Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Ben Livneh

Research Interests

My research group explores the impacts of changing land-cover and climate on water resources. Specifically, we seek to quantify how changes in the mean-state and variability of the hydrologic system are changing, to identify key processes and explore predictability. A component particular sensitive to change in the western U.S. is snowpack, serving as a natural reservoir to store winter precipitation and release it during the warm-season when it is needed most. Active areas of research include sediment transport, land-cover disturbance, hydrologic connectivity, forecasting, and estimating components of the surface water balance from space.

Current Research

Climate variability and increasing water demands are stressing water resources in many areas. Improved understanding of the interaction between the natural hydrologic cycle and external landscape processes (e.g., water and land management practices) termed ‘external forcings’ will be critical for water resources management and planning. These external forcings include changes in water use, land use, land cover, and reservoir operations, all of which skew relationships between climactic and hydrologic variables. Presently, external forcings on hydrology are not well identified or quantified. Quantifying external forcings and associated hydrologic impacts are especially important for basins like the Colorado River where mean annual water supply and demand are nearly similar. In this work, a large sample of watersheds (> 100) in the Colorado and other major river basins with diverse climates and varying degrees of external forcing are analyzed. A data base of possible streamflow drivers is being developed using in situ and remote sensing products (evaporation, temperature, soil moisture etc.). The Figure shows the degree of various disturbances across U.S. watersheds being analyzed from the GAGES-II database.

Most people assume that greater forest disturbance will result in more water flowing out of watersheds. Not necessarily so, is the finding from recent research between the Livneh laboratory and collaboration with the University of Alaska, Southeast. By combining 30m global forest disturbance datasets with long-term, ongoing USGS streamflow observations, we were able to accurately monitor when and where disturbance occurs, and tie that to disruptions in the water outputs of critical watersheds across the nation.  Using a large-sample of watersheds with high quality data from southern Florida to northwest Washington, we found that after a forest disturbance event, streamflow can increase or decrease depending on critical landscape factors.

Highly disturbed, arid watersheds with low soil: water contact time are the most likely to see increases in water yield following disturbance, with response magnitude positively correlated with the extent of disturbance. Watersheds dominated by deciduous forest with low bulk density soils generally showed reduced yield post-disturbance. Post-disturbance streamflow timing change was associated with climate, forest type, and soil. Snowy coniferous watersheds were generally insensitive to disturbance, whereas watersheds with finely textured soils and flashy runoff were more sensitive. This was the first national scale investigation of streamflow post-disturbance using fused gage and remotely sensed data at high resolution, yielding important insights to anticipate changes in streamflow that may result from future disturbances.



Sources of hydrologic disturbance: Percent of watershed area developed (upper left), planted or cultivated (agriculture; upper right), as well as depth of reservoir storage per watershed area (lower left), and an overall Hydrologic Disturbance Index as of 2006, representing a composite of percent volume withdrawn, percent irrigated area, percent developed area, percent cultivated area and road density (lower right).

Forest Disturbance and Hydrologic Response: (a) Percent of forest cover in a large-sample of national watersheds and their degree of disturbance, (b) watershed grouping based in the change in the centroid of runoff timing following disturbance, either early, no-change-, or later runoff timing, and (c) change in total annual streamflow (or water yield) following disturbance, where watersheds either saw decreased, no-change, or increased water yield.

View Publications

  • Culler ES; Badger AM; Minear JT; Tiampo KF; Zeigler SD; Livneh B. (May 2021). A multi?sensor evaluation of precipitation uncertainty for landslide?triggering storm events. Hydrological Processes. 10.1002/hyp.14260
  • Heldmyer A; Livneh B; Molotch N; Rajagopalan B. (May 2021). Investigating the Relationship Between Peak Snow-Water Equivalent and Snow Timing Indices in the Western United States and Alaska. Water Resources Research , 57(5). 10.1029/2020wr029395
  • Abolafia-Rosenzweig R; Pan M; Zeng JL; Livneh B. (Mar 2021). Corrigendum to “Remotely sensed ensembles of the terrestrial water budget over major global river basins: An assessment of three closure techniques” [Remote Sensing of Environment Volume 252 (2021)]. Remote Sensing of Environment: an interdisciplinary journal , 254, 112255-112255. 10.1016/j.rse.2020.112255
  • Abolafia-Rosenzweig R; Pan M; Zeng JL; Livneh B. (Jan 2021). Remotely sensed ensembles of the terrestrial water budget over major global river basins: An assessment of three closure techniques. Remote Sensing of Environment: an interdisciplinary journal , 252. 10.1016/j.rse.2020.112191
  • Abolafia-Rosenzweig R; Badger AM; Small EE; Livneh B. (Dec 2020). A continental-scale soil evaporation dataset derived from Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite drying rates. Scientific Data , 7(1). 10.1038/s41597-020-00748-z
  • Wang G; Kirchhoff CJ; Seth A; Abatzoglou JT; Livneh B; Pierce DW; Fomenko L; Ding T. (Dec 2020). Projected Changes of Precipitation Characteristics Depend on Downscaling Method and Training Data: MACA versus LOCA Using the US Northeast as an Example. Journal of Hydrometeorology , 21(12), 2739-2758. 10.1175/jhm-d-19-0275.1
  • Williams AP; Cook ER; Smerdon JE; Cook BI; Abatzoglou JT; Bolles K; Baek SH; Badger AM; Livneh B. (Oct 2020). Large contribution from anthropogenic warming to an emerging North American megadrought (vol 368, pg 314, 2020). Science , 370(6516). 10.1126/science.abf3676
  • Steinberg DC; Mignone BK; Macknick J; Sun Y; Eurek K; Badger A; Livneh B; Averyt K. (Oct 2020). Decomposing supply-side and demand-side impacts of climate change on the US electricity system through 2050 (vol 158, pg 125, 2020). Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change , 163(2), 1107-1108. 10.1007/s10584-020-02660-2
  • Barsugli JJ; Ray AJ; Livneh B; Dewes CF; Heldmyer A; Rangwala I; Guinotte JM; Torbit S. (Oct 2020). Projections of Mountain Snowpack Loss for Wolverine Denning Elevations in the Rocky Mountains. Earths Future|0401 Atmospheric Sciences, 0406 Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience, 0502 Environmental Science and Management , 8(10). 10.1029/2020EF001537
  • Kampf SK; Gannon BM; Wilson C; Saavedra F; Miller ME; Heldmyer A; Livneh B; Nelson P; MacDonald L. (Aug 2020). PEMIP: Post-fire erosion model inter-comparison project. Journal of Environmental Management , 268. 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110704
  • Kumar S; Newman M; Lawrence DM; Lo M-H; Akula S; Lan C-W; Livneh B; Lombardozzi D. (Aug 2020). The GLACE-Hydrology Experiment: Effects of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on Soil Moisture Variability and Predictability. Journal of Climate , 33(15), 6511-6529. 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0598.1
  • Livneh B; Badger AM. (Apr 2020). Drought less predictable under declining future snowpack. Nature Climate Change , 10(5), 452-+. 10.1038/s41558-020-0754-8
  • Williams AP; Cook ER; Smerdon JE; Cook BI; Abatzoglou JT; Bolles K; Baek SH; Badger AM; Livneh B. (Apr 2020). Large contribution from anthropogenic warming to an emerging North American megadrought. Science , 368(6488), 314-+. 10.1126/science.aaz9600
  • Steinberg DC; Mignone BK; Macknick J; Sun Y; Eurek K; Badger A; Livneh B; Averyt K. (Jan 2020). Decomposing supply-side and demand-side impacts of climate change on the US electricity system through 2050. Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change , 158(2), 125-139. 10.1007/s10584-019-02506-6
  • Abolafia-Rosenzweig, R; Livneh, B; Small, EE; Kumar, SV. (NOV 2019). Soil Moisture Data Assimilation to Estimate Irrigation Water Use. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 11(11), 3670-3690. 10.1029/2019MS001797
  • Heldmyer, A; Livneh, B; Molotch, N. (2019). Evaluating the Potential to Regionalize Station-Observed SWE across the Western US. WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL AND WATER RESOURCES CONGRESS 2019: GROUNDWATER, SUSTAINABILITY, HYDRO-CLIMATE/CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 287-295. 10.1061/9780784482346.029
  • Barsugli, J., M. Hoerling, B. Livneh. (3/2019 2019). Is the recent drought on the Colorado River the new normal?. Eos, 100. 10.1029/2019EO117173.
  • Hoerling, M; Barsugli, J; Livneh, B; Eischeid, J; Quan, X; Badger, A. (DEC 2019). Causes for the Century-Long Decline in Colorado River Flow. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 32(23), 8181-8203. 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0207.1
  • Kumar, S; Newman, M; Wang, Y; Livneh, B. (MAY 2019). Potential Reemergence of Seasonal Soil Moisture Anomalies in North America. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 32(10), 2707-2734. 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0540.1
  • Morrill, C; Meador, E; Livneh, B; Liefert, DT; Shuman, BN. (JUL 2019). Quantitative model-data comparison of mid-Holocene lake-level change in the central Rocky Mountains. CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 53(2-Jan), 1077-1094. 10.1007/s00382-019-04633-3
  • Small, EE; Badger, AM; Abolafia-Rosenzweig, R; Livneh, B. (DEC 2018). Estimating Soil Evaporation Using Drying Rates Determined from Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Records. REMOTE SENSING, 10(12). 10.3390/rs10121945
  • Badger, AM, B Livneh, MP Hoerling and JK Eischeid. (OCT 2018). Understanding the 2011 Upper Missouri River Basin floods in the context of a changing climate. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, 19, 110-123. 10.1016/j.ejrh.2018.08.004
  • Hein, CJ, JE Ten Hoeve, S Gopalakrishnan, B Livneh, HD Adams, EK Marino and CS Weiler. (SEP-OCT 2018). Overcoming early career barriers to interdisciplinary climate change research. WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-CLIMATE CHANGE, 9(5). 10.1002/wcc.530
  • Jennings, KS, TS Winchell, B Livneh and NP Molotch. (20-Mar 2018). Spatial variation of the rain-snow temperature threshold across the Northern Hemisphere. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 9. 10.1038/s41467-018-03629-7
  • Henn, B, AJ Newman, B Livneh, C Daly and JD Lundquist. (JAN 2018). An assessment of differences in gridded precipitation datasets in complex terrain. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY, 556, 1205-1219. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.03.008
  • Shellito, PJ, EE Small and B Livneh. (6-Mar 2018). Controls on surface soil drying rates observed by SMAP and simulated by the Noah land surface model. HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, 22(3), 1649-1663. 10.5194/hess-22-1649-2018
  • Friedrich, K, RL Grossman, J Huntington, PD Blanken, J Lenters, KD Holman, D Gochis, B Livneh, J Prairie, E Skeie, NC Healey, K Dahm, C Pearson, T Finnessey, SJ Hook and T Kowalski. (JAN 2018). RESERVOIR EVAPORATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES: Current Science, Challenges, and Future Needs. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 99(1), 167-188. 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00224.1
  • Yanto, B Livneh, B Rajagopalan and J Kasprzyk. (FEB 2017). Hydrological model application under data scarcity for multiple watersheds, Java Island, Indonesia. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, 9, 127-139. 10.1016/j.ejrh.2016.09.007
  • Hallar, AG, NP Molotch, JL Hand, B Livneh, IB McCubbin, R Petersen, J Michalsky, D Lowenthal and KE Kunkel. (JAN 2017). Impacts of increasing aridity and wildfires on aerosol loading in the intermountain Western US. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 12(1). 10.1088/1748-9326/aa510a
  • Raseman, WJ, JR Kasprzyk, FL Rosario-Ortiz, JR Stewart and B Livneh. (1-Jan 2017). Emerging investigators series: a critical review of decision support systems for water treatment: making the case for incorporating climate change and climate extremes. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, 3(1), 18-36. 10.1039/c6ew00121a
  • Stewart, JR, B Livneh, JR Kasprzyk, B Rajagopalan, JT Minear and WJ Raseman. (NOV 2017). A Multialgorithm Approach to Land Surface Modeling of Suspended Sediment in the Colorado Front Range. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, 9(7), 2526-2544. 10.1002/2017MS001120
  • Marlier, ME, M Xiao, R Engel, B Livneh, JT Abatzoglou and DP Lettenmaier. (NOV 2017). The 2015 drought in Washington State: a harbinger of things to come?. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 12(11). 10.1088/1748-9326/aa8fde
  • Buma, B and B Livneh. (JUL 2017). Key landscape and biotic indicators of watersheds sensitivity to forest disturbance identified using remote sensing and historical hydrography data. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 12(7). 10.1088/1748-9326/aa7091
  • Yanto, B Livneh and B Rajagopalan. (23-May 2017). Development of a gridded meteorological dataset over Java island, Indonesia 1985-2014. SCIENTIFIC DATA, 4. 10.1038/sdata.2017.72
  • Houle, ES, B Livneh and JR Kasprzyk. (MAR 2017). Exploring snow model parameter sensitivity using Sobol variance decomposition. ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING & SOFTWARE, 89, 144-158. 10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.11.024
  • Barnhart, TB, NP Molotch, B Livneh, AA Harpold, JF Knowles and D Schneider. (16-Aug 2016). Snowmelt rate dictates streamflow. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 43(15), 8006-8016. 10.1002/2016GL069690
  • Livneh, B and MP Hoerling. (15-Sep 2016). The Physics of Drought in the US Central Great Plains. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 29(18), 6783-6804. 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0697.1
  • Mizukami, N, MP Clark, ED Gutmann, PA Mendoza, AJ Newman, B Nijssen, Ben Livneh, LE Hay, JR Arnold and LD Brekke. (JAN 2016). Implications of the Methodological Choices for Hydrologic Portrayals of Climate Change over the Contiguous United States: Statistically Downscaled Forcing Data and Hydrologic Models. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 17(1), 73-98. 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0187.1
  • Raleigh, MS, Ben Livneh, K Lapo and JD Lundquist. (JAN 2016). How Does Availability of Meteorological Forcing Data Impact Physically Based Snowpack Simulations?. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 17(1), 99-120. 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0235.1
  • Cheng, LY, M Hoerling, A AghaKouchak, B Livneh, XW Quan and J Eischeid. (JAN 2016). How Has Human-Induced Climate Change Affected California Drought Risk?. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 29(1), 111-120. 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0260.1
  • Livneh, B, JS Deems, B Buma, JJ Barsugli, D Schneider, NP Molotch, K Wolter and CA Wessman. (APR 2015). Catchment response to bark beetle outbreak and dust-on-snow in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY, 523, 196-210. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.01.039
  • Funk, C, S Shukla, A Hoell and B Livneh. (DEC 2015). ASSESSING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF EAST AFRICAN AND WEST PACIFIC WARMING TO THE 2014 BOREAL SPRING EAST AFRICAN DROUGHT. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 96(12), S77-S82. 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00106.1
  • Livneh, B, R Kumar and L Samaniego. (15-Oct 2015). Influence of soil textural properties on hydrologic fluxes in the Mississippi river basin. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, 29(21), 4638-4655. 10.1002/hyp.10601
  • Pal, I., E. Towler, and B. Livneh. (2015). Advancing the Science of Low Flows in a Changing Climate. EOS Trans. AGU, 96. 10.1029/2015EO033875
  • Buma, B and B Livneh. (OCT 2015). Potential Effects of Forest Disturbances and Management on Water Resources in a Warmer Climate. FOREST SCIENCE, 61(5), 895-903. 10.5849/forsci.14-164
  • Livneh, B, TJ Bohn, DW Pierce, F Munoz-Arriola, B Nijssen, R Vose, DR Cayan and L Brekke. (2015). A spatially comprehensive, hydrometeorological data set for Mexico, the US, and Southern Canada 1950-2013. SCIENTIFIC DATA, 2. 10.1038/sdata.2015.42
  • Lundquist, JD, M Hughes, B Henn, ED Gutmann, B Livneh, J Dozier and P Neiman. (AUG 2015). High-Elevation Precipitation Patterns: Using Snow Measurements to Assess Daily Gridded Datasets across the Sierra Nevada, California. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 16(4), 1773-1792. 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0019.1
  • Livneh, B, JS Deems, D Schneider, JJ Barsugli and NP Molotch. (NOV 2014). Filling in the gaps: Inferring spatially distributed precipitation from gauge observations over complex terrain. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 50(11), 8589-8610. 10.1002/2014WR015442
  • Chen, F, M Barlage, M Tewari, R Rasmussen, JM Jin, D Lettenmaier, B Livneh, CY Lin, G Miguez-Macho, GY Niu, LJ Wen and ZL Yang. (27-Dec 2014). Modeling seasonal snowpack evolution in the complex terrain and forested Colorado Headwaters region: A model intercomparison study. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 119(24), 13795-13819. 10.1002/2014JD022167
  • Kumar, SV, CD Peters-Lidard, D Mocko, R Reichle, YQ Liu, KR Arsenault, YL Xia, M Ek, G Riggs, B Livneh and M Cosh. (DEC 2014). Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture and Snow Depth Retrievals for Drought Estimation. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 15(6), 2446-2469. 10.1175/JHM-D-13-0132.1
  • Gordon, E., Pugh, E., and B. Livneh. (March 2014). Bark Beetles: Cause for Concern in Snowy Western Watersheds?. Utility Intelligence & Infrastructure.
  • Livneh, B and DP Lettenmaier. (JAN 2013). Regional parameter estimation for the unified land model. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 49(1), 100-114. 10.1029/2012WR012220
  • Xia, YL, M Ek, J Sheffield, B Livneh, MY Huang, HL Wei, S Feng, LF Luo, J Meng and E Wood. (FEB 2013). Validation of Noah-Simulated Soil Temperature in the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY, 52(2), 455-471. 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-033.1
  • Livneh, B, EA Rosenberg, CY Lin, B Nijssen, V Mishra, KM Andreadis, EP Maurer and DP Lettenmaier. (DEC 2013). A Long-Term Hydrologically Based Dataset of Land Surface Fluxes and States for the Conterminous United States: Update and Extensions. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 26(23), 9384-9392. 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00508.1
  • Kumar, R, B Livneh and L Samaniego. (SEP 2013). Toward computationally efficient large-scale hydrologic predictions with a multiscale regionalization scheme. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 49(9), 5700-5714. 10.1002/wrcr.20431
  • Bohn, TJ, B Livneh, JW Oyler, SW Running, B Nijssen and DP Lettenmaier. (15-Jul 2013). Global evaluation of MTCLIM and related algorithms for forcing of ecological and hydrological models. AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY, 176, 38-49. 10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.03.003
  • Livneh, B and DP Lettenmaier. (2012). Multi-criteria parameter estimation for the Unified Land Model. HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, 16(8), 3029-3048. 10.5194/hess-16-3029-2012
  • Mahanama, S, B Livneh, R Koster, D Lettenmaier and R Reichle. (FEB 2012). Soil Moisture, Snow, and Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts in the United States. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 13(1), 189-203. 10.1175/JHM-D-11-046.1
  • Xia, YL, K Mitchell, M Ek, J Sheffield, B Cosgrove, E Wood, LF Luo, C Alonge, HL Wei, J Meng, B Livneh, D Lettenmaier, V Koren, QY Duan, K Mo, Y Fan and D Mocko. (3-Feb 2012). Continental-scale water and energy flux analysis and validation for the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2): 1. Intercomparison and application of model products. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 117. 10.1029/2011JD016048
  • Xia, YL, K Mitchell, M Ek, B Cosgrove, J Sheffield, LF Luo, C Alonge, HL Wei, J Meng, B Livneh, QY Duan and D Lohmann. (3-Feb 2012). Continental-scale water and energy flux analysis and validation for North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2): 2. Validation of model-simulated streamflow. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 117. 10.1029/2011JD016051
  • Sheffield, J, B Livneh and EF Wood. (JUN 2012). Representation of Terrestrial Hydrology and Large-Scale Drought of the Continental United States from the North American Regional Reanalysis. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 13(3), 856-876. 10.1175/JHM-D-11-065.1
  • Livneh, B, PJ Restrepo and DP Leitenmaier. (DEC 2011). Development of a Unified Land Model for Prediction of Surface Hydrology and Land-Atmosphere Interactions. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 12(6), 1299-1320. 10.1175/2011JHM1361.1
  • Livneh, B, YL Xia, KE Mitchell, MB Ek and DP Lettenmaier. (JUN 2010). Noah LSM Snow Model Diagnostics and Enhancements. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 11(3), 721-738. 10.1175/2009JHM1174.1
  • Koster, RD, SPP Mahanama, B Livneh, DP Lettenmaier and RH Reichle. (SEP 2010). Skill in streamflow forecasts derived from large-scale estimates of soil moisture and snow. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 3(9), 613-616. 10.1038/NGEO944
  • Barlage, M, F Chen, M Tewari, K Ikeda, D Gochis, J Dudhia, R Rasmussen, B Livneh, M Ek and K Mitchell. (16-Nov 2010). Noah land surface model modifications to improve snowpack prediction in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 115. 10.1029/2009JD013470
  • Casola, JH, L Cuo, B Livneh, DP Lettenmaier, MT Stoelinga, PW Mote and JM Wallace. (MAY 2009). Assessing the Impacts of Global Warming on Snowpack in the Washington Cascades. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 22(10), 2758-2772. 10.1175/2008JCLI2612.1
  • Livneh, B and MH El Naggar. (AUG 2008). Axial testing and numerical modeling of square shaft helical plies under compressive and tensile loading. CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL, 45(8), 1142-1155. 10.1139/T08-044