Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Robert Pincus

Research Interests

What can the past tell us about the future? Much of my work is oriented around understanding what the historical record can tell us about climate change, and especially how changes in the composition of the atmosphere affect the flows of energy within the earth system -- the so-called "radiative forcing." 

On shorter time scales I work on a range of problems related to clouds, radiation, circulation, and climate. One practical thread is related to the nuts-and-bolts of building models. Radiation is the ultimate driver for every atmospheric motion, every model of the atmosphere needs an accruate representation. I'm especially interested in identify a range of strategies for balancing accruacy and computational cost based on the scales at which radaition couples to circulation. 

I have a long-standing interest in interpreting remote-sensing measurements. Still inspired by one of my first mentors, I'm especially interested in what we can learn from different views of the same aspect of the world. 

As a side interest I'm interested in how to use collections of simulations made by a variety of models, as is common in the climate community. 

Current Research

I'm the editor in chief of Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), an open-access journal devoted to modeling published by the American Geophysical Union. Send me your interesting manuscripts on modeling of all kinds.

With collaborators at AER I am refining a new radiation parameterization that seeks to balance accuracy, computational cost, and flexibility. With colleagues at CIRES we are incorporating this work into NOAA's next generation weather models. 
 

RFMIP, the Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project associated with CMIP6, is an effort to understand radiative forcing in climate models by identifying errors in clear-sky forcing, carefully diagnosing model-specific effective radiative forcing, and bounding historical forcing by aerosols.

With Masa Kagayama I lead the initiative on Leveraging the Past Record of the WCRP Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity. The grand challenge seeks to motivate the observational, theoretical, and modeling communities to make progress on a few key questions with special relevance to our understanding of future climate change.



View Publications

  • Quinn PK; Thompson EJ; Coffman DJ; Baidar S; Bariteau L; Bates TS; Bigorre S; Brewer A; de Boer G; de Szoeke SP. (Apr 2021). Measurements from the RV Ronald H. Brown and related platforms as part of the Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign (ATOMIC). Earth System Science Data , 13(4), 1759-1790. 10.5194/essd-13-1759-2021
  • Griffies SM; Blyth E; Fan J; Pincus R; Schneider T. (Apr 2021). Concerning the Aims and Scope for JAMES. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. 10.1029/2021ms002567
  • Veerman MA; Pincus R; Stoffer R; van Leeuwen CM; Podareanu D; van Heerwaarden CC. (Apr 2021). Predicting atmospheric optical properties for radiative transfer computations using neural networks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences , 379(2194). 10.1098/rsta.2020.0095
  • Pincus R; Blyth E; Griffes SM. (Apr 2021). Thank You to Our 2020 Reviewers. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems , 13(4). 10.1029/2021ms002494
  • Albright AL; Fildier B; Touze-Peiffer L; Pincus R; Vial J; Muller C. (Feb 2021). Atmospheric radiative profiles during EUREC(4)A. Earth System Science Data , 13(2), 617-630. 10.5194/essd-13-617-2021
  • Pincus R; Buehler SA; Brath M; Crevoisier C; Jamil O; Franklin Evans K; Manners J; Menzel RL; Mlawer EJ; Paynter D. (Dec 2020). Benchmark Calculations of Radiative Forcing by Greenhouse Gases. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , 125(23). 10.1029/2020JD033483
  • Ukkonen P; Pincus R; Hogan RJ; Pagh Nielsen K; Kaas E. (Dec 2020). Accelerating Radiation Computations for Dynamical Models With Targeted Machine Learning and Code Optimization. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems , 12(12). 10.1029/2020MS002226
  • Smith CJ; Kramer RJ; Myhre G; Alterskjaer K; Collins W; Sima A; Boucher O; Dufresne J-L; Nabat P; Michou M. (Aug 2020). Effective radiative forcing and adjustments in CMIP6 models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 20(16), 9591-9618. 10.5194/acp-20-9591-2020
  • Pincus R; Blyth E; Griffies SM. (Apr 2020). Thank You to Our 2019 Reviewers. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems , 12(4). 10.1029/2020MS002112
  • Pincus, R; Mlawer, EJ; Delamere, JS. (OCT 2019). Balancing Accuracy, Efficiency, and Flexibility in Radiation Calculations for Dynamical Models. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 11(10), 3074-3089. 10.1029/2019MS001621
  • Mauritsen, T; Bader, J; Becker, T; Behrens, J; Bittner, M; Brokopf, R; Brovkin, V; Claussen, M; Crueger, T; Esch, M; Fast, I; Fiedler, S; Flaeschner, D; Gayler, V; Giorgetta, M; Goll, DS; Haak, H; Hagemann, S; Hedemann, C; Hohenegger, C; Ilyina, T; Jahns, T; Jimenez-de-la-Cuesta, D; Jungclaus, J; Kleinen, T; Kloster, S; Kracher, D; Kinne, S; Kleberg, D; Lasslop, G; Kornblueh, L; Marotzke, J; Matei, D; Meraner, K; Mikolajewicz, U; Modali, K; Mobis, B; Muller, WA; Nabel, JEMS; Nam, CCW; Notz, D; Nyawira, SS; Paulsen, H; Peters, K; Pincus, R; Pohlmann, H; Pongratz, J; Popp, M; Raddatz, TJ; Rast, S; Redler, R; Reick, CH; Rohrschneider, T; Schemann, V; Schmidt, H; Schnur, R; Schulzweida, U; Six, KD; Stein, L; Stemmler, I; Stevens, B; von Storch, JS; Tian, FX; Voigt, A; Vrese, P; Wieners, KH; Wilkenskjeld, S; Winkler, A; Roeckner, E. (APR 2019). Developments in the MPI-M Earth System Model version 1.2 (MPI-ESM1.2) and Its Response to Increasing CO2. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 11(4), 998-1038. 10.1029/2018MS001400
  • Pincus, R; Blyth, E; Griffies, SM. (APR 2019). Thank You to Our 2018 Peer Reviewers. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 11(4), 862-862. 10.1029/2019MS001699
  • Abramowitz, G; Herger, N; Gutmann, E; Hammerling, D; Knutti, R; Leduc, M; Lorenz, R; Pincus, R; Schmidt, GA. (13-Feb 2019). ESD Reviews: Model dependence in will-model climate ensembles: weighting. slip-sf section and out-of-sample testing. EARTH SYSTEM DYNAMICS, 10(1), 91-105. 10.5194/esd-10-91-2019
  • Eyring, V; Cox, PM; Flato, GM; Gleckler, PJ; Abramowitz, G; Caldwell, P; Collins, WD; Gier, BK; Hall, AD; Hoffman, FM; Hurtt, GC; Jahn, A; Jones, CD; Klein, SA; Krasting, JP; Kwiatkowski, L; Lorenz, R; Maloney, E; Meehl, GA; Pendergrass, AG; Pincus, R; Ruane, AC; Russell, JL; Sanderson, BM; Santer, BD; Sherwood, SC; Simpson, IR; Stouffer, RJ; Williamson, MS. (FEB 2019). Taking climate model evaluation to the next level. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, 9(2), 102-110. 10.1038/s41558-018-0355-y
  • Marvel, K, R Pincus, GA Schmidt and RL Miller. (16-Feb 2018). Internal Variability and Disequilibrium Confound Estimates of Climate Sensitivity From Observations. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 45(3), 1595-1601. 10.1002/2017GL076468
  • Swales, DJ, R Pincus and A Bodas-Salcedo. (9-Jan 2018). The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2. GEOSCIENTIFIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT, 11(1), 77-81. 10.5194/gmd-11-77-2018
  • Jones, AL, DR Feldman, S Freidenreich, D Paynter, V Ramaswamy, WD Collins and R Pincus. (16-Dec 2017). A New Paradigm for Diagnosing Contributions to Model Aerosol Forcing Error. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 44(23), 12004-12012. 10.1002/2017GL075933
  • Pincus, R, A Beljaars, SA Buehler, G Kirchengast, F Ladstaedter and JS Whitaker. (NOV 2017). The Representation of Tropospheric Water Vapor Over Low-Latitude Oceans in (Re-)analysis: Errors, Impacts, and the Ability to Exploit Current and Prospective Observations. SURVEYS IN GEOPHYSICS, 38(6), 1399-1423. 10.1007/s10712-017-9437-z
  • Klein, SA, A Hall, JR Norris and R Pincus. (NOV 2017). Low-Cloud Feedbacks from Cloud-Controlling Factors: A Review. SURVEYS IN GEOPHYSICS, 38(6), 1307-1329. 10.1007/s10712-017-9433-3
  • Lebsock, MD, TS LEcuyer and R Pincus. (NOV 2017). An Observational View of Relationships Between Moisture Aggregation, Cloud, and Radiative Heating Profiles. SURVEYS IN GEOPHYSICS, 38(6), 1237-1254. 10.1007/s10712-017-9443-1
  • Mauritsen, T and R Pincus. (SEP 2017). Committed warming inferred from observations. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, 7(9), 652-+. 10.1038/NCLIMATE3357
  • Voigt, A, R Pincus, B Stevens, S Bony, O Boucher, N Bellouin, A Lewinschal, B Medeiros, ZL Wang and H Zhang. (JUN 2017). Fast and slow shifts of the zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone in response to an idealized anthropogenic aerosol. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 9(2), 870-892. 10.1002/2016MS000902
  • Forster, PM, T Richardson, AC Maycock, CJ Smith, BH Samset, G Myhre, T Andrews, R Pincus and M Schulz. (27-Oct 2016). Recommendations for diagnosing effective radiative forcing from climate models for CMIP6. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 121(20), 12460-12475. 10.1002/2016JD025320
  • Mlawer, EJ, MJ Iacono, R Pincus, HW Barker, L Oreopoulos and DL Mitchell. (2016). Contributions of the ARM Program to Radiative Transfer Modeling for Climate and Weather Applications. ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT (ARM) PROGRAM: THE FIRST 20 YEARS, 57. 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0041.1
  • Pincus, R, PM Forster and B Stevens. (27-Sep 2016). The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): experimental protocol for CMIP6. GEOSCIENTIFIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT, 9(9), 3447-3460. 10.5194/gmd-9-3447-2016
  • Seifert, A, T Heus, R Pincus and B Stevens. (DEC 2015). Large-eddy simulation of the transient and near-equilibrium behavior of precipitating shallow convection. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 7(4), 1918-1937. 10.1002/2015MS000489
  • Pincus, R, EJ Mlawer, L Oreopoulos, AS Ackerman, S Baek, M Brath, SA Buehler, KE Cady-Pereira, JNS Cole, JL Dufresne, M Kelley, JN Li, J Manners, DJ Paynter, R Roehrig, M Sekiguchi and DM Schwarzkopf. (16-Jul 2015). Radiative flux and forcing parameterization error in aerosol-free clear skies. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 42(13), 5485-5492. 10.1002/2015GL064291
  • Bony, S, B Stevens, DMW Frierson, C Jakob, M Kageyama, R Pincus, TG Shepherd, SC Sherwood, AP Siebesma, AH Sobel, M Watanabe and MJ Webb. (APR 2015). Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 8(4), 261-268. 10.1038/NGEO2398
  • Bozzo, A, R Pincus, I Sandu and JJ Morcrette. (DEC 2014). Impact of a spectral sampling technique for radiation on ECMWF weather forecasts. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 6(4), 1288-1300. 10.1002/2014MS000386
  • Feldman, DR, WD Collins, R Pincus, XL Huang and XH Chen. (18-Nov 2014). Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111(46), 16297-16302. 10.1073/pnas.1413640111
  • Pincus, R and B Stevens. (JUN 2013). Paths to accuracy for radiation parameterizations in atmospheric models. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 5(2), 225-233. 10.1002/jame.20027
  • Stevens, B, M Giorgetta, M Esch, T Mauritsen, T Crueger, S Rast, M Salzmann, H Schmidt, J Bader, K Block, R Brokopf, I Fast, S Kinne, L Kornblueh, U Lohmann, R Pincus, T Reichler and E Roeckner. (JUN 2013). Atmospheric component of the MPI-M Earth System Model: ECHAM6. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 5(2), 146-172. 10.1002/jame.20015
  • Klein, SA, YY Zhang, MD Zelinka, R Pincus, J Boyle and PJ Gleckler. (16-Feb 2013). Are climate model simulations of clouds improving? An evaluation using the ISCCP simulator. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(3), 1329-1342. 10.1002/jgrd.50141
  • Schirber, S, D Klocke, R Pincus, J Quaas and JL Anderson. (MAR 2013). Parameter estimation using data assimilation in an atmospheric general circulation model: From a perfect toward the real world. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 5(1), 58-70. 10.1029/2012MS000167
  • Zhang, ZB, AS Ackerman, G Feingold, S Platnick, R Pincus and HW Xue. (6-Oct 2012). Effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and drizzle on remote sensing of cloud droplet effective radius: Case studies based on large-eddy simulations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 117. 10.1029/2012JD017655
  • Raeder, K, JL Anderson, N Collins, TJ Hoar, JE Kay, PH Lauritzen and R Pincus. (15-Sep 2012). DART/CAM: An Ensemble Data Assimilation System for CESM Atmospheric Models. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 25(18), 6304-6317. 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00395.1
  • Mauritsen, T, B Stevens, E Roeckner, T Crueger, M Esch, M Giorgetta, H Haak, J Jungclaus, D Klocke, D Matei, U Mikolajewicz, D Notz, R Pincus, H Schmidt and L Tomassini. (7-Aug 2012). Tuning the climate of a global model. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 4. 10.1029/2012MS000154
  • Kay, JE, BR Hillman, SA Klein, Y Zhang, B Medeiros, R Pincus, A Gettelman, B Eaton, J Boyle, R Marchand and TP Ackerman. (1-Aug 2012). Exposing Global Cloud Biases in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) Using Satellite Observations and Their Corresponding Instrument Simulators. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 25(15), 5190-5207. 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00469.1
  • Pincus, R, S Platnick, SA Ackerman, RS Hemler and RJP Hofmann. (1-Jul 2012). Reconciling Simulated and Observed Views of Clouds: MODIS, ISCCP, and the Limits of Instrument Simulators. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 25(13), 4699-4720. 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00267.1
  • Klocke, D, R Pincus and J Quaas. (1-Dec 2011). On Constraining Estimates of Climate Sensitivity with Present-Day Observations through Model Weighting. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 24(23), 6092-6099. 10.1175/2011JCLI4193.1
  • Bodas-Salcedo, A, MJ Webb, S Bony, H Chepfer, JL Dufresne, SA Klein, Y Zhang, R Marchand, JM Haynes, R Pincus and VO John. (AUG 2011). COSP Satellite simulation software for model assessment. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 92(8), 1023-1043. 10.1175/2011BAMS2856.1
  • Donner, LJ, BL Wyman, RS Hemler, LW Horowitz, Y Ming, M Zhao, JC Golaz, P Ginoux, SJ Lin, MD Schwarzkopf, J Austin, G Alaka, WF Cooke, TL Delworth, SM Freidenreich, CT Gordon, SM Griffies, IM Held, WJ Hurlin, SA Klein, TR Knutson, AR Langenhorst, HC Lee, YL Lin, BI Magi, SL Malyshev, PCD Milly, V Naik, MJ Nath, R Pincus, JJ Ploshay, V Ramaswamy, CJ Seman, E Shevliakova, JJ Sirutis, WF Stern, RJ Stouffer, RJ Wilson, M Winton, AT Wittenberg and FR Zeng. (JUL 2011). The Dynamical Core, Physical Parameterizations, and Basic Simulation Characteristics of the Atmospheric Component AM3 of the GFDL Global Coupled Model CM3. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 24(13), 3484-3519. 10.1175/2011JCLI3955.1
  • Pincus, R, RJP Hofmann, JL Anderson, K Raeder, N Collins and JS Whitaker. (MAR 2011). Can Fully Accounting for Clouds in Data Assimilation Improve Short-Term Forecasts by Global Models?. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, 139(3), 946-957. 10.1175/2010MWR3412.1
  • Sandu, I, B Stevens and R Pincus. (2010). On the transitions in marine boundary layer cloudiness. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 10(5), 2377-2391. 10.5194/acp-10-2377-2010
  • Pincus, R and B Stevens. (2009). Monte Carlo Spectral Integration: a Consistent Approximation for Radiative Transfer in Large Eddy Simulations. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 1. 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.1
  • Pincus, R and KF Evans. (OCT 2009). Computational Cost and Accuracy in Calculating Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer: Results for New Implementations of Monte Carlo and SHDOM. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 66(10), 3131-3146. 10.1175/2009JAS3137.1
  • Henderson, PW and R Pincus. (SEP 2009). Multiyear Evaluations of a Cloud Model Using ARM Data. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 66(9), 2925-2936. 10.1175/2009JAS2957.1
  • Morcrette, JJ, HW Barker, JNS Cole, MJ Iacono and R Pincus. (DEC 2008). Impact of a New Radiation Package, McRad, in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, 136(12), 4773-4798. 10.1175/2008MWR2363.1
  • Barker, HW, JNS Cole, JJ Morcrette, R Pincus, P Raisaenen, K von Salzen and PA Vaillancourt. (JUL 2008). The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation: An assessment using several global atmospheric models. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 134(635), 1463-1478. 10.1002/qj.303
  • Pincus, R, CP Batstone, RJP Hofmann, KE Taylor and PJ Glecker. (23-Jul 2008). Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 113(D14). 10.1029/2007JD009334
  • Pincus, R, R Hemler and SA Klein. (DEC 2006). Using stochastically generated subcolumns to represent cloud structure in a large-scale model. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, 134(12), 3644-3656. 10.1175/MWR3257.1
  • Pincus, R, C Hannay, SA Klein, KM Xu and R Hemler. (1-Jun 2005). Overlap assumptions for assumed probability distribution function cloud schemes in large-scale models. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 110(D15). 10.1029/2004JD005100
  • Zhang, MH, WY Lin, SA Klein, JT Bacmeister, S Bony, RT Cederwall, AD Del Genio, JJ Hack, NG Loeb, U Lohmann, P Minnis, I Musat, R Pincus, P Stier, MJ Suarez, MJ Webb, JB Wu, SC Xie, MS Yao and JH Zhang. (3-May 2005). Comparing clouds and their seasonal variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 110(D15). 10.1029/2004JD005021
  • Cahalan, RF, L Oreopoulos, A Marshak, KF Evans, AB Davis, R Pincus, KH Yetzer, B Mayer, R Davies, TP Ackerman, HW Barker, EE Clothiaux, RG Ellingson, MJ Garay, E Kassianov, S Kinne, A Macke, W OHirok, PT Partain, SM Prigarin, AN Rublev, GL Stephens, F Szczap, EE Takara, T Varnai, GY Wen and TB Zhuravleva. (SEP 2005). The 13RC - Bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 86(9), 1275-+. 10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1275
  • Pincus, R, C Hannay and KF Evans. (JUL 2005). The accuracy of determining three-dimensional radiative transfer effects in cumulus clouds using ground-based profiling instruments. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 62(7), 2284-2293. 10.1175/JAS3464.1
  • Klein, SA, R Pincus, C Hannay and KM Xu. (21-Apr 2005). How might a statistical cloud scheme be coupled to a mass-flux convection scheme?. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 110(D15). 10.1029/2004JD005017
  • Jakob, C, R Pincus, C Hannay and KM Xu. (5-Feb 2004). Use of cloud radar observations for model evaluation: A probabilistic approach. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 109(D3). 10.1029/2003JD003473
  • Pincus, R, HW Barker and JJ Morcrette. (2-Jul 2003). A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud fields. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 108(D13). 10.1029/2002JD003322
  • Pincus, R and SA Klein. (27-Nov 2000). Unresolved spatial variability and microphysical process rates in large-scale models. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 105(D22), 27059-27065. 10.1029/2000JD900504
  • Pincus, R, SA McFarlane and SA Klein. (27-Mar 1999). Albedo bias and the horizontal variability of clouds in subtropical marine boundary layers: Observations from ships and satellites. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D6), 6183-6191. 10.1029/1998JD200125
  • Pincus, R, MB Baker and CS Bretherton. (1-Sep 1997). What controls stratocumulus radiative properties? Lagrangian observations of cloud evolution. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 54(17), 2215-2236. 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2215:WCSRPL>2.0.CO;2
  • PINCUS, R, M SZCZODRAK, JJ GU and P AUSTIN. (MAY 1995). UNCERTAINTY IN-CLOUD OPTICAL DEPTH ESTIMATES MADE FROM SATELLITE RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 8(5), 1453-1462. 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1453:UICODE>2.0.CO;2
  • AUSTIN, P, YN WANG, R PINCUS and V KUJALA. (1-Jul 1995). PRECIPITATION IN STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS - OBSERVATIONAL AND MODELING RESULTS. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 52(13), 2329-2352. 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2329:PISCOA>2.0.CO;2
  • BRETHERTON, CS and R PINCUS. (15-Aug 1995). CLOUDINESS AND MARINE BOUNDARY-LAYER DYNAMICS IN THE ASTEX LAGRANGIAN EXPERIMENTS .1. SYNOPTIC SETTING AND VERTICAL STRUCTURE. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 52(16), 2707-2723. 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2707:CAMBLD>2.0.CO;2
  • PINCUS, R and MB BAKER. (17-Nov 1994). EFFECT OF PRECIPITATION ON THE ALBEDO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CLOUDS IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY-LAYER. NATURE, 372(6503), 250-252. 10.1038/372250a0