026380
  • Hudson, M, A Jaynes, B Kress, Z Li, M Patel, XC Shen, S Thaller, M Wiltberger and J Wygant. (Oct 2017). Simulated Prompt Acceleration of Multi-MeV Electrons by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 122(10). 10.1002/2017JA024445
  • Engel, MA, BT Kress, MK Hudson and RS Selesnick. (Nov 2016). Comparison of Van Allen Probes radiation belt proton data with test particle simulation for the 17 March 2015 storm. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 121(11). 10.1002/2016JA023333
  • Halford, AJ, SL McGregor, MK Hudson, RM Millan and BT Kress. (May 2016). BARREL observations of a solar energetic electron and solar energetic proton event. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 121(5). 10.1002/2016JA022462
  • Selesnick, RS, DN Baker, AN Jaynes, X Li, SG Kanekal, MK Hudson and BT Kress. (Mar 2016). Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 121(3). 10.1002/2015JA022154
  • Engel, MA, BT Kress, MK Hudson and RS Selesnick. (Nov 2015). Simulations of inner radiation belt proton loss during geomagnetic storms. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 120(11). 10.1002/2015JA021568
  • Li, Z, M Hudson, B Kress and J Paral. (Jul 2015). Three-dimensional test particle simulation of the 17-18 March 2013 CME shock-driven storm. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 42(14). 10.1002/2015GL064627
  • Kress, BT, MK Hudson, RS Selesnick, CJ Mertens and M Engel. (Jul 2015). Modeling geomagnetic cutoffs for space weather applications. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 120(7). 10.1002/2014JA020899
  • Brito, T, MK Hudson, B Kress, J Paral, A Halford, R Millan and M Usanova. (May 2015). Simulation of ULF wave-modulated radiation belt electron precipitation during the 17 March 2013 storm. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 120(5). 10.1002/2014JA020838
  • Ukhorskiy, AY, MI Sitnov, RM Millan, BT Kress, JF Fennell, SG Claudepierre and RJ Barnes. (Apr 2015). Global storm time depletion of the outer electron belt. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 120(4). 10.1002/2014JA020645
  • Hudson, MK, J Paral, BT Kress, M Wiltberger, DN Baker, JC Foster, DL Turner and JR Wygant. (Feb 2015). Modeling CME-shock-driven storms in 2012-2013: MHD test particle simulations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS , 120(2). 10.1002/2014JA020833
  • Paral, J, MK Hudson, BT Kress, MJ Wiltberger, JR Wygant and HJ Singer. (Jan 2015). Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013. ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE , 33(8). 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015
  • Selesnick RS; Baker DN; Jaynes AN; Li X; Kanekal SG; Hudson MK; Kress BT. (Aug 2014). Observations of the inner radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics , 119(8). 10.1002/2014JA020188
  • Hudson MK; Baker DN; Goldstein J; Kress BT; Paral J; Toffoletto FR; Wiltberger M. (Feb 2014). Simulated magnetopause losses and Van Allen Probe flux dropouts. Geophysical Research Letters , 41(4), 1113-1118. 10.1002/2014GL059222
  • Kress BT; Hudson MK; Paral J. (Feb 2014). Rebuilding of the Earth's outer electron belt during 8-10 October 2012. Geophysical Research Letters , 41(3), 749-754. 10.1002/2013gl058588
  • Ukhorskiy AY; Sitnov MI; Millan RM; Kress BT; Smith DC. (Jan 2014). Enhanced radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons due to drift orbit bifurcations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics , 119(1), 163-170. 10.1002/2013ja019315
  • Kress, BT, JV Rodriguez, JE Mazur and M Engel. (Dec 2013). Modeling solar proton access to geostationary spacecraft with geomagnetic cutoffs. ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH , 52(11). 10.1016/j.asr.2013.08.019
  • Hudson M; Brito T; Elkington S; Kress B; Li Z; Wiltberger M. (Jul 2012). Radiation belt 2D and 3D simulations for CIR-driven storms during Carrington Rotation 2068. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar: Terrestrial Physics , 83, 51-62. 10.1016/j.jastp.2012.03.017
  • Ukhorskiy AY; Sitnov MI; Millan RM; Kress BT. (Sep 2011). The role of drift orbit bifurcations in energization and loss of electrons in the outer radiation belt. Journal of Geophysical Research , 116(A9), n/a-n/a. 10.1029/2011ja016623
  • Selesnick RS; Hudson MK; Kress BT. (Aug 2010). Injection and loss of inner radiation belt protons during solar proton events and magnetic storms. Journal of Geophysical Research , 115(A8), n/a-n/a. 10.1029/2010ja015247
  • Kress BT; Mertens CJ; Wiltberger M. (May 2010). Solar energetic particle cutoff variations during the 29-31 October 2003 geomagnetic storm. Space Weather , 8. 10.1029/2009SW000488
  • Mertens CJ; Kress BT; Wiltberger M; Blattnig SR; Slaba TS; Solomon SC; Engel M. (Mar 2010). Geomagnetic influence on aircraft radiation exposure during a solar energetic particle event in October 2003. Space Weather , 8. 10.1029/2009SW000487
  • Huang C-L; Spence HE; Kress BT. (May 2009). Assessing access of galactic cosmic rays at Moon's orbit. Geophysical Research Letters , 36(9). 10.1029/2009gl037916
  • Kress BT; Hudson MK; Looper MD; Lyon JG; Goodrich CC. (Nov 2008). Global MHD test particle simulations of solar energetic electron trapping in the Earth's radiation belts. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar: Terrestrial Physics , 70(14), 1727-1737. 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.05.018
  • Hudson MK; Kress BT; Mueller H-R; Zastrow JA; Bernard Blake J. (Mar 2008). Relationship of the Van Allen radiation belts to solar wind drivers. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar: Terrestrial Physics , 70(5), 708-729. 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.11.003
  • Kress BT; Hudson MK; Looper MD; Albert J; Lyon JG; Goodrich CC. (Sep 2007). Global MHD test particle simulations of >10 MeV radiation belt electrons during storm sudden commencement. Journal of Geophysical Research , 112(A9), n/a-n/a. 10.1029/2006ja012218
  • Shepherd SG; Kress BT. (Apr 2007). Strmer theory applied to magnetic spacecraft shielding. Space Weather , 5(4), n/a-n/a. 10.1029/2006sw000273
  • Kress BT. (Jan 2005). Impulsive solar energetic ion trapping in the magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms. Geophysical Research Letters , 32(6). 10.1029/2005gl022373
  • Kress BT. (Jan 2004). Dynamic modeling of geomagnetic cutoff for the 2324 November 2001 solar energetic particle event. Geophysical Research Letters , 31(4). 10.1029/2003gl018599
  • KRESS BT; MONTGOMERY DC. (Oct 2000). Pressure determinations for incompressible fluids and magnetofluids. Journal of Plasma Physics , 64(4), 371-377. 10.1017/s0022377800008825
  • Nelson CA; Kress BT; Lopes M; McCauley TP. (May 1998). Importance of tests for the complete Lorentz structure of thet?W+bvertex at hadron colliders. Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology , 57(9), 5923-5926. 10.1103/physrevd.57.5923
  • Nelson CA; Kress BT; Lopes M; McCauley TP. (Nov 1997). General tests fort?W+bcouplings at hadron colliders. Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology , 56(9), 5928-5944. 10.1103/physrevd.56.5928