Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Robert Pincus

Research Interests

What can the past tell us about the future? Much of my work is oriented around understanding what the historical record can tell us about climate change, and especially how changes in the composition of the atmosphere affect the flows of energy within the earth system -- the so-called "radiative forcing." 

On shorter time scales I work on a range of problems related to clouds, radiation, circulation, and climate. One practical thread is related to the nuts-and-bolts of building models. Radiation is the ultimate driver for every atmospheric motion, every model of the atmosphere needs an accruate representation. I'm especially interested in identify a range of strategies for balancing accruacy and computational cost based on the scales at which radaition couples to circulation. 

I have a long-standing interest in interpreting remote-sensing measurements. Still inspired by one of my first mentors, I'm especially interested in what we can learn from different views of the same aspect of the world. 

As a side interest I'm interested in how to use collections of simulations made by a variety of models, as is common in the climate community. 

Current Research

I'm the editor in chief of Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), an open-access journal devoted to modeling published by the American Geophysical Union. Send me your interesting manuscripts on modeling of all kinds.

With collaborators at AER I am refining a new radiation parameterization that seeks to balance accuracy, computational cost, and flexibility. With colleagues at CIRES we are incorporating this work into NOAA's next generation weather models. 
 

RFMIP, the Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project associated with CMIP6, is an effort to understand radiative forcing in climate models by identifying errors in clear-sky forcing, carefully diagnosing model-specific effective radiative forcing, and bounding historical forcing by aerosols.

With Masa Kagayama I lead the initiative on Leveraging the Past Record of the WCRP Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity. The grand challenge seeks to motivate the observational, theoretical, and modeling communities to make progress on a few key questions with special relevance to our understanding of future climate change.



View Publications

  • Abramowitz, G; Herger, N; Gutmann, E; Hammerling, D; Knutti, R; Leduc, M; Lorenz, R; Pincus, R; Schmidt, GA (2019), ESD Reviews: Model dependence in will-model climate ensembles: weighting. slip-sf section and out-of-sample testing. Version: 1 EARTH SYSTEM DYNAMICS 10 (1) 91-105, issn: 2190-4979, doi: 10.5194/esd-10-91-2019
  • Eyring, V; Cox, PM; Flato, GM; Gleckler, PJ; Abramowitz, G; Caldwell, P; Collins, WD; Gier, BK; Hall, AD; Hoffman, FM; Hurtt, GC; Jahn, A; Jones, CD; Klein, SA; Krasting, JP; Kwiatkowski, L; Lorenz, R; Maloney, E; Meehl, GA; Pendergrass, AG; Pincus, R; Ruane, AC; Russell, JL; Sanderson, BM; Santer, BD; Sherwood, SC; Simpson, IR; Stouffer, RJ; Williamson, MS (2019), Taking climate model evaluation to the next level. Version: 1 NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE 9 (2) 102-110, issn: 1758-678X, doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0355-y
  • Pincus, R; Mlawer, EJ; Delamere, JS (2019), Balancing Accuracy, Efficiency, and Flexibility in Radiation Calculations for Dynamical Models. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS 11 (10) 3074-3089, doi: 10.1029/2019MS001621, PubMed ID: 31867089
  • Pincus, R; Blyth, E; Griffies, SM (2019), Thank You to Our 2018 Peer Reviewers. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS 11 (4) 862-862, issn: 1942-2466, doi: 10.1029/2019MS001699
  • Mauritsen, T; Bader, J; Becker, T; Behrens, J; Bittner, M; Brokopf, R; Brovkin, V; Claussen, M; Crueger, T; Esch, M; Fast, I; Fiedler, S; Flaeschner, D; Gayler, V; Giorgetta, M; Goll, DS; Haak, H; Hagemann, S; Hedemann, C; Hohenegger, C; Ilyina, T; Jahns, T; Jimenez-de-la-Cuesta, D; Jungclaus, J; Kleinen, T; Kloster, S; Kracher, D; Kinne, S; Kleberg, D; Lasslop, G; Kornblueh, L; Marotzke, J; Matei, D; Meraner, K; Mikolajewicz, U; Modali, K; Mobis, B; Muller, WA; Nabel, JEMS; Nam, CCW; Notz, D; Nyawira, SS; Paulsen, H; Peters, K; Pincus, R; Pohlmann, H; Pongratz, J; Popp, M; Raddatz, TJ; Rast, S; Redler, R; Reick, CH; Rohrschneider, T; Schemann, V; Schmidt, H; Schnur, R; Schulzweida, U; Six, KD; Stein, L; Stemmler, I; Stevens, B; von Storch, JS; Tian, FX; Voigt, A; Vrese, P; Wieners, KH; Wilkenskjeld, S; Winkler, A; Roeckner, E (2019), Developments in the MPI-M Earth System Model version 1.2 (MPI-ESM1.2) and Its Response to Increasing CO2. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS 11 (4) 998-1038, doi: 10.1029/2018MS001400
  • Marvel, K, R Pincus, GA Schmidt and RL Miller (2018), Internal Variability and Disequilibrium Confound Estimates of Climate Sensitivity From Observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 45 (3) 1595-1601, issn: 0094-8276, ids: FX5ZT, doi: 10.1002/2017GL076468
  • Swales, DJ, R Pincus and A Bodas-Salcedo (2018), The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2. Geosci. Model Dev. Version: 1 11 (1) 77-81, issn: 1991-959X, ids: FS2QS, doi: 10.5194/gmd-11-77-2018
  • Klein, SA, A Hall, JR Norris and R Pincus (2017), Low-Cloud Feedbacks from Cloud-Controlling Factors: A Review. Surv. Geophys. Version: 1 38 (6) 1307-1329, issn: 0169-3298, ids: FO9CC, doi: 10.1007/s10712-017-9433-3
  • Voigt, A, R Pincus, B Stevens, S Bony, O Boucher, N Bellouin, A Lewinschal, B Medeiros, ZL Wang and H Zhang (2017), Fast and slow shifts of the zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone in response to an idealized anthropogenic aerosol. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 9 (2) 870-892, issn: 1942-2466, ids: FB6GJ, doi: 10.1002/2016MS000902
  • Mauritsen, T and R Pincus (2017), Committed warming inferred from observations. Nat. Clim. Chang. Version: 1 7 (9) 652-+, issn: 1758-678X, ids: FF3BC, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE3357
  • Pincus, R, A Beljaars, SA Buehler, G Kirchengast, F Ladstaedter and JS Whitaker (2017), The Representation of Tropospheric Water Vapor Over Low-Latitude Oceans in (Re-)analysis: Errors, Impacts, and the Ability to Exploit Current and Prospective Observations. Surv. Geophys. Version: 1 38 (6) 1399-1423, issn: 0169-3298, ids: FO9CC, doi: 10.1007/s10712-017-9437-z
  • Jones, AL, DR Feldman, S Freidenreich, D Paynter, V Ramaswamy, WD Collins and R Pincus (2017), A New Paradigm for Diagnosing Contributions to Model Aerosol Forcing Error. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 44 (23) 12004-12012, issn: 0094-8276, ids: FR5JI, doi: 10.1002/2017GL075933
  • Lebsock, MD, TS LEcuyer and R Pincus (2017), An Observational View of Relationships Between Moisture Aggregation, Cloud, and Radiative Heating Profiles. Surv. Geophys. Version: 1 38 (6) 1237-1254, issn: 0169-3298, ids: FO9CC, doi: 10.1007/s10712-017-9443-1
  • Mlawer, EJ, MJ Iacono, R Pincus, HW Barker, L Oreopoulos and DL Mitchell (2016), Contributions of the ARM Program to Radiative Transfer Modeling for Climate and Weather Applications. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT (ARM) PROGRAM: THE FIRST 20 YEARS 57 , Ed. Turner, DD; Ellingson, RG, issn: 0065-9401, ids: BH3QJ, isbn: 978-1-878220-84-4, doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0041.1
  • Pincus, R, PM Forster and B Stevens (2016), The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): experimental protocol for CMIP6. Geosci. Model Dev. Version: 1 9 (9) 3447-3460, issn: 1991-959X, ids: DY8MV, doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-3447-2016
  • Forster, PM, T Richardson, AC Maycock, CJ Smith, BH Samset, G Myhre, T Andrews, R Pincus and M Schulz (2016), Recommendations for diagnosing effective radiative forcing from climate models for CMIP6. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 121 (20) 12460-12475, issn: 2169-897X, ids: EC7CJ, doi: 10.1002/2016JD025320
  • Bony, S, B Stevens, DMW Frierson, C Jakob, M Kageyama, R Pincus, TG Shepherd, SC Sherwood, AP Siebesma, AH Sobel, M Watanabe and MJ Webb (2015), Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity. Nat. Geosci. Version: 1 8 (4) 261-268, issn: 1752-0894, ids: CE8HK, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2398
  • Pincus, R, EJ Mlawer, L Oreopoulos, AS Ackerman, S Baek, M Brath, SA Buehler, KE Cady-Pereira, JNS Cole, JL Dufresne, M Kelley, JN Li, J Manners, DJ Paynter, R Roehrig, M Sekiguchi and DM Schwarzkopf (2015), Radiative flux and forcing parameterization error in aerosol-free clear skies. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 42 (13) 5485-5492, issn: 0094-8276, ids: CN8LG, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064291
  • Seifert, A, T Heus, R Pincus and B Stevens (2015), Large-eddy simulation of the transient and near-equilibrium behavior of precipitating shallow convection. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 7 (4) 1918-1937, issn: 1942-2466, ids: DB8AW, doi: 10.1002/2015MS000489
  • Bozzo, A, R Pincus, I Sandu and JJ Morcrette (2014), Impact of a spectral sampling technique for radiation on ECMWF weather forecasts. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 6 (4) 1288-1300, issn: 1942-2466, ids: CA7FP, doi: 10.1002/2014MS000386
  • Feldman, DR, WD Collins, R Pincus, XL Huang and XH Chen (2014), Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 111 (46) 16297-16302, issn: 0027-8424, ids: AT7ZL, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1413640111, PubMed ID: 25368189
  • Schirber, S, D Klocke, R Pincus, J Quaas and JL Anderson (2013), Parameter estimation using data assimilation in an atmospheric general circulation model: From a perfect toward the real world. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 5 (1) 58-70, issn: 1942-2466, ids: 129IT, doi: 10.1029/2012MS000167
  • Stevens, B, M Giorgetta, M Esch, T Mauritsen, T Crueger, S Rast, M Salzmann, H Schmidt, J Bader, K Block, R Brokopf, I Fast, S Kinne, L Kornblueh, U Lohmann, R Pincus, T Reichler and E Roeckner (2013), Atmospheric component of the MPI-M Earth System Model: ECHAM6. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 5 (2) 146-172, issn: 1942-2466, ids: 229OR, doi: 10.1002/jame.20015
  • Pincus, R and B Stevens (2013), Paths to accuracy for radiation parameterizations in atmospheric models. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 5 (2) 225-233, issn: 1942-2466, ids: 229OR, doi: 10.1002/jame.20027
  • Klein, SA, YY Zhang, MD Zelinka, R Pincus, J Boyle and PJ Gleckler (2013), Are climate model simulations of clouds improving? An evaluation using the ISCCP simulator. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (3) 1329-1342, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129LC, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50141
  • Pincus, R, S Platnick, SA Ackerman, RS Hemler and RJP Hofmann (2012), Reconciling Simulated and Observed Views of Clouds: MODIS, ISCCP, and the Limits of Instrument Simulators. J. Clim. Version: 1 25 (13) 4699-4720, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 969GN, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00267.1
  • Kay, JE, BR Hillman, SA Klein, Y Zhang, B Medeiros, R Pincus, A Gettelman, B Eaton, J Boyle, R Marchand and TP Ackerman (2012), Exposing Global Cloud Biases in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) Using Satellite Observations and Their Corresponding Instrument Simulators. J. Clim. Version: 1 25 (15) 5190-5207, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 983AT, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00469.1
  • Mauritsen, T, B Stevens, E Roeckner, T Crueger, M Esch, M Giorgetta, H Haak, J Jungclaus, D Klocke, D Matei, U Mikolajewicz, D Notz, R Pincus, H Schmidt and L Tomassini (2012), Tuning the climate of a global model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 4 , Art. No. M00A01, issn: 1942-2466, ids: 988DA, doi: 10.1029/2012MS000154
  • Raeder, K, JL Anderson, N Collins, TJ Hoar, JE Kay, PH Lauritzen and R Pincus (2012), DART/CAM: An Ensemble Data Assimilation System for CESM Atmospheric Models. J. Clim. Version: 1 25 (18) 6304-6317, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 009PP, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00395.1
  • Zhang, ZB, AS Ackerman, G Feingold, S Platnick, R Pincus and HW Xue (2012), Effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and drizzle on remote sensing of cloud droplet effective radius: Case studies based on large-eddy simulations. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. D19208, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 018HE, doi: 10.1029/2012JD017655
  • Bodas-Salcedo, A, MJ Webb, S Bony, H Chepfer, JL Dufresne, SA Klein, Y Zhang, R Marchand, JM Haynes, R Pincus and VO John (2011), COSP Satellite simulation software for model assessment. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 92 (8) 1023-1043, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 821CE, doi: 10.1175/2011BAMS2856.1
  • Klocke, D, R Pincus and J Quaas (2011), On Constraining Estimates of Climate Sensitivity with Present-Day Observations through Model Weighting. J. Clim. Version: 1 24 (23) 6092-6099, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 861LN, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4193.1
  • Pincus, R, RJP Hofmann, JL Anderson, K Raeder, N Collins and JS Whitaker (2011), Can Fully Accounting for Clouds in Data Assimilation Improve Short-Term Forecasts by Global Models?. Mon. Weather Rev. Version: 1 139 (3) 946-957, issn: 0027-0644, ids: 744UQ, doi: 10.1175/2010MWR3412.1
  • Donner, LJ, BL Wyman, RS Hemler, LW Horowitz, Y Ming, M Zhao, JC Golaz, P Ginoux, SJ Lin, MD Schwarzkopf, J Austin, G Alaka, WF Cooke, TL Delworth, SM Freidenreich, CT Gordon, SM Griffies, IM Held, WJ Hurlin, SA Klein, TR Knutson, AR Langenhorst, HC Lee, YL Lin, BI Magi, SL Malyshev, PCD Milly, V Naik, MJ Nath, R Pincus, JJ Ploshay, V Ramaswamy, CJ Seman, E Shevliakova, JJ Sirutis, WF Stern, RJ Stouffer, RJ Wilson, M Winton, AT Wittenberg and FR Zeng (2011), The Dynamical Core, Physical Parameterizations, and Basic Simulation Characteristics of the Atmospheric Component AM3 of the GFDL Global Coupled Model CM3. J. Clim. Version: 1 24 (13) 3484-3519, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 790LW, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3955.1
  • Sandu, I, B Stevens and R Pincus (2010), On the transitions in marine boundary layer cloudiness. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 10 (5) 2377-2391, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 568ER, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-2377-2010
  • Pincus, R and KF Evans (2009), Computational Cost and Accuracy in Calculating Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer: Results for New Implementations of Monte Carlo and SHDOM. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 66 (10) 3131-3146, issn: 0022-4928, ids: 505ZO, doi: 10.1175/2009JAS3137.1
  • Henderson, PW and R Pincus (2009), Multiyear Evaluations of a Cloud Model Using ARM Data. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 66 (9) 2925-2936, issn: 0022-4928, ids: 494LM, doi: 10.1175/2009JAS2957.1
  • Pincus, R and B Stevens (2009), Monte Carlo Spectral Integration: a Consistent Approximation for Radiative Transfer in Large Eddy Simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 1 , Art. No. 1, issn: 1942-2466, ids: V22UF, doi: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.1
  • Pincus, R, CP Batstone, RJP Hofmann, KE Taylor and PJ Glecker (2008), Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 113 (D14) , Art. No. D14209, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 331FE, doi: 10.1029/2007JD009334
  • Morcrette, JJ, HW Barker, JNS Cole, MJ Iacono and R Pincus (2008), Impact of a New Radiation Package, McRad, in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System. Mon. Weather Rev. Version: 1 136 (12) 4773-4798, issn: 0027-0644, ids: 394SD, doi: 10.1175/2008MWR2363.1
  • Barker, HW, JNS Cole, JJ Morcrette, R Pincus, P Raisaenen, K von Salzen and PA Vaillancourt (2008), The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation: An assessment using several global atmospheric models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 134 (635) 1463-1478, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 349PL, doi: 10.1002/qj.303
  • Pincus, R, R Hemler and SA Klein (2006), Using stochastically generated subcolumns to represent cloud structure in a large-scale model. Mon. Weather Rev. Version: 1 134 (12) 3644-3656, issn: 0027-0644, ids: 118AB, doi: 10.1175/MWR3257.1
  • Klein, SA, R Pincus, C Hannay and KM Xu (2005), How might a statistical cloud scheme be coupled to a mass-flux convection scheme?. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D15) , Art. No. D15S06, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 922QN, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005017
  • Pincus, R, C Hannay, SA Klein, KM Xu and R Hemler (2005), Overlap assumptions for assumed probability distribution function cloud schemes in large-scale models. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D15) , Art. No. D15S09, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 936CA, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005100
  • Pincus, R, C Hannay and KF Evans (2005), The accuracy of determining three-dimensional radiative transfer effects in cumulus clouds using ground-based profiling instruments. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 62 (7) 2284-2293, issn: 0022-4928, ids: 951WJ, doi: 10.1175/JAS3464.1
  • Cahalan, RF, L Oreopoulos, A Marshak, KF Evans, AB Davis, R Pincus, KH Yetzer, B Mayer, R Davies, TP Ackerman, HW Barker, EE Clothiaux, RG Ellingson, MJ Garay, E Kassianov, S Kinne, A Macke, W OHirok, PT Partain, SM Prigarin, AN Rublev, GL Stephens, F Szczap, EE Takara, T Varnai, GY Wen and TB Zhuravleva (2005), The 13RC - Bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 86 (9) 1275-+, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 971DV, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1275
  • Zhang, MH, WY Lin, SA Klein, JT Bacmeister, S Bony, RT Cederwall, AD Del Genio, JJ Hack, NG Loeb, U Lohmann, P Minnis, I Musat, R Pincus, P Stier, MJ Suarez, MJ Webb, JB Wu, SC Xie, MS Yao and JH Zhang (2005), Comparing clouds and their seasonal variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D15) , Art. No. D15S02, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 926TS, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005021
  • Jakob, C, R Pincus, C Hannay and KM Xu (2004), Use of cloud radar observations for model evaluation: A probabilistic approach. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 109 (D3) , Art. No. D03202, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 775MJ, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003473
  • Pincus, R, HW Barker and JJ Morcrette (2003), A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud fields. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 108 (D13) , Art. No. 4376, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 698MJ, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003322
  • Pincus, R and SA Klein (2000), Unresolved spatial variability and microphysical process rates in large-scale models. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 105 (D22) 27059-27065, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 378MY, doi: 10.1029/2000JD900504
  • Pincus, R, SA McFarlane and SA Klein (1999), Albedo bias and the horizontal variability of clouds in subtropical marine boundary layers: Observations from ships and satellites. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D6) 6183-6191, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 180AY, doi: 10.1029/1998JD200125
  • Pincus, R, MB Baker and CS Bretherton (1997), What controls stratocumulus radiative properties? Lagrangian observations of cloud evolution. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 54 (17) 2215-2236, issn: 0022-4928, ids: XT769, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2215:WCSRPL>2.0.CO;2
  • PINCUS, R, M SZCZODRAK, JJ GU and P AUSTIN (1995), UNCERTAINTY IN-CLOUD OPTICAL DEPTH ESTIMATES MADE FROM SATELLITE RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS. J. Clim. Version: 1 8 (5) 1453-1462, issn: 0894-8755, ids: RB232, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1453:UICODE>2.0.CO;2
  • AUSTIN, P, YN WANG, R PINCUS and V KUJALA (1995), PRECIPITATION IN STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS - OBSERVATIONAL AND MODELING RESULTS. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 52 (13) 2329-2352, issn: 0022-4928, ids: RG062, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2329:PISCOA>2.0.CO;2
  • BRETHERTON, CS and R PINCUS (1995), CLOUDINESS AND MARINE BOUNDARY-LAYER DYNAMICS IN THE ASTEX LAGRANGIAN EXPERIMENTS .1. SYNOPTIC SETTING AND VERTICAL STRUCTURE. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 52 (16) 2707-2723, issn: 0022-4928, ids: RN655, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2707:CAMBLD>2.0.CO;2
  • PINCUS, R and MB BAKER (1994), EFFECT OF PRECIPITATION ON THE ALBEDO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CLOUDS IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY-LAYER. Nature Version: 1 372 (6503) 250-252, issn: 0028-0836, ids: PR889, doi: 10.1038/372250a0