Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Kris Karnauskas

Research Interests

My lab explores the dynamics of the coupled Earth system toward useful predictions of impacts ranging from marine ecosystems to human health. Specifically, we aim to understand the circuitry of the tropical ocean and atmosphere, its interaction with ecosystems and with higher latitude regions, how and why the climate system has changed in the past, and how climate will continue to change in the future–both naturally and as driven by human activities. We employ a "big data" methodology, leveraging satellite and instrumental observations, large international ensembles of global coupled climate model simulations, and running several ocean and atmosphere circulation models in house.

Teaching Profile

Through teaching, I aim to equip students with the tools to investigate, communicate, and act intelligently on matters of global change. I routinely teach courses on climate science and oceanography (ATOC 1060, ATOC 3070, ATOC 4730/5730).

Current Research

Climate Dynamics:

One of my primary research objectives is to understand the dynamics of Earth's climate at global and regional scales. How and why does climate vary from year to year, decade to decade, century to century, and beyond? A particular focus is on the dynamics of the tropical ocean and atmosphere as a coupled system, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other intrinsic modes of climate variability. How do the tropics, extratropics, and high latitude regions interact? How will key aspects of Earth's climate respond to the radiative forcing associated with greenhouse gas emissions over the course of this century? I use observations (including satellites) and numerical models to explore these questions.

Climate Impacts:

"No challenge poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change," said President Barack Obama in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015. Climate change is a global problem, but the impacts are felt locally. "...rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration and conflict and hunger around the globe. The Pentagon says that climate change poses immediate risks to our national security. We should act like it."

In my lab, we combine "big data" (dozens of global climate models, satellites, etc.) as well as pinpoint measurements to understand the impacts of climate variability and change on marine ecosystems, transportation, freshwater resources, sea level, and tropical cyclones.

Ocean Circulation:

The thermal inertial of the climate system is in the ocean, so understanding the physics governing the storage of heat by the ocean and the movement of heat and other properties by currents is essential to understanding climate variability and change. Ocean circulation also serves as the mediator between large-scale climate variability and impacts on marine ecosystems. I seek to better understand the ocean circulation, particularly in the tropical Pacific, and translate such knowledge into improved overall understanding of global climate dynamics and projected impacts on marine ecosystems.  


Hadley circulation. A side view depicting the familiar atmospheric overturning cell linking Earth's tropics and subtropics. In "On the dynamics of the Hadley circulation and subtropical drying," we (Karnauskas and Ummenhofer 2014) argue that this perspective hides some of the basic, underlying dynamics and spatial structure of the Hadley circulation.

Hadley circulation. A side view depicting the familiar atmospheric overturning cell linking Earth's tropics and subtropics. In "On the dynamics of the Hadley circulation and subtropical drying," we (Karnauskas and Ummenhofer 2014) argue that this perspective hides some of the basic, underlying dynamics and spatial structure of the Hadley circulation.


Freshwater stress. At least 18 million people live on islands too small for the current generation of global climate models (GCMs) to resolve. Efforts are afoot to characterize the freshwater balance and its likely response to global warming at such places anyway.

The Galápagos Islands and the Equatorial Undercurrent. Viewed from space, the Galápagos is but a dot in an otherwise enormous basin. However, the very dynamics governing the equatorial oceans also confer upon the Galápagos a potential influence significantly beyond that expected from its physical dimensions (Karnauskas et al. 2007).

Honors and Awards

  • AGU Ocean Sciences Early Career Award
  • Sloan Research Fellowship, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
  • Moltz Fellowship, Ocean and Climate Change Institute, WHOI
  • Lamont Postdoctoral Fellowship, LDEO of Columbia University
  • Meteorological Satellite Applications Award, National Weather Association
  • Hilldale Undergraduate Research Fellowship, University of Wisconsin-Madison

View Publications

  • Karnauskas KB; Heede UK; Zhang L. (Sep 2023). The Impact of Eastern Pacific Warming on Future North Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis. Geophysical Research Letters , 50(17). 10.1029/2023GL105551
  • Rajaram H; Camargo S; Cappa CD; Dombard AJ; Donohue KA; Feakins S; Flesch L; Giannini A; Gu Y; Huber C. (May 2023). Thank You to Our 2022 Peer Reviewers. Geophysical Research Letters , 50(9). 10.1029/2023GL104214
  • Buchwald AG; Thomas E; Karnauskas KB; Grover E; Kotloff K; Carlton EJ. (Nov 2022). The Association Between Rainfall, Temperature, and Reported Drinking Water Source: A Multi-Country Analysis. GeoHealth , 6(11). 10.1029/2022GH000605
  • Karnauskas KB. (Sep 2022). Whither warming in the Galápagos?. , 1(9), e0000056-e0000056. 10.1371/journal.pclm.0000056
  • Karnauskas KB; Giglio D. (Aug 2022). Argo Reveals the Scales and Provenance of Equatorial Island Upwelling Systems. Geophysical Research Letters , 49(16). 10.1029/2022GL098744
  • Jakoboski J; Todd REE; Owens WB; Karnauskas KBB; Rudnick DLL. (Aug 2022). Potential Vorticity and Instability in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent West of the Galapagos Archipelago. Journal of Physical Oceanography , 52(8), 1927-1943. 10.1175/JPO-D-21-0124.1
  • Karnauskas KB. (Apr 2022). A Simple Coupled Model of the Wind-Evaporation-SST Feedback with a Role for Stability. Journal of Climate , 35(7), 2149-2160. 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0895.1
  • Amaya DJ; Seltzer AM; Karnauskas KB; Lora JM; Zhang X; DiNezio PN. (Jan 2022). Air-sea coupling shapes North American hydroclimate response to ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 578. 10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117271
  • Amaya DJ; Jacox MG; Dias J; Alexander MA; Karnauskas KB; Scott JD; Gehne M. (Jan 2022). Subseasonal‐to‐seasonal forecast skill in the California Current System and its connection to coastal Kelvin waves. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 10.1029/2021jc017892
  • Zhang L; Han W; Karnauskas KB; Li Y; Tozuka T. (Jan 2022). Eastward Shift of Interannual Climate Variability in the South Indian Ocean since 1950. Journal of Climate , 35(2), 561-575. 10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0356.1
  • Detto M; Griffith DM; Hawkins L; Helliker BR; Page GFM; Pau S; Rastogi B; Schulze M; Still CJ. (Dec 2021). Corrigendum. New Phytologist. 10.1175/jtech-d-14-00187.1
  • Goodkin NF; Samanta D; Bolton A; Ong MR; Hoang PK; Vo ST; Karnauskas KB; Hughen KA. (Oct 2021). Natural and Anthropogenic Forcing of Multi-Decadal to Centennial Scale Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology , 36(10). 10.1029/2021PA004233
  • Sanchez SC; Karnauskas KB. (Sep 2021). Diversity in the Persistence of El Nino Events Over the Last Millennium. Geophysical Research Letters , 48(18). 10.1029/2021GL093698
  • Samanta D; Goodkin NF; Karnauskas KB. (Sep 2021). Volume and Heat Transport in the South China Sea and Maritime Continent at Present and the End of the 21st Century. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans , 126(9). 10.1029/2020JC016901
  • Wei H-H; Subramanian AC; Karnauskas KB; DeMott CA; Mazloff MR; Balmaseda MA. (Jun 2021). Tropical Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Processes and Biases in CESM2 and Their Relation to El Nino Development. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 10.1029/2020jc016967
  • Karnauskas KB; Zhang L; Emanuel KA. (Apr 2021). The Feedback of Cold Wakes on Tropical Cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters , 48(7). 10.1029/2020GL091676
  • Harp RD; Colborn JM; Candrinho B; Colborn KL; Zhang L; Karnauskas KB. (Feb 2021). Interannual Climate Variability and Malaria in Mozambique. GeoHealth , 5(2). 10.1029/2020GH000322
  • Karnauskas KB; Zhang L; Amaya DJ. (Jan 2021). The Atmospheric Response to North Atlantic SST Trends, 1870-2019. Geophysical Research Letters , 48(2). 10.1029/2020GL090677
  • Gadeken KR; Joseph MB; McGlinchy J; Karnauskas KB; Wall CC. (Jan 2021). Predicting subsurface sonar observations with satellite-derived ocean surface data in the California Current Ecosystem. PLoS One , 16(8). 10.1371/journal.pone.0248297
  • Amaya DJ; Alexander MA; Capotondi A; Deser C; Karnauskas KB; Miller AJ; Mantua NJ. (Jan 2021). Are Long-Term Changes in Mixed Layer Depth Influencing North Pacific Marine Heatwaves?. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 102(1), S59-S66. 10.1175/bams-d-20-0144.1
  • Rudnick DL; Owens WB; Johnston TMS; Karnauskas KB; Jakoboski J; Todd RE. (Jan 2021). The Equatorial Current System West of the Galapagos Islands during the 2014-16 El Nino as Observed by Underwater Gliders. Journal of Physical Oceanography , 51(1), 3-17. 10.1175/jpo-d-20-0064.1
  • Bramante JF; Ford MR; Kench PS; Ashton AD; Toomey MR; Sullivan RM; Karnauskas KB; Ummenhofer CC; Donnelly JP. (Nov 2020). Increased typhoon activity in the Pacific deep tropics driven by Little Ice Age circulation changes. Nature Geoscience , 13(12), 806-+. 10.1038/s41561-020-00656-2
  • Karnauskas KB; Jakoboski J; Johnston TMS; Owens WB; Rudnick DL; Todd RE. (Nov 2020). The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in Three Generations of Global Climate Models and Glider Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans , 125(11). 10.1029/2020JC016609
  • Karnauskas KB. (Jun 2020). Physical Diagnosis of the 2016 Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Event. Geophysical Research Letters , 47(11). 10.1029/2019GL086177
  • Staten PW; Grise KM; Davis SM; Karnauskas KB; Waugh DW; Maycock AC; Fu Q; Cook K; Adam O; Simpson IR. (Jun 2020). Tropical Widening From Global Variations to Regional Impacts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 101(6), E897-E904. 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0047.1
  • Karnauskas KB; Miller SL; Schapiro AC. (May 2020). Fossil Fuel Combustion Is Driving Indoor CO2 Toward Levels Harmful to Human Cognition. GeoHealth , 4(5). 10.1029/2019GH000237
  • Gao C; Zhang R-H; Karnauskas KB; Zhang L; Tian F. (Apr 2020). Separating freshwater flux effects on ENSO in a hybrid coupled model of the tropical Pacific. Climate Dynamics , 54(11-12), 4605-4626. 10.1007/s00382-020-05245-y
  • Jakoboski J; Todd RE; Owens WB; Karnauskas KB; Rudnick DL. (Apr 2020). Bifurcation and Upwelling of the Equatorial Undercurrent West of the Galapagos Archipelago. Journal of Physical Oceanography , 50(4), 887-905. 10.1175/JPO-D-19-0110.1
  • Harp RD; Karnauskas KB. (Mar 2020). Global warming to increase violent crime in the United States. Environmental Research Letters , 15(3). 10.1088/1748-9326/ab6b37
  • Samanta D; Rajagopalan B; Karnauskas KB; Zhang L; Goodkin NF. (Jan 2020). La Nina's Diminishing Fingerprint on the Central Indian Summer Monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters , 47(2). 10.1029/2019GL086237
  • Zhang, L; Han, WQ; Karnauskas, KB; Meehl, GA; Hu, AX; Rosenbloom, N; Shinoda, T. (Oct 2019). Indian Ocean Warming Trend Reduces Pacific Warming Response to Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases: An Interbasin Thermostat Mechanism. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 46(19). 10.1029/2019GL084088
  • Staten, PW; Grise, KM; Davis, SM; Karnauskas, K; Davis, N. (Jun 2019). Regional Widening of Tropical Overturning: Forced Change, Natural Variability, and Recent Trends. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES , 124(12). 10.1029/2018JD030100
  • Lemmon, DE; Karnauskas, KB. (Jun 2019). A metric for quantifying El Nino pattern diversity with implications for ENSO-mean state interaction. CLIMATE DYNAMICS , 52(12). 10.1007/s00382-018-4194-3
  • Zhang, L; Sun, DZ; Karnauskas, KB. (Jun 2019). The role of the Indian Ocean in determining the tropical pacific SST response to radiative forcing in an idealized model. DYNAMICS OF ATMOSPHERES AND OCEANS , 86. 10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2019.02.003
  • Goodkin, NF; Bolton, A; Hughen, KA; Karnauskas, KB; Griffin, S; Phan, KH; Vo, ST; Ong, MR; Druffel, ERM. (May 2019). East Asian Monsoon Variability Since the Sixteenth Century. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 46(9). 10.1029/2019GL081939
  • Bryan, SP; Hughen, KA; Karnauskas, KB; Farrar, JT. (Apr 2019). Two Hundred Fifty Years of Reconstructed South Asian Summer Monsoon Intensity and Decadal-Scale Variability. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 46(7). 10.1029/2018GL081593
  • Hamlington, BD; Cheon, SH; Piecuch, CG; Karnauskas, KB; Thompson, PR; Kim, KY; Reager, JT; Landerer, FW; Frederikse, T. (Apr 2019). The Dominant Global Modes of Recent Internal Sea Level Variability. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS , 124(4). 10.1029/2018JC014635
  • Grise, KM; Davis, SM; Simpson, IR; Waugh, DW; Fu, Q; Allen, RJ; Rosenlof, KH; Ummenhofer, CC; Karnauskas, KB; Maycock, AC; Quan, XW; Birner, T; Staten, PW. (Mar 2019). Recent Tropical Expansion: Natural Variability or Forced Response?. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 32(5). 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0444.1
  • Samanta, D; Karnauskas, KB; Goodkin, NF. (Feb 2019). Tropical Pacific SST and ITCZ Biases in Climate Models: Double Trouble for Future Rainfall Projections?. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 46(4). 10.1029/2018GL081363
  • Karnauskas, KB, CF Schleussner, JP Donnelly and KJ Anchukaitis. (Dec 2018). Freshwater stress on small island developing states: population projections and aridity changes at 1.5 and 2 degrees C. REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE , 18(8). 10.1007/s10113-018-1331-9
  • Maroon, EA, JE Kay and KB Karnauskas. (Nov 2018). Influence of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation on the Northern Hemisphere Surface Temperature Response to Radiative Forcing. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 31(22). 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0900.1
  • Harp, RD; Karnauskas, KB. (Nov 2018). The Influence of Interannual Climate Variability on Regional Violent Crime Rates in the United States. GEOHEALTH , 2(11). 10.1029/2018GH000152
  • Samanta, D, KB Karnauskas, NF Goodkin, S Coats, JE Smerdon and L Zhang. (Oct 2018). Coupled Model Biases Breed Spurious Low-Frequency Variability in the Tropical Pacific Ocean. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 45(19). 10.1029/2018GL079455
  • Coats, S and KB Karnauskas. (Aug 2018). A Role for the Equatorial Undercurrent in the Ocean Dynamical Thermostat. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 31(16). 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0513.1
  • Karnauskas, KB and BH Jones. (Aug 2018). The Interannual Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the Red Sea From 35 Years of Satellite and In Situ Observations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS , 123(8). 10.1029/2017JC013320
  • Zhang, L, KB Karnauskas, JB Weiss and LM Polvani. (May 2018). Observational evidence of the downstream impact on tropical rainfall from stratospheric Kelvin waves. CLIMATE DYNAMICS , 50(10-Sep). 10.1007/s00382-017-3844-1
  • Zhou L; Chen D; Karnauskas KB; Wang C; Lei X; Wang W; Wang G; Han G. (Feb 2018). Introduction to Special Section on Oceanic Responses and Feedbacks to Tropical Cyclones. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans , 123(2), 742-745. 10.1002/2018JC013809
  • Karnauskas, KB, JK Lundquist and L Zhang. (Jan 2018). Southward shift of the global wind energy resource under high carbon dioxide emissions. NATURE GEOSCIENCE , 11(1). 10.1038/s41561-017-0029-9
  • Coats, S and KB Karnauskas. (Oct 2017). Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 44(19). 10.1002/2017GL074622
  • Zhang, L, T Rechtman, KB Karnauskas, LF Li, JP Donnelly and JP Kossin. (Sep 2017). Longwave emission trends over Africa and implications for Atlantic hurricanes. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 44(17). 10.1002/2017GL073869
  • Hamlington, BD, JT Reager, MH Lo, KB Karnauskas and RR Leben. (Apr 2017). Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS , 7. 10.1038/s41598-017-00875-5
  • Karnauskas, KB, E Mittelstaedt and R Murtugudde. (Feb 2017). Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galapagos upwelling. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS , 460. 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.005
  • Zhang, L, KB Karnauskas, JP Donnelly and K Emanuel. (Feb 2017). Response of the North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Climatology to Global Warming: Application of Dynamical Downscaling to CMIP5 Models. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 30(4). 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0496.1
  • Karnauskas, KB, GC Johnson and R Murtugudde. (Jan 2017). On the climate impacts of atolls in the central equatorial Pacific. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY , 37(1). 10.1002/joc.4697
  • Zhang, L and KB Karnauskas. (Jan 2017). The Role of Tropical Interbasin SST Gradients in Forcing Walker Circulation Trends. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 30(2). 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0349.1
  • Karnauskas KB; Li L. (Jul 2016). Predicting Atlantic seasonal hurricane activity using outgoing longwave radiation over Africa. Geophysical Research Letters , 43(13), 7152-7159. 10.1002/2016GL069792
  • Karnauskas KB; Donnelly JP; Anchukaitis KJ. (Jul 2016). Future freshwater stress for island populations. Nature Climate Change , 6(7), 720-+. 10.1038/NCLIMATE2987
  • Coats S; Smerdon JE; Karnauskas KB; Seager R. (Jul 2016). The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Environmental Research Letters , 11(7). 10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074025
  • Li L; Schmitt RW; Ummenhofer CC; Karnauskas KB. (May 2016). Implications of North Atlantic Sea Surface Salinity for Summer Precipitation over the US Midwest: Mechanisms and Predictive Value. Journal of Climate , 29(9), 3143-3159. 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0520.1
  • Li L; Schmitt RW; Ummenhofer CC; Karnauskas KB. (May 2016). North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel rainfall. Science Advances , 2(5). 10.1126/sciadv.1501588
  • Kendall, MS, M Poti and KB Karnauskas. (Apr 2016). Climate change and larval transport in the ocean: fractional effects from physical and physiological factors. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY , 22(4). 10.1111/gcb.13159
  • Karnauskas KB; Cohen AL; Gove JM. (Feb 2016). Mitigation of Coral Reef Warming Across the Central Pacific by the Equatorial Undercurrent: A Past and Future Divide. Scientific Reports , 6. 10.1038/srep21213
  • Karnauskas, KB, JP Donnelly, HC Barkley and JE Martin. (Dec 2015). Coupling between air travel and climate. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE , 5(12). 10.1038/nclimate2715
  • Trusel, LD, KE Frey, SB Das, KB Karnauskas, PK Munneke, E van Meijgaard and MR van den Broeke. (Dec 2015). Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty-first-century climate scenarios. NATURE GEOSCIENCE , 8(12). 10.1038/ngeo2563
  • Karnauskas, KB, S Jenouvrier, CW Brown and R Murtugudde. (Aug 2015). Strong sea surface cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and implications for Galapagos Penguin conservation. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 42(15). 10.1002/2015GL064456
  • Capotondi, A, AT Wittenberg, M Newman, E Di Lorenzo, JY Yu, P Braconnot, J Cole, B Dewitte, B Giese, E Guilyardi, FF Jin, K Karnauskas, B Kirtman, T Lee, N Schneider, Y Xue and SW Yeh. (Jun 2015). Understanding ENSO Diversity. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY , 96(6). 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00117.1
  • Karnauskas KB; Cohen AL; Drenkard EJ. (May 2015). Comment on “Equatorial Pacific coral geochemical records show recent weakening of the Walker circulation” by J. Carilli et al. Paleoceanography , 30(5), 570-574. 10.1002/2014pa002753
  • DeCarlo, TM, KB Karnauskas, KA Davis and GTF Wong. (Feb 2015). Climate modulates internal wave activity in the Northern South China Sea. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 42(3). 10.1002/2014gl062522
  • Doney SC; Karnauskas KB. (Oct 2014). Oxygen and climate dynamics. Nature Climate Change , 4(10), 862-863. 10.1038/nclimate2386
  • Leslie, WR and KB Karnauskas. (Sep 2014). The Equatorial Undercurrent and TAO Sampling Bias from a Decade at SEA. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY , 31(9). 10.1175/jtech-d-13-00262.1
  • Newby, PE, BN Shuman, JP Donnelly, KB Karnauskas and J Marsicek. (Jun 2014). Centennial-to-millennial hydrologic trends and variability along the North Atlantic Coast, USA, during the Holocene. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 41(12). 10.1002/2014gl060183
  • Karnauskas, KB. (Jun 2014). Arctic forcing of decadal variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean in a high-resolution global coupled GCM. CLIMATE DYNAMICS , 42(12-Nov). 10.1007/s00382-013-1836-3
  • Karnauskas, KB and CC Ummenhofer. (May 2014). On the dynamics of the Hadley circulation and subtropical drying. CLIMATE DYNAMICS , 42(10-Sep). 10.1007/s00382-014-2129-1
  • Maloney, ED, SJ Camargo, E Chang, B Colle, R Fu, KL Geil, Q Hu, XA Jiang, N Johnson, KB Karnauskas, J Kinter, B Kirtman, S Kumar, B Langenbrunner, K Lombardo, LN Long, A Mariotti, JE Meyerson, KC Mo, JD Neelin, ZT Pan, R Seager, Y Serra, A Seth, J Sheffield, J Stroeve, J Thibeault, SP Xie, CZ Wang, B Wyman and M Zhao. (Mar 2014). North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments: Part III: Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Projections*. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 27(6). 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00273.1
  • Drenkard, EJ and KB Karnauskas. (Mar 2014). Strengthening of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in the SODA Reanalysis: Mechanisms, Ocean Dynamics, and Implications. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 27(6). 10.1175/jcli-d-13-00359.1
  • Criscitiello, AS, SB Das, KB Karnauskas, MJ Evans, KE Frey, I Joughin, EJ Steig, JR McConnell and B Medley. (Feb 2014). Tropical Pacific Influence on the Source and Transport of Marine Aerosols to West Antarctica. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 27(3). 10.1175/jcli-d-13-00148.1
  • Sheffield, J, SJ Camargo, R Fu, Q Hu, XA Jiang, N Johnson, KB Karnauskas, ST Kim, J Kinter, S Kumar, B Langenbrunner, E Maloney, A Mariotti, JE Meyerson, JD Neelin, S Nigam, ZT Pan, A Ruiz-Barradas, R Seager, YL Serra, DZ Sun, CZ Wang, SP Xie, JY Yu, T Zhang and M Zhao. (Dec 2013). North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 26(23). 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00593.1
  • Gierach, MM, M Messie, T Lee, KB Karnauskas and MH Radenac. (Oct 2013). Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Nino/La Nina transitions. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 40(20). 10.1002/2013gl057828
  • Karnauskas, KB. (Oct 2013). Can we distinguish canonical El Nino from Modoki?. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 40(19). 10.1002/grl.51007
  • Karnauskas, KB, R Seager, A Giannini and AJ Busalacchi. (Apr 2013). A simple mechanism for the climatological midsummer drought along the Pacific coast of Central America. ATMOSFERA , 26(2). 10.1016/s0187-6236(13)71075-0
  • Karnauskas, KB, JE Smerdon, R Seager and JF Gonzalez-Rouco. (Sep 2012). A Pacific Centennial Oscillation Predicted by Coupled GCMs. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 25(17). 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00421.1
  • Karnauskas, KB and AL Cohen. (Jul 2012). Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE , 2(7). 10.1038/nclimate1499
  • Karnauskas, KB, GC Johnson and R Murtugudde. (Jan 2012). An Equatorial Ocean Bottleneck in Global Climate Models. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 25(1). 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00059.1
  • Karnauskas, KB, R Murtugudde and AJ Busalacchi. (Dec 2010). Observing the Galapagos-EUC Interaction: Insights and Challenges. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY , 40(12). 10.1175/2010jpo4461.1
  • Cantin, NE, AL Cohen, KB Karnauskas, AM Tarrant and DC McCorkle. (Jul 2010). Ocean Warming Slows Coral Growth in the Central Red Sea. SCIENCE , 329(5989). 10.1126/science.1190182
  • Karnauskas, KB, R Seager, A Kaplan, Y Kushnir and MA Cane. (Aug 2009). Observed Strengthening of the Zonal Sea Surface Temperature Gradient across the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 22(16). 10.1175/2009jcli2936.1
  • Karnauskas, KB and AJ Busalacchi. (May 2009). The Role of SST in the East Pacific Warm Pool in the Interannual Variability of Central American Rainfall. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 22(10). 10.1175/2008jcli2468.1
  • Karnauskas, KB and AJ Busalacchi. (Mar 2009). Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability of SST in the East Pacific Warm Pool. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 22(6). 10.1175/2008jcli2467.1
  • Karnauskas, KB, R Murtugudde and AJ Busalacchi. (Nov 2008). The Effect of the Galapagos Islands on ENSO in Forced Ocean and Hybrid Coupled Models. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY , 38(11). 10.1175/2008jpo3848.1
  • Karnauskas, KB, AJ Busalacchi and R Murtugudde. (Oct 2008). Low-frequency variability and remote forcing of gap winds over the east Pacific warm pool. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 21(19). 10.1175/2008jcli1771.1
  • Karnauskas, KB, A Ruiz-Barradas, S Nigam and AJ Busalacchi. (May 2008). North American droughts in ERA-40 global and NCEP North American Regional Reanalyses: A palmer drought severity index perspective. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE , 21(10). 10.1175/2007jcli1837.1
  • Karnauskas, KB, R Murtugudde and AJ Busalacchi. (May 2007). The effect of the Galapagos Islands on the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY , 37(5). 10.1175/jpo3048.1
  • Karnauskas, KB. (Mar 2006). The African meridional OLR contrast as a diagnostic for Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and implications for predictability. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 33(6). 10.1029/2005gl024865