Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Dale Hurst

Research Interests

  • High altitude measurements of water vapor and other trace gases, especially those influencing climate and stratospheric ozone
  • Determination and attribution of the inter-annual variability and longer-term trends in stratospheric water vapor and other trace gases
  • Statistical validations of atmospheric composition measurements by satellite-based remote sensors using in situ measurements from balloons and aircraft
  • Improvement of atmospheric composition measurements from mobile platforms including trains, aircraft and balloons

Current Research

I oversee a research team that builds and deploys compact, lightweight, custom-made, balloon-borne frost NOAA point hygrometers (FPHs) that measure atmospheric water vapor profiles from the surface to ~28 km at three sites around the world: Boulder, Colorado; Hilo, Hawaii; and Lauder, New Zealand. Profiles are obtained monthly at each site to compile long-term records of atmospheric water vapor, with a focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The FPH measurements at Boulder date back to 1980 and comprise the longest continuous record of UTLS water vapor in the world. Flight data, including FPH, ozone sonde and radiosonde measurements, are processed, quality controlled and archived by our team here in Boulder.

There are several goals of this research. First (and foremost) is to amass and analyze records of UTLS water vapor over decadal time scales to detect inter-annual variations and longer-term trends in UTLS water vapor driven by variations in atmospheric dynamics. Water vapor changes due to periodic dynamical variations (QBO, ENSO) are present in the FPH records. Our FPH profiles also provide invaluable validation data for UTLS water vapor measurements by satellite-based remote sensors to ensure their accuracy and long-term measurement stability. In 2017 we began launching instrumented balloons in coordination with overpasses of the SAGE-III instrument aboard the International Space Station to validate its measurements of stratospheric water vapor, ozone and aerosols. The FPH time series of water vapor measurements also provide validation data for numerical model simulations of moisture in the UTLS region.

Our team is also regularly involved in field research sponsored by NASA and NSF, predominantly to support scientific campaigns using high-altitude aircraft. We have launched balloons from many locations including New Mexico, California, Hawaii, Guam and Kunming, China.

Dale explains the measurements of some of instruments aboard the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V research aircraft to a tour group during the START-08 mission (2008; NCAR Research Aviation Facility, Broomfield, CO)

Dale watches over the ACATS 4-channel gas chromatograph measuring CFCs during the 14-day transit across Russia on the Trans-Siberian Railway as part of the TROICA-7 experiment (2001; somewhere in Siberia)

Dale configuring the instrument rack that will anchor the ACATS-IV gas chromatograph aboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during the SOLVE mission in northern Sweden (1999, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, CA)

Honors and Awards

  • 2016 - Väisälä Award for Outstanding Research Paper (WMO)
  • 2013 - NOAA Bronze Medal (team award)
  • 2007 - NOAA Bronze Medal (team award)
  • 2005 - NOAA/OAR Outstanding Scientific Paper
  • 2000 - CIRES Outstanding Performance Award
  • 1993 - National Research Council Postdoctoral Associateship
  • 1990 - Australian Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • 1989 - Outstanding Student Speaker Award (UC Irvine)
  • 1983 - American Institute of Chemists Award (UC Irvine)

View Publications

  • Hintsa EJ; Moore FL; Hurst DF; Dutton GS; Hall BD; Nance JD; Miller BR; Montzka SA; Wolton LP; McClure-Begley A. (Oct 2021). UAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques , 14(10), 6795-6819. 10.5194/amt-14-6795-2021
  • Livesey NJ; Read WG; Froidevaux L; Lambert A; Santee ML; Schwartz MJ; Milln LF; Jarnot RF; Wagner PA; Hurst DF. (Oct 2021). Investigation and amelioration of long-term instrumental drifts in water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and their implications for studies of variability and trends. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 21(20), 15409-15430. 10.5194/acp-21-15409-2021
  • Dorigo W; Dietrich S; Aires F; Brocca L; Carter S; Cretaux J-F; Dunkerley D; Enomoto H; Forsberg R; Gntner A. (Apr 2021). Closing the water cycle from observations across scales: Where do we stand?. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 1-95. 10.1175/bams-d-19-0316.1
  • Davis SM; Damadeo R; Flittner D; Rosenlof KH; Park M; Randel WJ; Hall EG; Huber D; Hurst DF; Jordan AF. (Jan 2021). Validation of SAGE III/ISS Solar Water Vapor Data With Correlative Satellite and Balloon-Borne Measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , 126(2). 10.1029/2020JD033803
  • Hintsa EJ; Moore FL; Hurst DF; Dutton GS; Hall BD; Nance JD; Miller BR; Montzka SA; Wolton LP; McClure-Begley A. (Jan 2021). UAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 10.5194/amt-2020-496
  • Dirksen RJ; Bodeker GE; Thorne PW; Merlone A; Reale T; Wang J; Hurst DF; Demoz BB; Gardiner TD; Ingleby B. (Aug 2020). Managing the transition from Vaisala RS92 to RS41 radiosondes within the Global Climate Observing System Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN): a progress report. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems , 9(2), 337-355. 10.5194/gi-9-337-2020
  • Jensen EJ; Pan LL; Honomichl S; Diskin GS; Kraemer M; Spelten N; Guenther G; Hurst DF; Fujiwara M; Voemel H. (Aug 2020). Assessment of Observational Evidence for Direct Convective Hydration of the Lower Stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , 125(15). 10.1029/2020JD032793
  • (Aug 2020). State of the Climate in 2019. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 101(8), S1-S429. 10.1175/2020bamsstateoftheclimate.1
  • Wang HJR; Damadeo R; Flittner D; Kramarova N; Taha G; Davis S; Thompson AM; Strahan S; Wang Y; Froidevaux L. (Jun 2020). Validation of SAGE III/ISS Solar Occultation Ozone Products With Correlative Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , 125(11). 10.1029/2020JD032430
  • Dirksen, R.J., G.E. Bodeker, P.W. Thorne, A. Merlone, T. Reale, J. Wang, D.F. Hurst, B.B. Demoz, T.D. Gardiner, B.Ingleby, M. Sommer, C. von Rohde1, and T. Leblanc. (Jan 2020). Progress in managing the transition from the RS92 to the Vaisala RS41 as the operational radiosonde within the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network. 10.5194/gi-2019-36
  • Davis, S.M., Hurst, D.F., Rosenlof, K.H., Selkirk, H.B., and H. Voemel. (Jan 2020). Stratospheric Water Vapor [in State of the Climate in 2019]. , 101. 10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Philipona R; Kraeuchi A; Kivi R; Peter T; Wild M; Dirksen R; Fujiwara M; Sekiguchi M; Hurst DF; Becker R. (Jan 2020). Balloon-borne radiation measurements demonstrate radiative forcing by water vapor and clouds. Meteorologische Zeitschrift , 29(6), 501-509. 10.1127/metz/2020/1044
  • Davis, S.M., Hurst, D.F., Rosenlof, K.H., Selkirk, H.B., and H. Voemel. (2019). Stratospheric Water Vapor [in State of the Climate in 2018]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(9), S56-S58. 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Lossow, S; Khosrawi, F; Kiefer, M; Walker, KA; Bertaux, JL; Blanot, L; Russell, JM; Remsberg, EE; Gille, JC; Sugita, T; Sioris, CE; Dinelli, BM; Papandrea, E; Raspollini, P; Garcia-Comas, M; Stiller, GP; von Clarmann, T; Dudhia, A; Read, WG; Nedoluha, GE; Damadeo, RP; Zawodny, JM; Weigel, K; Rozanov, A; Azam, F; Bramstedt, K; Noel, S; Burrows, JP; Sagawa, H; Kasai, Y; Urban, J; Eriksson, P; Murtagh, DP; Hervig, ME; Hogberg, C; Hurst, DF; Rosenlof, KH. (10-May 2019). The SPARC water vapour assessment II: profile-to-profile comparisons of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour data sets obtained from satellites. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 12(5), 2693-2732. 10.5194/amt-12-2693-2019
  • Ortega, I; Buchholz, RR; Hall, EG; Hurst, DF; Jordan, AF; Hannigan, JW. (8-Feb 2019). Tropospheric water vapor profiles obtained with FTIR: comparison with balloon-borne frost point hygrometers and influence on trace gas retrievals. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 12(2), 873-890. 10.5194/amt-12-873-2019
  • Davis, S.M., Hurst, D.F., Rosenlof, K.H., Selkirk, H.B., and H. Voemel. (2018). Stratospheric Water Vapor [in State of the Climate in 2017]. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 99(8), 54-56. 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Lossow, S, DF Hurst, KH Rosenlof, GP Stiller, T von Clarmann, S Brinkop, M Dameris, P Jockel, DE Kinnison, J Plieninger, DA Plummer, F Ploeger, WG Read, EE Remsberg, JM Russell and MC Tao. (14-Jul 2018). Trend differences in lower stratospheric water vapour between Boulder and the zonal mean and their role in understanding fundamental observational discrepancies. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 18(11), 8331-8351. 10.5194/acp-18-8331-2018
  • Arndt, DS, J Blunden, RJH Dunn, AP Aaron-Morrison, A Abdallah, SA Ackerman, R Adler, EJ Alfaro, RP Allan, R Allan, LA Alvarez, LM Alves, JA Amador, LM Andreassen, D Arce, A Arguez, DS Arndt, NM Arzhanova, J Augustine, E Awatif, C Azorin-Molina, J Baez, MU Bardin, J Barichivich, MO Baringer, S Barreira, S Baxter, HE Beck, A Becker, KM Bedka, MJ Behrenfeld, GD Bell, M Belmont, A Benedetti, GH Bernhard, P Berrisford, DI Berry, ML Bettolli, US Bhatt, M Bidegain, B Biskaborn, P Bissolli, J Bjerke, ES Blake, J Blunden, MG Bosilovich, O Boucher, D Boudet, JE Box, T Boyer, GO Braathen, J Brimelow, DH Bromwich, R Brown, S Buehler, ON Bulygina, D Burgess, B Calderon, SJ Camargo, JD Campbell, J Cappelen, P Caroff, L Carrea, BR Carter, DP Chambers, E Chandler, MD Cheng, HH Christiansen, JR Christy, D Chung, ES Chung, KR Clem, CAS Coelho, M Coldewey-Egbers, S Colwell, OR Cooper, L Copland, JN Cross, J Crouch, V Cutie, SM Davis, E de Eyto, RAM de Jeu, J de Laat, CL deGasperi, D Degenstein, M Demircan, C Derksen, L di Girolamo, HJ Diamond, S Dindyal, EJ Dlugokencky, K Dohan, MT Dokulil, AJ Dolman, CM Domingues, MG Donat, S Dong, WA Dorigo, DS Drozdov, RJH Dunn, AM Duran-Quesada, GS Dutton, M ElKharrim, JW Elkins, HE Epstein, JC Espinoza, S Etienne-LeBlanc, JS Famiglietti, S Farrell, S Fateh, RS Fausto, RA Feely, Z Feng, C Fenimore, X Fettweis, VE Fioletov, M Flannigan, J Flemming, RL Fogt, C Folland, C Fonseca, BC Forbes, MJ Foster, SD Francis, BA Franz, RA Frey, SM Frith, L Froidevaux, C Ganter, S Gerland, J Gilson, N Gobron, SB Goldenberg, G Goni, IT Gonzalez, A Goto, MD Greenhough, JU Grooss, A Gruber, C Guard, SK Gupta, JM Gutierrez, C Haas, S Hagos, S Hahn, L Haimberger, BD Hall, MS Halpert, BD Hamlington, E Hanna, I Hanssen-Bauer, J Hare, I Harris, AK Heidinger, RR Heim, S Hendricks, M Hernandez, R Hernandez, HG Hidalgo, SP Ho, WR Hobbs, B Huang, HK Huelsing, DF Hurst, I Ialongo, JA Ijampy, A Inness, K Isaksen, M Ishii, S Jevrejeva, C Jimenez, XZ Jin, V John, WE Johns, B Johnsen, B Johnson, GC Johnson, KS Johnson, PD Jones, G Jumaux, K Kabidi, JW Kaiser, D Kass, S Kato, A Kazemi, G Kelem, LM Keller, BP Kelly, M Kendon, J Kennedy, K Kerr, AL Kholodov, M Khoshkam, R Killick, HJ Kim, SJ Kim, TB Kimberlain, PJ Klotzbach, JA Knaff, B Kochtubajda, J Kohler, J Korhonen, NN Korshunova, N Kramarova, DP Kratz, A Kruger, MC Kruk, T Krumpen, M Lakatos, K Lakkala, JP Lanckmann, MA Lander, P Landschutzer, CW Landsea, M Lankhorst, K Lantz, MA Lazzara, E Leuliette, SR Lewis, M LHeureux, JL Lieser, II Lin, HX Liu, YH Liu, R Locarnini, NG Loeb, CS Long, M Loranty, AM Lorrey, D Loyola, MM Lu, R Lumpkin, JJ Luo, K Luojus, JM Lyman, G Macara, AM Macdonald, M Macias-Fauria, GV Malkova, G Manney, SS Marchenko, JA Marengo, JJ Marra, W Marszelewski, B Martens, R Martinez-Guingla, RA Massom, JT Mathis, L May, M Mayer, M Mazloff, C McBride, MF McCabe, G McCarthy, M McCarthy, EL McDonagh, S McGree, TR McVicar, CA Mears, W Meier, A Mekonnen, VV Menezes, GM Tsidu, WP Menzel, CJ Merchant, MP Meredith, MA Merrifield, P Minnis, DG Miralles, T Mistelbauer, GT Mitchum, S Mitro, D Monselesan, SA Montzka, N Mora, C Morice, B Morrow, T Mote, L Mudryk, J Muhle, AB Mullan, R Muller, ER Nash, RS Nerem, L Newman, PA Newman, JJ Nieto, J Noetzli, S ONeel, TJ Osborn, J Overland, L Oyunjargal, RM Parinussa, EH Park, RJ Pasch, R Pascual-Ramirez, AM Paterson, PR Pearce, V Pellichero, MS Pelto, L Peng, SE Perkins-Kirkpatrick, D Perovich, I Petropavlovskikh, AB Pezza, C Phillips, D Phillips, G Phoenix, B Pinty, MC Pitts, MR Pons, AO Porter, J Quintana, F Rahimzadeh, M Rajeevan, D Rayner, MK Raynolds, VN Razuvaev, P Read, J Reagan, P Reid, C Reimer, S Remy, JA Renwick, JV Revadekar, J Richter-Menge, A Rimmer, DA Robinson, M Rodell, R Rollenbeck, VE Romanovsky, J Ronchail, F Roquet, KH Rosenlof, C Roth, JA Rusak, JB Sallee, A Sanchez-Lugo, ML Santee, JL Sarmiento, P Sawaengphokhai, A Sayouri, TA Scambos, J Schemm, SG Schladow, C Schmid, M Schmid, P Schoeneich, CJ Schreck, T Schuur, HB Selkirk, U Send, S Sensoy, M Sharp, L Shi, NI Shiklomanov, SV Shimaraeva, DA Siegel, SR Signorini, E Silov, F Sima, AJ Simmons, DA Smeed, CJPP Smeets, A Smith, SL Smith, B Soden, JM Spence, AK Srivastava, PW Stackhouse, S Stammerjohn, W Steinbrecht, JL Stella, R Stennett-Brown, TS Stephenson, S Strahan, DA Streletskiy, S Sun-Mack, S Swart, W Sweet, G Tamar, MA Taylor, M Tedesco, RL Thoman, L Thompson, PR Thompson, ML Timmermans, MA Timofeev, JA Tirnanes, S Tobin, K Trachte, BC Trewin, AR Trotman, M Tschudi, O Tweedy, D van As, RSW van de Wal, R van der Schalie, G van der Schrier, GR van der Werf, CJ van Meerbeeck, I Velicogna, P Verburg, G Vieira, LA Vincent, H Vomel, RS Vose, W Wagner, A Wahlin, DA Walker, J Walsh, B Wang, CZ Wang, JH Wang, L Wang, M Wang, SH Wang, R Wanninkhof, S Watanabe, M Weber, RA Weller, GA Weyhenmeyer, R Whitewood, DN Wiese, SE Wijffels, AC Wilber, JD Wild, KM Willett, S Willie, JK Willis, G Wolken, T Wong, EF Wood, RI Woolway, B Wouters, Y Xue, SY Yim, XG Yin, L Yu, E Zambrano, HM Zhang, PQ Zhang, GG Zhao, L Zhao, JR Ziemke and N Zilberman. (AUG 2017). State of the Climate in 2016. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 98(8), S1-+. 10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Davis, S.M., Hurst, D., Rosenlof, K.H., Selkirk, H.B., and H. Vo#776 and mel. (2017). Stratospheric Water Vapor [in State of the Climate in 2016]. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 98(8), 51-52. 10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Weatherhead, EC, GE Bodeker, A Fasso, KL Chang, JK Lazo, CTM Clack, DF Hurst, B Hassler, JM English and S Yorgun. (DEC 2017). Spatial Coverage of Monitoring Networks: A Climate Observing System Simulation Experiment. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY, 56(12), 3211-3228. 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0040.1
  • Davis, S.M., K.H. Rosenlof, D.F. Hurst, and H.B. Selkirk. (AUG 2016). Stratospheric Water Vapor in State of the Climate in 2014. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 97(8), S51-S53. 10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Hall, EG, AF Jordan, DF Hurst, SJ Oltmans, H Vomel, B Kuhnreich and V Ebert. (5-Sep 2016). Advancements, measurement uncertainties, and recent comparisons of the NOAA frost point hygrometer. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 9(9), 4295-4310. 10.5194/amt-9-4295-2016
  • Hurst, DF, WG Read, H Vomel, HB Selkirk, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, EG Hall, AF Jordan and SJ Oltmans. (8-Sep 2016). Recent divergences in stratospheric water vapor measurements by frost point hygrometers and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 9(9), 4447-4457. 10.5194/amt-9-4447-2016
  • Muller, R, A Kunz, DF Hurst, C Rolf, M Kramer and M Riese. (FEB 2016). The need for accurate long-term measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere with global coverage. EARTHS FUTURE, 4(2), 25-32. 10.1002/2015EF000321
  • Bodeker, GE, S Bojinski, D Cimini, RJ Dirksen, M Haeffelin, JW Hannigan, DF Hurst, T Leblanc, F Madonna, M Maturilli, AC Mikalsen, R Philipona, T Reale, DJ Seidel, DGH Tan, PW Thorne, H Vomel and J Wang. (JAN 2016). REFERENCE UPPER-AIR OBSERVATIONS FOR CLIMATE From Concept to Reality. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 97(1), 123-135. 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00072.1
  • Krauchi, A, R Philipona, G Romanens, DF Hurst, EG Hall and AF Jordan. (2016). Controlled weather balloon ascents and descents for atmospheric research and climate monitoring. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 9(3), 929-938. 10.5194/amt-9-929-2016
  • Weigel, K, A Rozanov, F Azam, K Bramstedt, R Damadeo, KU Eichmann, C Gebhardt, D Hurst, M Kraemer, S Lossow, W Read, N Spelten, GP Stiller, KA Walker, M Weber, H Bovensmann and JP Burrows. (2016). UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurements V3.01 (2002-2012). ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 9(1), 133-158. 10.5194/amt-9-133-2016
  • Davis, SM, KH Rosenlof, B Hassler, DF Hurst, WG Read, H Vomel, H Selkirk, M Fujiwara and R Damadeo. (28-Sep 2016). The Stratospheric Water and Ozone Satellite Homogenized (SWOOSH) database: a long-term database for climate studies. EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE DATA, 8(2), 461-490. 10.5194/essd-8-461-2016
  • Dirksen, RJ, M Sommer, FJ Immler, DF Hurst, R Kivi and H Vomel. (2014). Reference quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 7(12), 4463-4490. 10.5194/amt-7-4463-2014
  • Hegglin, MI, DA Plummer, TG Shepherd, JF Scinocca, J Anderson, L Froidevaux, B Funke, D Hurst, A Rozanov, J Urban, T von Clarmann, KA Walker, HJ Wang, S Tegtmeier and K Weigel. (OCT 2014). Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 7(10), 768-776. 10.1038/NGEO2236
  • Patra, PK, MC Krol, SA Montzka, T Arnold, EL Atlas, BR Lintner, BB Stephens, B Xiang, JW Elkins, PJ Fraser, A Ghosh, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, K Ishijima, PB Krummel, BR Miller, K Miyazaki, FL Moore, J Muhle, S ODoherty, RG Prinn, LP Steele, M Takigawa, HJ Wang, RF Weiss, SC Wofsy and D Young. (11-Sep 2014). Observational evidence for interhemispheric hydroxyl-radical parity. NATURE, 513(7517), 219-223. 10.1038/nature13721
  • Santoni, GW, BC Daube, EA Kort, R Jimenez, S Park, JV Pittman, E Gottlieb, B Xiang, MS Zahniser, DD Nelson, JB McManus, J Peischl, TB Ryerson, JS Holloway, AE Andrews, C Sweeney, B Hall, EJ Hintsa, FL Moore, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, BB Stephens, J Bent and SC Wofsy. (2014). Evaluation of the airborne quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) measurements of the carbon and greenhouse gas suite - CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO - during the CalNex and HIPPO campaigns. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 7(6), 1509-1526. 10.5194/amt-7-1509-2014
  • Hurst, DF, A Lambert, WG Read, SM Davis, KH Rosenlof, EG Hall, AF Jordan and SJ Oltmans. (16-Feb 2014). Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 119(3), 1612-1625. 10.1002/2013JD020757
  • Rollins, AW, TD Thornberry, RS Gao, JB Smith, DS Sayres, MR Sargent, C Schiller, M Kramer, N Spelten, DF Hurst, AF Jordan, EG Hall, H Vomel, GS Diskin, JR Podolske, LE Christensen, KH Rosenlof, EJ Jensen and DW Fahey. (27-Feb 2014). Evaluation of UT/LS hygrometer accuracy by intercomparison during the NASA MACPEX mission. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 119(4), 1915-1935. 10.1002/2013JD020817
  • Waugh, DW, AM Crotwell, EJ Dlugokencky, GS Dutton, JW Elkins, BD Hall, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, SA Montzka, DJ Mondeel, FL Moore, JD Nance, EA Ray, SD Steenrod, SE Strahan and C Sweeney. (16-Oct 2013). Tropospheric SF6: Age of air from the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude surface. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(19), 11429-11441. 10.1002/jgrd.50848
  • Kunz, A, R Muller, V Homonnai, IM Janosi, D Hurst, A Rap, PM Forster, F Rohrer, N Spelten and M Riese. (16-Oct 2013). Extending water vapor trend observations over Boulder into the tropopause region: Trend uncertainties and resulting radiative forcing. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(19), 11269-11284. 10.1002/jgrd.50831
  • Fueglistaler, S, YS Liu, TJ Flannaghan, PH Haynes, DP Dee, WJ Read, EE Remsberg, LW Thomason, DF Hurst, JR Lanzante and PF Bernath. (27-Jan 2013). The relation between atmospheric humidity and temperature trends for stratospheric water. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(2), 1052-1074. 10.1002/jgrd.50157
  • Nedoluha, GE, RM Gomez, H Neal, A Lambert, D Hurst, C Boone and G Stiller. (27-Jan 2013). Validation of long-term measurements of water vapor from the midstratosphere to the mesosphere at two Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change sites. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(2), 934-942. 10.1029/2012JD018900
  • Whiteman, DN, M Cadirola, D Venable, M Calhoun, L Miloshevich, K Vermeesch, L Twigg, A Dirisu, D Hurst, E Hall, A Jordan and H Vomel. (2012). Correction technique for Raman water vapor lidar signal-dependent bias and suitability for water vapor trend monitoring in the upper troposphere. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 5(11), 2893-2916. 10.5194/amt-5-2893-2012
  • Kort, EA, SC Wofsy, BC Daube, M Diao, JW Elkins, RS Gao, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, R Jimenez, FL Moore, JR Spackman and MA Zondlo. (MAY 2012). Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82 degrees north. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 5(5), 318-321. 10.1038/NGEO1452
  • Stiller, GP, M Kiefer, E Eckert, T von Clarmann, S Kellmann, M Garcia-Comas, B Funke, T Leblanc, E Fetzer, L Froidevaux, M Gomez, E Hall, D Hurst, A Jordan, N Kampfer, A Lambert, IS McDermid, T McGee, L Miloshevich, G Nedoluha, W Read, M Schneider, M Schwartz, C Straub, G Toon, LW Twigg, K Walker and DN Whiteman. (2012). Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 5(2), 289-320. 10.5194/amt-5-289-2012
  • Hurst, DF, EG Hall, AF Jordan, LM Miloshevich, DN Whiteman, T Leblanc, D Walsh, H Vomel and SJ Oltmans. (2011). Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 4(12), 2777-2793. 10.5194/amt-4-2777-2011
  • Leblanc, T, TD Walsh, IS McDermid, GC Toon, JF Blavier, B Haines, WG Read, B Herman, E Fetzer, S Sander, T Pongetti, DN Whiteman, TG McGee, L Twigg, G Sumnicht, D Venable, M Calhoun, A Dirisu, D Hurst, A Jordan, E Hall, L Miloshevich, H Vomel, C Straub, N Kampfer, GE Nedoluha, RM Gomez, K Holub, S Gutman, J Braun, T Vanhove, G Stiller and A Hauchecorne. (2011). Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE)-2009: overview of campaign operations and results. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 4(12), 2579-2605. 10.5194/amt-4-2579-2011
  • Hall, BD, GS Dutton, DJ Mondeel, JD Nance, M Rigby, JH Butler, FL Moore, DF Hurst and JW Elkins. (2011). Improving measurements of SF6 for the study of atmospheric transport and emissions. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 4(11), 2441-2451. 10.5194/amt-4-2441-2011
  • Kort, EA, PK Patra, K Ishijima, BC Daube, R Jimenez, J Elkins, D Hurst, FL Moore, C Sweeney and SC Wofsy. (6-Aug 2011). Tropospheric distribution and variability of N2O: Evidence for strong tropical emissions. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 38. 10.1029/2011GL047612
  • Wofsy, S., B.C. Daube, R. Jimenez, E. Kort, J.V. Pittman, S. Park, R. Commane, Bin Xiang, G. Santoni, D. Jacob, J. Fisher, C. Pickett-Heaps, H. Wang, K. Wecht, Q.-Q. Wang, B.B. Stephens, S. Shertz, P. Romashkin, T. Campos, J. Haggerty, W.A. Cooper, D. Rogers, S. Beaton, R. Hendershot, J.W. Elkins, D.W. Fahey, R.S. Gao, F. Moore, S.A. Montzka, J.P. Schwarz, D. Hurst, B. Miller, C. Sweeney, S. Oltmans, D. Nance, E. Hintsa, G. Dutton, L.A. Watts, J.R. Spackman, K.H. Rosenlof, E.A. Ray, M.A. Zondlo, Minghui Diao, R. Keeling, J. Bent, E.L. Atlas, R. Lueb, M.J. Mahoney, M. Chahine, E. Olson, P. Patra, K. Ishijima, R. Engelen, J. Flemming, R. Nassar, D.B.A. Jones, S.E. Mikaloff Fletcher. (2011). HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): Fine-grained, global scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 369(1943), 2073-2086.
  • Hurst, DF, SJ Oltmans, H Vomel, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, EA Ray, EG Hall and AF Jordan. (26-Jan 2011). Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colorado: Analysis of the 30 year Boulder record. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 116. 10.1029/2010JD015065
  • Wunch, D, GC Toon, PO Wennberg, SC Wofsy, BB Stephens, ML Fischer, O Uchino, JB Abshire, P Bernath, SC Biraud, JFL Blavier, C Boone, KP Bowman, EV Browell, T Campos, BJ Connor, BC Daube, NM Deutscher, M Diao, JW Elkins, C Gerbig, E Gottlieb, DWT Griffith, DF Hurst, R Jimenez, G Keppel-Aleks, EA Kort, R Macatangay, T Machida, H Matsueda, F Moore, I Morino, S Park, J Robinson, CM Roehl, Y Sawa, V Sherlock, C Sweeney, T Tanaka and MA Zondlo. (2010). Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using aircraft profile data. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 3(5), 1351-1362. 10.5194/amt-3-1351-2010
  • Turnbull, JC, JB Miller, SJ Lehman, D Hurst, W Peters, PP Tans, J Southon, SA Montzka, JW Elkins, DJ Mondeel, PA Romashkin, N Elansky and A Skorokhod. (2009). Spatial distribution of Delta(CO2)-C-14 across Eurasia: measurements from the TROICA-8 expedition. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 9(1), 175-187. 10.5194/acp-9-175-2009
  • Engel, A, T Mobius, H Bonisch, U Schmidt, R Heinz, I Levin, E Atlas, S Aoki, T Nakazawa, S Sugawara, F Moore, D Hurst, J Elkins, S Schauffler, A Andrews and K Boering. (JAN 2009). Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 2(1), 28-31. 10.1038/NGEO388
  • Gloor, M, E Dlugokencky, C Brenninkmeijer, L Horowitz, DF Hurst, G Dutton, C Crevoisier, T Machida and P Tans. (15-Aug 2007). Three-dimensional SF6 data and tropospheric transport simulations: Signals, modeling accuracy, and implications for inverse modeling. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 112(D15). 10.1029/2006JD007973
  • Spackman, JR, EM Weinstock, JG Anderson, DF Hurst, HJ Jost and SM Schauffler. (27-Jun 2007). Aircraft observations of rapid meridional transport from the tropical tropopause layer into the lowermost stratosphere: Implications for midlatitude ozone. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 112(D12). 10.1029/2006JD007618
  • Wilmouth, DM, RM Stimpfle, JG Anderson, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, RJ Salawitch and LR Lait. (25-Aug 2006). Evolution of inorganic chlorine partitioning in the Arctic polar vortex. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 111(D16). 10.1029/2005JD006951
  • Hurst, DF, JC Lin, PA Romashkin, BC Daube, C Gerbig, DM Matross, SC Wofsy, BD Hall and JW Elkins. (4-Aug 2006). Continuing global significance of emissions of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons in the United States and Canada. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 111(D15). 10.1029/2005JD006785
  • Hurst, DF, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, EA Oberlander, NF Elansky, IB Belikov, IG Granberg, GS Golitsyn, AM Grisenko, CAM Brenninkmeijer and PJ Crutzen. (29-Jul 2004). Emissions of ozone-depleting substances in Russia during 2001. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 109(D14). 10.1029/2004JD004633
  • Moore, FL, JW Elkins, EA Ray, GS Dutton, RE Dunn, DW Fahey, RJ McLaughlin, TL Thompson, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst and PR Wamsley. (8-Feb 2003). Balloonborne in situ gas chromatograph for measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 108(D5). 10.1029/2001JD000891
  • Werner, C, K Davis, P Bakwin, CX Yi, D Hurst and L Lock. (SEP 2003). Regional-scale measurements of CH4 exchange from a tall tower over a mixed temperate/boreal lowland and wetland forest. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, 9(9), 1251-1261. 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00670.x
  • Hurst, DF, SM Schauffler, JB Greenblatt, H Jost, RL Herman, JW Elkins, PA Romashkin, EL Atlas, SG Donnelly, JR Podolske, M Loewenstein, CR Webster, GJ Flesch and DC Scott. (SEP-OCT 2002). Construction of a unified, high-resolution nitrous oxide data set for ER-2 flights during SOLVE. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D20). 10.1029/2001JD000417
  • Salawitch, RJ, JJ Margitan, B Sen, GC Toon, GB Osterman, M Rex, JW Elkins, EA Ray, FL Moore, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, RM Bevilacqua, KW Hoppel, EC Richard and TP Bui. (SEP-OCT 2002). Chemical loss of ozone during the Arctic winter of 1999/2000: An analysis based on balloon-borne observations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D20). 10.1029/2001JD000620
  • Jost, HJ, M Loewenstein, JB Greenblatt, JR Podolske, TP Bui, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, RL Herman, CR Webster, SM Schauffler, EL Atlas, PA Newman, LR Lait and SC Wofsy. (28-Dec 2002). Mixing events revealed by anomalous tracer relationships in the Arctic vortex during winter 1999/2000. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D24). 10.1029/2002JD002380
  • Gao, RS, PJ Popp, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof, MJ Northway, DW Fahey, AF Tuck, CR Webster, DF Hurst, SM Schauffler, H Jost and TP Bui. (28-Dec 2002). Role of NOy as a diagnostic of small-scale mixing in a denitrified polar vortex. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D24). 10.1029/2002JD002332
  • Greenblatt, JB, HJ Jost, M Loewenstein, JR Podolske, TP Bui, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, RL Herman, CR Webster, SM Schauffler, EL Atlas, PA Newman, LR Lait, M Muller, A Engel and U Schmidt. (SEP-OCT 2002). Defining the polar vortex edge from an N2O : potential temperature correlation. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D20). 10.1029/2001JD000575
  • Drdla, K, BW Gandrud, D Baumgardner, JC Wilson, TP Bui, D Hurst, SM Schauffler, H Jost, JB Greenblatt and CR Webster. (19-Dec 2002). Evidence for the widespread presence of liquid-phase particles during the 1999-2000 Arctic winter. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 108(D5). 10.1029/2001JD001127
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, GS Dutton and DW Fahey. (SEP-OCT 2002). Descent and mixing in the 1999-2000 northern polar vortex inferred from in situ tracer measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D20). 10.1029/2001JD000961
  • Herman, RL, K Drdla, JR Spackman, DF Hurst, PJ Popp, CR Webster, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, EM Weinstock, BW Gandrud, GC Toon, MR Schoeberl, H Jost, EL Atlas and TP Bui. (21-Dec 2002). Hydration, dehydration, and the total hydrogen budget of the 1999/2000 winter Arctic stratosphere. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 108(D5). 10.1029/2001JD001257
  • Richard, EC, KC Aikin, AE Andrews, BC Daube, C Gerbig, SC Wofsy, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst, EA Ray, FL Moore, JW Elkins, T Deshler and GC Toon. (1-Jun 2001). Severe chemical ozone loss inside the Arctic polar vortex during winter 1999-2000 inferred from in situ airborne measurements. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 28(11), 2197-2200. 10.1029/2001GL012878
  • Popp, PJ, MJ Northway, JC Holecek, RS Gao, DW Fahey, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, GC Toon, B Sen, SM Schauffler, RJ Salawitch, CR Webster, RL Herman, H Jost, TP Bui, PA Newman and LR Lait. (1-Aug 2001). Severe and extensive denitrification in the 1999-2000 Arctic winter stratosphere. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 28(15), 2875-2878. 10.1029/2001GL013132
  • Gloor, M, P Bakwin, D Hurst, L Lock, R Draxler and P Tans. (27-Aug 2001). What is the concentration footprint of a tall tower?. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 106(D16), 17831-17840. 10.1029/2001JD900021
  • Romashkin, PA, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, GS Dutton, DW Fahey, RE Dunn, FL Moore, RC Myers and BD Hall. (2001). In situ measurements of long-lived trace gases in the lower stratosphere by gas chromatography. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY, 18(7), 1195-1204. 10.1175/1520-0426(2001)018<1195:ISMOLL>2.0.CO;2
  • Gao, RS, EC Richard, PJ Popp, GC Toon, DF Hurst, PA Newman, JC Holecek, MJ Northway, DW Fahey, MY Danilin, B Sen, K Aikin, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, CR Webster, SM Schauffler, JB Greenblatt, CT McElroy, LR Lait, TP Bui and D Baumgardner. (1-Aug 2001). Observational evidence for the role of denitrification in Arctic stratospheric ozone loss. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 28(15), 2879-2882. 10.1029/2001GL013173
  • Hurst, DF, GS Dutton, PA Romashkin, JW Elkins, RL Herman, EJ Moyer, DC Scott, RD May, CR Webster, J Grecu, M Loewenstein and JR Podolske. (16-Aug 2000). Comparison of in situ N2O and CH4 measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during STRAT and POLARIS. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 105(D15), 19811-19822. 10.1029/2000JD900218
  • Hurst, DF, GS Dutton, PA Romashkin, PR Wamsley, FL Moore, JW Elkins, EJ Hintsa, EM Weinstock, RL Herman, EJ Moyer, DC Scott, RD May and CR Webster. (20-Apr 1999). Closure of the total hydrogen budget of the northern extratropical lower stratosphere. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D7), 8191-8200. 10.1029/1998JD100092
  • Hintsa, EJ, EM Weinstock, JG Anderson, RD May and DF Hurst. (20-Apr 1999). On the accuracy of in situ water vapor measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with the Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D7), 8183-8189. 10.1029/1998JD100110
  • Toon, GC, JF Blavier, B Sen, JJ Margitan, CR Webster, RD May, D Fahey, R Gao, L Del Negro, M Proffitt, J Elkins, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst, S Oltmans, E Atlas, S Schauffler, F Flocke, TP Bui, RM Stimpfle, GP Bonne, PB Voss and RC Cohen. (20-Nov 1999). Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D21), 26779-26790. 10.1029/1999JD900379
  • Sen, B, GB Osterman, RJ Salawitch, GC Toon, JJ Margitan, JF Blavier, AY Chang, RD May, CR Webster, RM Stimpfle, GP Bonne, PB Voss, KK Perkins, JG Anderson, RC Cohen, JW Elkins, GS Dutton, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, EL Atlas, SM Schauffler and M Loewenstein. (20-Nov 1999). The budget and partitioning of stratospheric chlorine during the 1997 Arctic summer. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D21), 26653-26665. 10.1029/1999JD900245
  • Romashkin, PA, DF Hurst, JW Elkins, GS Dutton and PR Wamsley. (20-Nov 1999). Effect of the tropospheric trend on the stratospheric tracer-tracer correlations: Methyl chloroform. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D21), 26643-26652. 10.1029/1999JD900744
  • Novelli, PC, PM Lang, KA Masarie, DF Hurst, R Myers and JW Elkins. (20-Dec 1999). Molecular hydrogen in the troposphere: Global distribution and budget. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D23), 30427-30444. 10.1029/1999JD900788
  • Hurst, DF, PS Bakwin and JW Elkins. (20-Oct 1998). Recent trends in the variability of halogenated trace gases over the United States. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 103(D19), 25299-25306. 10.1029/98JD01879
  • Bakwin, PS, PP Tans, DF Hurst and CL Zhao. (NOV 1998). Measurements of carbon dioxide on very tall towers: results of the NOAA/CMDL program. TELLUS SERIES B-CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL METEOROLOGY, 50(5), 401-415. 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1998.t01-4-00001.x
  • Geller, LS, JW Elkins, JM Lobert, AD Clarke, DF Hurst, JH Butler and RC Myers. (15-Mar 1997). Tropospheric SF6: Observed latitudinal distribution and trends, derived emissions and interhemispheric exchange time. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 24(6), 675-678. 10.1029/97GL00523
  • Hurst, DF, PS Bakwin, RC Myers and JW Elkins. (20-Apr 1997). Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 102(D7), 8825-8835. 10.1029/97JD00130
  • Bakwin, PS, DF Hurst, PP Tans and JW Elkins. (20-Jul 1997). Anthropogenic sources of halocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, carbon monoxide, and methane in the southeastern United States. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 102(D13), 15915-15925. 10.1029/97JD00869
  • Elkins, JW, DW Fahey, JM Gilligan, GS Dutton, TJ Baring, CM Volk, RE Dunn, RC Myers, SA Montzka, PR Wamsley, AH Hayden, JH Butler, TM Thompson, TH Swanson, EJ Dlugokencky, PC Novelli, DF Hurst, JM Lobert, SJ Ciciora, RJ McLaughlin, TL Thompson, RH Winkler, PJ Fraser, LP Steele and MP Lucarelli. (15-Feb 1996). Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 23(4), 347-350. 10.1029/96GL00244