Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Dale Hurst

Dale Hurst

Research Interests

  • High altitude measurements of water vapor and other trace gases, especially those influencing climate and stratospheric ozone
  • Determination and attribution of the inter-annual variability and longer-term trends in stratospheric water vapor and other trace gases
  • Statistical validations of atmospheric composition measurements by satellite-based remote sensors using in situ measurements from balloons and aircraft
  • Improvement of atmospheric composition measurements from mobile platforms including trains, aircraft and balloons

Current Research

I oversee a research team that builds and deploys compact, lightweight, custom-made, balloon-borne frost NOAA point hygrometers (FPHs) that measure atmospheric water vapor profiles from the surface to ~28 km at three sites around the world: Boulder, Colorado; Hilo, Hawaii; and Lauder, New Zealand. Profiles are obtained monthly at each site to compile long-term records of atmospheric water vapor, with a focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The FPH measurements at Boulder date back to 1980 and comprise the longest continuous record of UTLS water vapor in the world. Flight data, including FPH, ozone sonde and radiosonde measurements, are processed, quality controlled and archived by our team here in Boulder.

There are several goals of this research. First (and foremost) is to amass and analyze records of UTLS water vapor over decadal time scales to detect inter-annual variations and longer-term trends in UTLS water vapor driven by variations in atmospheric dynamics. Water vapor changes due to periodic dynamical variations (QBO, ENSO) are present in the FPH records. Our FPH profiles also provide invaluable validation data for UTLS water vapor measurements by satellite-based remote sensors to ensure their accuracy and long-term measurement stability. In 2017 we began launching instrumented balloons in coordination with overpasses of the SAGE-III instrument aboard the International Space Station to validate its measurements of stratospheric water vapor, ozone and aerosols. The FPH time series of water vapor measurements also provide validation data for numerical model simulations of moisture in the UTLS region.

Our team is also regularly involved in field research sponsored by NASA and NSF, predominantly to support scientific campaigns using high-altitude aircraft. We have launched balloons from many locations including New Mexico, California, Hawaii, Guam and Kunming, China.



Dale explains the measurements of some of instruments aboard the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V research aircraft to a tour group during the START-08 mission (2008; NCAR Research Aviation Facility, Broomfield, CO)

Dale watches over the ACATS 4-channel gas chromatograph measuring CFCs during the 14-day transit across Russia on the Trans-Siberian Railway as part of the TROICA-7 experiment (2001; somewhere in Siberia)

Dale configuring the instrument rack that will anchor the ACATS-IV gas chromatograph aboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during the SOLVE mission in northern Sweden (1999, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, CA)

Honors and Awards

  • 2016 - Väisälä Award for Outstanding Research Paper (WMO)
  • 2013 - NOAA Bronze Medal (team award)
  • 2007 - NOAA Bronze Medal (team award)
  • 2005 - NOAA/OAR Outstanding Scientific Paper
  • 2000 - CIRES Outstanding Performance Award
  • 1993 - National Research Council Postdoctoral Associateship
  • 1990 - Australian Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • 1989 - Outstanding Student Speaker Award (UC Irvine)
  • 1983 - American Institute of Chemists Award (UC Irvine)

View Publications

  • Lossow, S, DF Hurst, KH Rosenlof, GP Stiller, T von Clarmann, S Brinkop, M Dameris, P Jockel, DE Kinnison, J Plieninger, DA Plummer, F Ploeger, WG Read, EE Remsberg, JM Russell and MC Tao (2018), Trend differences in lower stratospheric water vapour between Boulder and the zonal mean and their role in understanding fundamental observational discrepancies. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 18 (11) 8331-8351, issn: 1680-7316, ids: GJ3SD, doi: 10.5194/acp-18-8331-2018
  • Weatherhead, EC, GE Bodeker, A Fasso, KL Chang, JK Lazo, CTM Clack, DF Hurst, B Hassler, JM English and S Yorgun (2017), Spatial Coverage of Monitoring Networks: A Climate Observing System Simulation Experiment. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. Version: 1 56 (12) 3211-3228, issn: 1558-8424, ids: FU2OU, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0040.1
  • Davis, S.M., K.H. Rosenlof, D.F. Hurst, and H.B. Selkirk (2016), Stratospheric Water Vapor in State of the Climate in 2014. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 97 (8) S51-S53, doi: 10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Bodeker, GE, S Bojinski, D Cimini, RJ Dirksen, M Haeffelin, JW Hannigan, DF Hurst, T Leblanc, F Madonna, M Maturilli, AC Mikalsen, R Philipona, T Reale, DJ Seidel, DGH Tan, PW Thorne, H Vomel and J Wang (2016), REFERENCE UPPER-AIR OBSERVATIONS FOR CLIMATE From Concept to Reality. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 97 (1) 123-135, issn: 0003-0007, ids: DD6WZ, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00072.1
  • Weigel, K, A Rozanov, F Azam, K Bramstedt, R Damadeo, KU Eichmann, C Gebhardt, D Hurst, M Kraemer, S Lossow, W Read, N Spelten, GP Stiller, KA Walker, M Weber, H Bovensmann and JP Burrows (2016), UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurements V3.01 (2002-2012). Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 9 (1) 133-158, issn: 1867-1381, ids: DL4MI, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-133-2016, PubMed ID: 29263764
  • Davis, SM, KH Rosenlof, B Hassler, DF Hurst, WG Read, H Vomel, H Selkirk, M Fujiwara and R Damadeo (2016), The Stratospheric Water and Ozone Satellite Homogenized (SWOOSH) database: a long-term database for climate studies. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Version: 1 8 (2) 461-490, issn: 1866-3508, ids: DY8KU, doi: 10.5194/essd-8-461-2016, PubMed ID: 28966693
  • Hurst, DF, WG Read, H Vomel, HB Selkirk, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, EG Hall, AF Jordan and SJ Oltmans (2016), Recent divergences in stratospheric water vapor measurements by frost point hygrometers and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 9 (9) 4447-4457, issn: 1867-1381, ids: DW9VC, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-4447-2016, PubMed ID: 28966694
  • Krauchi, A, R Philipona, G Romanens, DF Hurst, EG Hall and AF Jordan (2016), Controlled weather balloon ascents and descents for atmospheric research and climate monitoring. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 9 (3) 929-938, issn: 1867-1381, ids: DL4NF, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-929-2016, PubMed ID: 29263765
  • Muller, R, A Kunz, DF Hurst, C Rolf, M Kramer and M Riese (2016), The need for accurate long-term measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere with global coverage. Earth's Future Version: 1 4 (2) 25-32, issn: 2328-4277, ids: DH6WA, doi: 10.1002/2015EF000321
  • Hall, EG, AF Jordan, DF Hurst, SJ Oltmans, H Vomel, B Kuhnreich and V Ebert (2016), Advancements, measurement uncertainties, and recent comparisons of the NOAA frost point hygrometer. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 9 (9) 4295-4310, issn: 1867-1381, ids: DW8GB, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-4295-2016, PubMed ID: 28845201
  • Hegglin, MI, DA Plummer, TG Shepherd, JF Scinocca, J Anderson, L Froidevaux, B Funke, D Hurst, A Rozanov, J Urban, T von Clarmann, KA Walker, HJ Wang, S Tegtmeier and K Weigel (2014), Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data. Nature Geosci. Version: 1 7 (10) 768-776, issn: 1752-0894, ids: AQ8VC, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2236
  • Santoni, GW, BC Daube, EA Kort, R Jimenez, S Park, JV Pittman, E Gottlieb, B Xiang, MS Zahniser, DD Nelson, JB McManus, J Peischl, TB Ryerson, JS Holloway, AE Andrews, C Sweeney, B Hall, EJ Hintsa, FL Moore, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, BB Stephens, J Bent and SC Wofsy (2014), Evaluation of the airborne quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) measurements of the carbon and greenhouse gas suite - CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO - during the CalNex and HIPPO campaigns. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 7 (6) 1509-1526, issn: 1867-1381, ids: AM5YB, doi: 10.5194/amt-7-1509-2014
  • Dirksen, RJ, M Sommer, FJ Immler, DF Hurst, R Kivi and H Vomel (2014), Reference quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 7 (12) 4463-4490, issn: 1867-1381, ids: CF1GA, doi: 10.5194/amt-7-4463-2014
  • Hurst, DF, A Lambert, WG Read, SM Davis, KH Rosenlof, EG Hall, AF Jordan and SJ Oltmans (2014), Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 119 (3) 1612-1625, issn: 2169-897X, ids: AD1LD, doi: 10.1002/2013JD020757, PubMed ID: 28845378
  • Patra, PK, MC Krol, SA Montzka, T Arnold, EL Atlas, BR Lintner, BB Stephens, B Xiang, JW Elkins, PJ Fraser, A Ghosh, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, K Ishijima, PB Krummel, BR Miller, K Miyazaki, FL Moore, J Muhle, S ODoherty, RG Prinn, LP Steele, M Takigawa, HJ Wang, RF Weiss, SC Wofsy and D Young (2014), Observational evidence for interhemispheric hydroxyl-radical parity. Nature Version: 1 513 (7517) 219-223, issn: 0028-0836, ids: AO5DP, doi: 10.1038/nature13721, PubMed ID: 25209800
  • Rollins, AW, TD Thornberry, RS Gao, JB Smith, DS Sayres, MR Sargent, C Schiller, M Kramer, N Spelten, DF Hurst, AF Jordan, EG Hall, H Vomel, GS Diskin, JR Podolske, LE Christensen, KH Rosenlof, EJ Jensen and DW Fahey (2014), Evaluation of UT/LS hygrometer accuracy by intercomparison during the NASA MACPEX mission. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 119 (4) 1915-1935, issn: 2169-897X, ids: AD3KP, doi: 10.1002/2013JD020817, PubMed ID: 28845379
  • Nedoluha, GE, RM Gomez, H Neal, A Lambert, D Hurst, C Boone and G Stiller (2013), Validation of long-term measurements of water vapor from the midstratosphere to the mesosphere at two Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change sites. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (2) 934-942, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129KN, doi: 10.1029/2012JD018900
  • Waugh, DW, AM Crotwell, EJ Dlugokencky, GS Dutton, JW Elkins, BD Hall, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, SA Montzka, DJ Mondeel, FL Moore, JD Nance, EA Ray, SD Steenrod, SE Strahan and C Sweeney (2013), Tropospheric SF6: Age of air from the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude surface. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (19) 11429-11441, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 297PF, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50848
  • Kunz, A, R Muller, V Homonnai, IM Janosi, D Hurst, A Rap, PM Forster, F Rohrer, N Spelten and M Riese (2013), Extending water vapor trend observations over Boulder into the tropopause region: Trend uncertainties and resulting radiative forcing. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (19) 11269-11284, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 297PF, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50831
  • Fueglistaler, S, YS Liu, TJ Flannaghan, PH Haynes, DP Dee, WJ Read, EE Remsberg, LW Thomason, DF Hurst, JR Lanzante and PF Bernath (2013), The relation between atmospheric humidity and temperature trends for stratospheric water. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (2) 1052-1074, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129KN, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50157
  • Kort, EA, SC Wofsy, BC Daube, M Diao, JW Elkins, RS Gao, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, R Jimenez, FL Moore, JR Spackman and MA Zondlo (2012), Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82 degrees north. Nature Geosci. Version: 1 5 (5) 318-321, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 934RP, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1452
  • Whiteman, DN, M Cadirola, D Venable, M Calhoun, L Miloshevich, K Vermeesch, L Twigg, A Dirisu, D Hurst, E Hall, A Jordan and H Vomel (2012), Correction technique for Raman water vapor lidar signal-dependent bias and suitability for water vapor trend monitoring in the upper troposphere. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 5 (11) 2893-2916, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 046ZK, doi: 10.5194/amt-5-2893-2012
  • Stiller, GP, M Kiefer, E Eckert, T von Clarmann, S Kellmann, M Garcia-Comas, B Funke, T Leblanc, E Fetzer, L Froidevaux, M Gomez, E Hall, D Hurst, A Jordan, N Kampfer, A Lambert, IS McDermid, T McGee, L Miloshevich, G Nedoluha, W Read, M Schneider, M Schwartz, C Straub, G Toon, LW Twigg, K Walker and DN Whiteman (2012), Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 5 (2) 289-320, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 900HD, doi: 10.5194/amt-5-289-2012
  • Hurst, DF, EG Hall, AF Jordan, LM Miloshevich, DN Whiteman, T Leblanc, D Walsh, H Vomel and SJ Oltmans (2011), Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 4 (12) 2777-2793, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 867ZD, doi: 10.5194/amt-4-2777-2011
  • Hall, BD, GS Dutton, DJ Mondeel, JD Nance, M Rigby, JH Butler, FL Moore, DF Hurst and JW Elkins (2011), Improving measurements of SF6 for the study of atmospheric transport and emissions. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 4 (11) 2441-2451, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 863AS, doi: 10.5194/amt-4-2441-2011
  • Leblanc, T, TD Walsh, IS McDermid, GC Toon, JF Blavier, B Haines, WG Read, B Herman, E Fetzer, S Sander, T Pongetti, DN Whiteman, TG McGee, L Twigg, G Sumnicht, D Venable, M Calhoun, A Dirisu, D Hurst, A Jordan, E Hall, L Miloshevich, H Vomel, C Straub, N Kampfer, GE Nedoluha, RM Gomez, K Holub, S Gutman, J Braun, T Vanhove, G Stiller and A Hauchecorne (2011), Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE)-2009: overview of campaign operations and results. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 4 (12) 2579-2605, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 867ZD, doi: 10.5194/amt-4-2579-2011
  • Hurst, DF, SJ Oltmans, H Vomel, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, EA Ray, EG Hall and AF Jordan (2011), Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colorado: Analysis of the 30 year Boulder record. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 116 , Art. No. D02306, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 713SF, doi: 10.1029/2010JD015065
  • Kort, EA, PK Patra, K Ishijima, BC Daube, R Jimenez, J Elkins, D Hurst, FL Moore, C Sweeney and SC Wofsy (2011), Tropospheric distribution and variability of N2O: Evidence for strong tropical emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 38 , Art. No. L15806, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 804JZ, doi: 10.1029/2011GL047612
  • Wunch, D, GC Toon, PO Wennberg, SC Wofsy, BB Stephens, ML Fischer, O Uchino, JB Abshire, P Bernath, SC Biraud, JFL Blavier, C Boone, KP Bowman, EV Browell, T Campos, BJ Connor, BC Daube, NM Deutscher, M Diao, JW Elkins, C Gerbig, E Gottlieb, DWT Griffith, DF Hurst, R Jimenez, G Keppel-Aleks, EA Kort, R Macatangay, T Machida, H Matsueda, F Moore, I Morino, S Park, J Robinson, CM Roehl, Y Sawa, V Sherlock, C Sweeney, T Tanaka and MA Zondlo (2010), Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using aircraft profile data. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 3 (5) 1351-1362, issn: 1867-1381, ids: 673KW, doi: 10.5194/amt-3-1351-2010
  • Engel, A, T Mobius, H Bonisch, U Schmidt, R Heinz, I Levin, E Atlas, S Aoki, T Nakazawa, S Sugawara, F Moore, D Hurst, J Elkins, S Schauffler, A Andrews and K Boering (2009), Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years. Nature Geosci. Version: 1 2 (1) 28-31, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 397CB, doi: 10.1038/NGEO388
  • Turnbull, JC, JB Miller, SJ Lehman, D Hurst, W Peters, PP Tans, J Southon, SA Montzka, JW Elkins, DJ Mondeel, PA Romashkin, N Elansky and A Skorokhod (2009), Spatial distribution of Delta(CO2)-C-14 across Eurasia: measurements from the TROICA-8 expedition. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (1) 175-187, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 395DO, doi: 10.5194/acp-9-175-2009
  • Gloor, M, E Dlugokencky, C Brenninkmeijer, L Horowitz, DF Hurst, G Dutton, C Crevoisier, T Machida and P Tans (2007), Three-dimensional SF6 data and tropospheric transport simulations: Signals, modeling accuracy, and implications for inverse modeling. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D15) , Art. No. D15112, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 202JJ, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007973
  • Spackman, JR, EM Weinstock, JG Anderson, DF Hurst, HJ Jost and SM Schauffler (2007), Aircraft observations of rapid meridional transport from the tropical tropopause layer into the lowermost stratosphere: Implications for midlatitude ozone. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D12) , Art. No. D12308, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 185AG, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007618
  • Wilmouth, DM, RM Stimpfle, JG Anderson, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, RJ Salawitch and LR Lait (2006), Evolution of inorganic chlorine partitioning in the Arctic polar vortex. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D16) , Art. No. D16308, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 078KA, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006951
  • Hurst, DF, JC Lin, PA Romashkin, BC Daube, C Gerbig, DM Matross, SC Wofsy, BD Hall and JW Elkins (2006), Continuing global significance of emissions of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons in the United States and Canada. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 111 (D15) , Art. No. D15302, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 071JK, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006785
  • Hurst, DF, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, EA Oberlander, NF Elansky, IB Belikov, IG Granberg, GS Golitsyn, AM Grisenko, CAM Brenninkmeijer and PJ Crutzen (2004), Emissions of ozone-depleting substances in Russia during 2001. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 109 (D14) , Art. No. D14303, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 844VT, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004633
  • Moore, FL, JW Elkins, EA Ray, GS Dutton, RE Dunn, DW Fahey, RJ McLaughlin, TL Thompson, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst and PR Wamsley (2003), Balloonborne in situ gas chromatograph for measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D5) , Art. No. 8330, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 661KY, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000891
  • Werner, C, K Davis, P Bakwin, CX Yi, D Hurst and L Lock (2003), Regional-scale measurements of CH4 exchange from a tall tower over a mixed temperate/boreal lowland and wetland forest. Glob. Change Biol. Version: 1 9 (9) 1251-1261, issn: 1354-1013, ids: 725TJ, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00670.x
  • Hurst, DF, SM Schauffler, JB Greenblatt, H Jost, RL Herman, JW Elkins, PA Romashkin, EL Atlas, SG Donnelly, JR Podolske, M Loewenstein, CR Webster, GJ Flesch and DC Scott (2002), Construction of a unified, high-resolution nitrous oxide data set for ER-2 flights during SOLVE. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D20) , Art. No. 8271, issn: 0747-7309, ids: 636PY, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000417
  • Drdla, K, BW Gandrud, D Baumgardner, JC Wilson, TP Bui, D Hurst, SM Schauffler, H Jost, JB Greenblatt and CR Webster (2002), Evidence for the widespread presence of liquid-phase particles during the 1999-2000 Arctic winter. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D5) , Art. No. 8318, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 650GX, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001127
  • Salawitch, RJ, JJ Margitan, B Sen, GC Toon, GB Osterman, M Rex, JW Elkins, EA Ray, FL Moore, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, RM Bevilacqua, KW Hoppel, EC Richard and TP Bui (2002), Chemical loss of ozone during the Arctic winter of 1999/2000: An analysis based on balloon-borne observations. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D20) , Art. No. 8269, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 636PY, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000620
  • Gao, RS, PJ Popp, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof, MJ Northway, DW Fahey, AF Tuck, CR Webster, DF Hurst, SM Schauffler, H Jost and TP Bui (2002), Role of NOy as a diagnostic of small-scale mixing in a denitrified polar vortex. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D24) , Art. No. 4794, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 650JF, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002332
  • Jost, HJ, M Loewenstein, JB Greenblatt, JR Podolske, TP Bui, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, RL Herman, CR Webster, SM Schauffler, EL Atlas, PA Newman, LR Lait and SC Wofsy (2002), Mixing events revealed by anomalous tracer relationships in the Arctic vortex during winter 1999/2000. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D24) , Art. No. 4795, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 650JF, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002380
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, GS Dutton and DW Fahey (2002), Descent and mixing in the 1999-2000 northern polar vortex inferred from in situ tracer measurements. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D20) , Art. No. 8285, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 636PY, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000961
  • Greenblatt, JB, HJ Jost, M Loewenstein, JR Podolske, TP Bui, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, RL Herman, CR Webster, SM Schauffler, EL Atlas, PA Newman, LR Lait, M Muller, A Engel and U Schmidt (2002), Defining the polar vortex edge from an N2O : potential temperature correlation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D20) , Art. No. 8268, issn: 0747-7309, ids: 636PY, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000575
  • Herman, RL, K Drdla, JR Spackman, DF Hurst, PJ Popp, CR Webster, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, EM Weinstock, BW Gandrud, GC Toon, MR Schoeberl, H Jost, EL Atlas and TP Bui (2002), Hydration, dehydration, and the total hydrogen budget of the 1999/2000 winter Arctic stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D5) , Art. No. 8320, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 650HB, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001257
  • Gao, RS, EC Richard, PJ Popp, GC Toon, DF Hurst, PA Newman, JC Holecek, MJ Northway, DW Fahey, MY Danilin, B Sen, K Aikin, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, CR Webster, SM Schauffler, JB Greenblatt, CT McElroy, LR Lait, TP Bui and D Baumgardner (2001), Observational evidence for the role of denitrification in Arctic stratospheric ozone loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 28 (15) 2879-2882, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 457VK, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013173
  • Gloor, M, P Bakwin, D Hurst, L Lock, R Draxler and P Tans (2001), What is the concentration footprint of a tall tower?. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 106 (D16) 17831-17840, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 465FR, doi: 10.1029/2001JD900021
  • Popp, PJ, MJ Northway, JC Holecek, RS Gao, DW Fahey, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, GC Toon, B Sen, SM Schauffler, RJ Salawitch, CR Webster, RL Herman, H Jost, TP Bui, PA Newman and LR Lait (2001), Severe and extensive denitrification in the 1999-2000 Arctic winter stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 28 (15) 2875-2878, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 457VK, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013132
  • Romashkin, PA, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, GS Dutton, DW Fahey, RE Dunn, FL Moore, RC Myers and BD Hall (2001), In situ measurements of long-lived trace gases in the lower stratosphere by gas chromatography. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. Version: 1 18 (7) 1195-1204, issn: 0739-0572, ids: 450ZX, doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(2001)018<1195:ISMOLL>2.0.CO;2
  • Richard, EC, KC Aikin, AE Andrews, BC Daube, C Gerbig, SC Wofsy, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst, EA Ray, FL Moore, JW Elkins, T Deshler and GC Toon (2001), Severe chemical ozone loss inside the Arctic polar vortex during winter 1999-2000 inferred from in situ airborne measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 28 (11) 2197-2200, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 434TB, doi: 10.1029/2001GL012878
  • Hurst, DF, GS Dutton, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, RL Herman, EJ Moyer, DC Scott, RD May, CR Webster, J Grecu, M Loewenstein and JR Podolske (2000), Comparison of in situ N2O and CH4 measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during STRAT and POLARIS. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 105 (D15) 19811-19822, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 347LG, doi: 10.1029/2000JD900218
  • Novelli, PC, PM Lang, KA Masarie, DF Hurst, R Myers and JW Elkins (1999), Molecular hydrogen in the troposphere: Global distribution and budget. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D23) 30427-30444, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 268DR, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900788
  • Toon, GC, JF Blavier, B Sen, JJ Margitan, CR Webster, RD May, D Fahey, R Gao, L Del Negro, M Proffitt, J Elkins, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst, S Oltmans, E Atlas, S Schauffler, F Flocke, TP Bui, RM Stimpfle, GP Bonne, PB Voss and RC Cohen (1999), Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D21) 26779-26790, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 257KN, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900379
  • Romashkin, PA, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, GS Dutton and PR Wamsley (1999), Effect of the tropospheric trend on the stratospheric tracer-tracer correlations: Methyl chloroform. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D21) 26643-26652, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 257KN, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900744
  • Sen, B, GB Osterman, RJ Salawitch, GC Toon, JJ Margitan, JF Blavier, AY Chang, RD May, CR Webster, RM Stimpfle, GP Bonne, PB Voss, KK Perkins, JG Anderson, RC Cohen, JW Elkins, GS Dutton, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, EL Atlas, SM Schauffler and M Loewenstein (1999), The budget and partitioning of stratospheric chlorine during the 1997 Arctic summer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D21) 26653-26665, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 257KN, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900245
  • Hintsa, EJ, EM Weinstock, JG Anderson, RD May and DF Hurst (1999), On the accuracy of in situ water vapor measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with the Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D7) 8183-8189, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 187NV, doi: 10.1029/1998JD100110
  • Hurst, DF, GS Dutton, PA Romashkin, PR Wamsley, FL Moore, JW Elkins, EJ Hintsa, EM Weinstock, RL Herman, EJ Moyer, DC Scott, RD May and CR Webster (1999), Closure of the total hydrogen budget of the northern extratropical lower stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D7) 8191-8200, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 187NV, doi: 10.1029/1998JD100092
  • Hurst, DF, PS Bakwin and JW Elkins (1998), Recent trends in the variability of halogenated trace gases over the United States. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 103 (D19) 25299-25306, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129XW, doi: 10.1029/98JD01879
  • Bakwin, PS, PP Tans, DF Hurst and CL Zhao (1998), Measurements of carbon dioxide on very tall towers: results of the NOAA/CMDL program. Tellus B Version: 1 50 (5) 401-415, issn: 0280-6509, ids: 163TJ, doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1998.t01-4-00001.x
  • Bakwin, PS, DF Hurst, PP Tans and JW Elkins (1997), Anthropogenic sources of halocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, carbon monoxide, and methane in the southeastern United States. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (D13) 15915-15925, issn: 2169-897X, ids: XM347, doi: 10.1029/97JD00869
  • Geller, LS, JW Elkins, JM Lobert, AD Clarke, DF Hurst, JH Butler and RC Myers (1997), Tropospheric SF6: Observed latitudinal distribution and trends, derived emissions and interhemispheric exchange time. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (6) 675-678, issn: 0094-8276, ids: WN972, doi: 10.1029/97GL00523
  • Hurst, DF, PS Bakwin, RC Myers and JW Elkins (1997), Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (D7) 8825-8835, issn: 2169-897X, ids: WX558, doi: 10.1029/97JD00130
  • Elkins, JW, DW Fahey, JM Gilligan, GS Dutton, TJ Baring, CM Volk, RE Dunn, RC Myers, SA Montzka, PR Wamsley, AH Hayden, JH Butler, TM Thompson, TH Swanson, EJ Dlugokencky, PC Novelli, DF Hurst, JM Lobert, SJ Ciciora, RJ McLaughlin, TL Thompson, RH Winkler, PJ Fraser, LP Steele and MP Lucarelli (1996), Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 23 (4) 347-350, issn: 0094-8276, ids: TW551, doi: 10.1029/96GL00244