Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Paul Ziemann

Research Interests

The primary focus of our group's research is to elucidate mechanisms by which organic compounds emitted from biogenic and anthropogenic sources react in the atmosphere to form products that can create microscopic organic aerosol particles. These reactions occur in the gas- and particle-phases, and the resulting particles affect climate, visibility, and human and environmental health. We conduct experiments under simulated atmospheric conditions and then identify and quantify organic reaction products using a variety of analytical instruments and methods. This information is used to develop chemical mechanisms that can be used to improve air quality and climate models. We also conduct laboratory and field studies aimed at better understanding the chemistry of indoor air.

Current Research

In the past few years our research has primarily focused on determining the products and mechanisms of oxidation reactions conducted in large Teflon environmental chambers where we can simulate the chemistry of the atmosphere. We have employed a variety of mass spectrometry, chromatography, and spectroscopy methods to identify and quantify organic products formed from reactions of the major atmospheric oxidants (OH radicals, O3, and NO3 radicals) with volatile organic compounds commonly emitted from vehicles, consumer products, and vegetation, including wildfires. Information from these studies is being combined with measurements of the rates of chemical reactions and partitioning of acids in phase-separated organic/aqueous systems to better understand the effects of molecular structure on the gas- and particle-phase atmospheric chemistry of organic compounds. We have also continued to apply knowledge gained from this work in collaborative studies conducted with groups at Colorado State University and North Carolina State University to investigate how the chemical and physical properties of organic aerosol particles influence their ability to act as seeds for the formation of clouds, either through absorption of liquid water or by promoting the nucleation of ice crystals. Research conducted with Profs. Jimenez, de Gouw, and Miller on the chemistry of indoor air at the CU-Boulder Art Museum has identified and quantified chemical sources, transformations (including the first observations of autoxidation in indoor air), and deposition processes that lead to the contamination of art objects on display or in storage. Related laboratory experiments have demonstrated that common indoor materials such as painted wallboard and varnished wood can very effectively absorb organic compounds from air, and that alkenes present in human skin oils and commercial products deposited on surfaces play an important role in the removal of ozone in indoor environments. And in a recent study at the Dal Ward Athletic Center we measured organic chemicals evaporated into the air from skin and emitted in the breath of CU-Boulder athletes, and the volatile products of reactions of perspiration and chlorine-containing cleaning products on exercise equipment, in order to evaluate the possible chemical exposures of athletes during training activities. Overall, our work helps to improve current understanding of atmospheric chemistry and aids in the development of air quality models for predicting the fate of organic chemicals outdoors and indoors, their role in particle formation, and the impact of human activities on the environment.  



Organic aerosol particles under scrutiny in Paul Ziemann's laboratory play important roles in urban and regional smog formation processes and can affect human health and visibility as well as global climate. Photo credit: David Oonk/CIRES

Honors and Awards

  • 2018 Outstanding publication Award, Aerosol Science and Technology
  • 2017 Fellow, American Association for Aerosol Research
  • 2001 Kenneth T. Whitby Award, American Association for Aerosol Research

View Publications

  • Deming BL; Ziemann PJ (2021), Measurements of the partitioning of nitric acid and sulfuric acid in aqueous/organic phase-separated systems. Version: 1 1 (2) , doi: 10.1039/d0ea00003e
  • Claflin MS; Liu J; Russell LM; Ziemann PJ (2021), Comparison of methods of functional group analysis using results from laboratory and field aerosol measurements. Version: 1 Aerosol Science and Technology , doi: 10.1080/02786826.2021.1918325
  • Claflin, MS; Pagonis, D; Finewax, Z; Handschy, AV; Day, DA; Brown, WL; Jayne, JT; Worsnop, DR; Jimenez, JL; Ziemann, PJ; de Gouw, J; Lerner, BM (2021), An in situ gas chromatograph with automatic detector switching between PTR- and EI-TOF-MS: isomer-resolved measurements of indoor air. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 14 (1) 133-152, issn: 1867-1381, doi: 10.5194/amt-14-133-2021
  • Liu, XX; Day, DA; Krechmer, JE; Ziemann, PJ; Jimenez, JL (2021), Determining Activity Coefficients of SOA from Isothermal Evaporation in a Laboratory Chamber. Version: 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS 8 (3) 212-217, issn: 2328-8930, doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00888
  • Bakker-Arkema, JG; Ziemann, PJ (2021), Minimizing Errors in Measured Yields of Particle-Phase Products Formed in Environmental Chamber Reactions: Revisiting the Yields of beta-Hydroxynitrates Formed from 1-Alkene + OH/NOx Reactions. Version: 1 ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY 5 (3) 690-702, issn: 2472-3452, doi: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00008
  • Finewax Z; Pagonis D; Claflin MS; Handschy AV; Brown WL; Jenks O; Nault BA; Day DA; Lerner BM; Jimenez JL (2020), Quantification and source characterization of volatile organic compounds from exercising and application of chlorine-based cleaning products in a university athletic center. Version: 1 Indoor Air: international journal of indoor air quality and climate , doi: 10.1111/ina.12781
  • Deming, BL; Ziemann, PJ (2020), Quantification of alkenes on indoor surfaces and implications for chemical sources and sinks. Version: 1 INDOOR AIR 30 (5) 914-924, issn: 0905-6947, doi: 10.1111/ina.12662, PubMed ID: 32115779
  • Algrim, LB; Ziemann, PJ (2020), Effect of the nitrate group on yields and composition of secondary organic aerosol formed from reactions of alkyl nitrates with OH radicals in the presence of NOx. Version: 1 AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 54 (9) 1070-1082, issn: 0278-6826, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2020.1757033
  • Algrim, LB; Pagonis, D; de Gouw, JA; Jimenez, JL; Ziemann, PJ (2020), Measurements and modeling of absorptive partitioning of volatile organic compounds to painted surfaces. Version: 1 INDOOR AIR 30 (4) 745-756, issn: 0905-6947, doi: 10.1111/ina.12654, PubMed ID: 32077147
  • Finewax, Z; Jimenez, JL; Ziemann, PJ (2020), Development and application of a low-cost vaporizer for rapid, quantitative, in situ addition of organic gases and particles to an environmental chamber. Version: 1 AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 54 (12) 1567-1578, issn: 0278-6826, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2020.1808186
  • Bakker-Arkema, JG; Ziemann, PJ (2020), Measurements of Kinetics and Equilibria for the Condensed Phase Reactions of Hydroperoxides with Carbonyls to Form Peroxyhemiacetals. Version: 1 ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY 4 (3) 467-475, issn: 2472-3452, doi: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.0c00008
  • Petters, M; Petters, S; Rothfuss, N; Tandon, A; Kasparoglu, S; Champion, W; Grieshop, A; Ziemann, P; Kreidenweis, S; DeMott, P; Marsh, A; Rovelli, G; Reid, J (2019), Influences of temperature, humidity, composition, volatility, and time on the amorphous phase transitions of organic aerosols. Version: 1 ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY ACS Fall National Meeting and Exposition 258 , San Diego, CA, AUG 25-29, 2019, issn: 0065-7727
  • Pagonis, D; Algrim, LB; Price, DJ; Day, DA; Handschy, AV; Stark, H; Miller, SL; de Gouw, JA; Jimenez, JL; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Autoxidation of Limonene Emitted in a University Art Museum. Version: 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS 6 (9) 520-524, issn: 2328-8930, doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00425
  • Matsunaga, A; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Branching Ratios and Rate Constants for Decomposition and Isomerization of beta-Hydroxyalkoxy Radicals Formed from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of C-6-C-13 2-Methyl-1-Alkenes in the Presence of NOx. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A 123 (36) 7839-7846, issn: 1089-5639, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.9b06218, PubMed ID: 31436091
  • Price, DJ; Day, DA; Pagonis, D; Stark, H; Algrim, LB; Handschy, AV; Liu, S; Krechmer, JE; Miller, SL; Hunter, JF; de Gouw, JA; Ziemann, PJ; Jimenez, JL (2019), Budgets of Organic Carbon Composition and Oxidation in Indoor Air. Version: 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 53 (22) 13053-13063, issn: 0013-936X, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b04689, PubMed ID: 31652057
  • Finewax, Z; de Gouw, JA; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Products and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yields from the OH and NO3 Radical-Initiated Oxidation of Resorcinol. Version: 1 ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY 3 (7) 1248-1259, issn: 2472-3452, doi: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00112
  • Liu, XX; Day, DA; Krechmer, JE; Brown, W; Peng, Z; Ziemann, PJ; Jimenez, JL (2019), Direct measurements of semi-volatile organic compound dynamics show near-unity mass accommodation coefficients for diverse aerosols. Version: 1 COMMUNICATIONS CHEMISTRY 2 , Art. No. 98, issn: 2399-3669, doi: 10.1038/s42004-019-0200-x
  • Deming, BL; Pagonis, D; Liu, XX; Day, DA; Talukdar, R; Krechmer, JE; de Gouw, JA; Jimenez, JL; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Measurements of delays of gas-phase compounds in a wide variety of tubing materials due to gas-wall interactions. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 12 (6) 3453-3461, issn: 1867-1381, doi: 10.5194/amt-12-3453-2019
  • Liu, XX; Deming, B; Pagonis, D; Day, DA; Palm, BB; Talukdar, R; Roberts, JM; Veres, PR; Krechmer, JE; Thornton, JA; de Gouw, JA; Ziemann, PJ; Jimenez, JL (2019), Effects of gas-wall interactions on measurements of semivolatile compounds and small polar molecules. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 12 (6) 3137-3149, issn: 1867-1381, doi: 10.5194/amt-12-3137-2019
  • Pagonis, D; Price, DJ; Algrim, LB; Day, DA; Handschy, AV; Stark, H; Miller, SL; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, JL; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Time-Resolved Measurements of Indoor Chemical Emissions, Deposition, and Reactions in a University Art Museum. Version: 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 53 (9) 4794-4802, issn: 0013-936X, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b00276, PubMed ID: 30990681
  • Petters, SS; Kreidenweis, SM; Grieshop, AP; Ziemann, PJ; Petters, MD (2019), Temperature- and Humidity-Dependent Phase States of Secondary Organic Aerosols. Version: 1 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 46 (2) 1005-1013, issn: 0094-8276, doi: 10.1029/2018GL080563
  • Algrim, LB; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Effect of the Hydroxyl Group on Yields and Composition of Organic Aerosol Formed from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Alcohols in the Presence of NOx. Version: 1 ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY 3 (3) 413-423, issn: 2472-3452, doi: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00015
  • Claflin, MS; Ziemann, PJ (2019), Thermal desorption behavior of hemiacetal, acetal, ether, and ester oligomers. Version: 1 AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 53 (4) 473-484, issn: 0278-6826, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2019.1576853
  • Fairey, J; Gorski, C; Higgins, C; Holden, P; Leusch, F; Liu, JY; Remucal, C; Shen, GF; Wong, C; Ziemann, P; Logan, BE (2018), Environmental Science & Technology Letters Excellence in Review Awards Presents the 2018. Version: 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS 5 (11) 621-621, issn: 2328-8930, doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00532
  • Claflin, MS, JE Krechmer, WW Hu, JL Jimenez and PJ Ziemann (2018), Functional Group Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formed from Ozonolysis of alpha-Pinene Under High VOC and Autoxidation Conditions. ACS Earth Space Chem. Version: 1 2 (11) 1196-1210, issn: 2472-3452, ids: HB5LG, doi: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00117
  • Liu, J, LM Russell, G Ruggeri, S Takahama, MS Claflin, PJ Ziemann, HOT Pye, BN Murphy, L Xu, NL Ng, KA McKinney, SH Budisulistiorini, TH Bertram, A Nenes and JD Surratt (2018), Regional Similarities and NOx-Related Increases in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol in Summertime Southeastern United States. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 123 (18) 10620-10636, issn: 2169-897X, ids: GX5RG, doi: 10.1029/2018JD028491
  • Pagonis, D and PJ Ziemann (2018), Chemistry of hydroperoxycarbonyls in secondary organic aerosol. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 52 (10) 1178-1193, issn: 0278-6826, ids: GY1HL, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2018.1511046
  • Ziemann, P and R Weber (2018), A Tribute to Peter McMurry. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 52 (10) 1083-1084, issn: 0278-6826, ids: GY1HL, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2018.1524222
  • Claflin, MS and PJ Ziemann (2018), Identification and Quantitation of Aerosol Products of the Reaction of beta-Pinene with NO3 Radicals and Implications for Gas- and Particle-Phase Reaction Mechanisms. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 122 (14) 3640-3652, issn: 1089-5639, ids: GD1JG, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b00692, PubMed ID: 29528647
  • Finewax, Z, JA de Gouw and PJ Ziemann (2018), Identification and Quantification of 4-Nitrocatechol Formed from OH and NO3 Radical-Initiated Reactions of Catechol in Air in the Presence of NOx: Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Biomass Burning. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 52 (4) 1981-1989, issn: 0013-936X, ids: FX5TN, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05864, PubMed ID: 29353485
  • Liu, S, SL Thompson, H Stark, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2017), Gas-Phase Carboxylic Acids in a University Classroom: Abundance, Variability, and Sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 51 (10) 5454-5463, issn: 0013-936X, ids: EV3QO, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b01358, PubMed ID: 28420232
  • Ranney, AP and PJ Ziemann (2017), Identification and quantification of oxidized organic aerosol compounds using derivatization, liquid chromatography, and chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 51 (3) 342-353, issn: 0278-6826, ids: EL5LG, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2016.1271108
  • Burkholder, JB, JPD Abbate, I Barnes, JM Roberts, ML Melamed, M Ammann, AK Bertram, CD Cappa, AG Carlton, LJ Carpenter, JN Crowley, Y Dubowski, C Georges, DE Heard, H Herrmann, FN Keutsch, JH Kroll, VF McNeill, NL Ng, SA Nizkorodov, JJ Orlando, CJ Percival, B Picquet-Varrault, Y Rudich, PW Seakins, JD Surratt, H Tanimoto, JA Thornton, Z Tong, GS Tyndall, A Wahner, CJ Weschler, KR Wilson and PJ Ziemann (2017), The Essential Role for Laboratory Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 51 (5) 2519-2528, issn: 0013-936X, ids: EN4FQ, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04947, PubMed ID: 28169528
  • Petters, SS, D Pagonis, MS Claflin, EJT Levin, MD Petters, PJ Ziemann and SM Kreidenweis (2017), Hygroscopicity of Organic Compounds as a Function of Carbon Chain Length and Carboxyl, Hydroperoxy, and Carbonyl Functional Groups. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (27) 5164-5174, issn: 1089-5639, ids: FA9JL, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b04114, PubMed ID: 28621942
  • Liu, J, LM Russell, AKY Lee, KA McKinney, JD Surratt and PJ Ziemann (2017), Observational evidence for pollution-influenced selective uptake contributing to biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the southeastern US. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 44 (15) 8056-8064, issn: 0094-8276, ids: FE7HU, doi: 10.1002/2017GL074665
  • Krechmer, JE, DA Day, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2017), Direct Measurements of Gas/Particle Partitioning and Mass Accommodation Coefficients in Environmental Chambers. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 51 (20) 11867-11875, issn: 0013-936X, ids: FK3NM, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02144, PubMed ID: 28858497
  • Pagonis, D, JE Krechmer, J de Gouw, JL Jimenez and PJ Ziemann (2017), Effects of gas-wall partitioning in Teflon tubing and instrumentation on time-resolved measurements of gas-phase organic compounds. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 10 (12) 4687-4696, issn: 1867-1381, ids: FO5ZR, doi: 10.5194/amt-10-4687-2017
  • La, YS, M Camredon, PJ Ziemann, R Valorso, A Matsunaga, V Lannuque, J Lee-Taylor, A Hodzic, S Madronich and B Aumont (2016), Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 16 (3) 1417-1431, issn: 1680-7316, ids: DF3YI, doi: 10.5194/acp-16-1417-2016
  • Petters, MD, SM Kreidenweis and PJ Ziemann (2016), Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods. Geosci. Model Dev. Version: 1 9 (1) 111-124, issn: 1991-959X, ids: DN2ZX, doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-111-2016
  • Ranney, AP and PJ Ziemann (2016), Microscale spectrophotometric methods for quantification of functional groups in oxidized organic aerosol. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 50 (9) 881-892, issn: 0278-6826, ids: DU4OI, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2016.1201197
  • Strollo, CM and PJ Ziemann (2016), Investigation of the formation of benzoyl peroxide, benzoic anhydride, and other potential aerosol products from gas-phase reactions of benzoylperoxy radicals. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 130 202-210, issn: 1352-2310, ids: DG9CU, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.01.011
  • Ranney, AP and PJ Ziemann (2016), Kinetics of Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Cyclic Hemiacetals in Organic Aerosol Particles in Equilibrium with Nitric Acid Vapor. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 120 (16) 2561-2568, issn: 1089-5639, ids: DL3GF, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.6b01402, PubMed ID: 27043733
  • Krechmer, JE, D Pagonis, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2016), Quantification of Gas-Wall Partitioning in Teflon Environmental Chambers Using Rapid Bursts of Low-Volatility Oxidized Species Generated in Situ. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 50 (11) 5757-5765, issn: 0013-936X, ids: DO2SI, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00606, PubMed ID: 27138683
  • Algrim, LB and PJ Ziemann (2016), Effect of the Keto Group on Yields and Composition of Organic Aerosol Formed from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Ketones in the Presence of NOx. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 120 (35) 6978-6989, issn: 1089-5639, ids: DV5XV, doi: 10.1021/acs.jbca.6b0S839, PubMed ID: 27508315
  • Liu, S, R Li, RJ Wild, C Warneke, JA de Gouw, SS Brown, SL Miller, JC Luongo, JL Jimenez and PJ Ziemann (2016), Contribution of human-related sources to indoor volatile organic compounds in a university classroom. Indoor Air Version: 1 26 (6) 925-938, issn: 0905-6947, ids: EC0RK, doi: 10.1111/ina.12272, PubMed ID: 26610063
  • Ziemann, Paul J. (2015), Atmospheric Chemistry: Nature's plasticized aerosols. Nature Geosci. Version: 1 9 (1) , issn: 17520894, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2610
  • Bilde, M, K Barsanti, M Booth, CD Cappa, NM Donahue, EU Emanuelsson, G McFiggans, UK Krieger, C Marcolli, D Tropping, P Ziemann, M Barley, S Clegg, B Dennis-Smither, M Hallquist, AM Hallquist, A Khlystov, M Kulmala, D Mogensen, CJ Percival, F Pope, JP Reid, MAVR da Silva, T Rosenoern, K Salo, VP Soonsin, T Yli-Juuti, NL Prisle, J Pagels, J Rarey, AA Zardini and I Riipinen (2015), Saturation Vapor Pressures and Transition Enthalpies of Low-Volatility Organic Molecules of Atmospheric Relevance: From Dicarboxylic Acids to Complex Mixtures. Chem. Rev. Version: 1 115 (10) 4115-4156, issn: 0009-2665, ids: CJ3KZ, doi: 10.1021/cr5005502, PubMed ID: 25929792
  • Yeh, GK and PJ Ziemann (2015), Gas-Wall Partitioning of Oxygenated Organic Compounds: Measurements, Structure-Activity Relationships, and Correlation with Gas Chromatographic Retention Factor. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 49 (9) 726-737, issn: 0278-6826, ids: CO4VX, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2015.1068427
  • Waxman, EM, J Elm, T Kurten, KV Mikkelsen, PJ Ziemann and R Vokamer (2015), Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 49 (19) 11500-11508, issn: 0013-936X, ids: CT2JZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02782, PubMed ID: 26335375
  • Yeh, GK, MS Claflin and PJ Ziemann (2015), Products and Mechanism of the Reaction of 1-Pentadecene with NO3 Radicals and the Effect of a -ONO2 Group on Alkoxy Radical Decomposition. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 119 (43) 10684-10696, issn: 1089-5639, ids: CV1DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b07468, PubMed ID: 26436557
  • Yee, LD, JS Craven, CL Loza, KA Schilling, NL Ng, MR Canagaratna, PJ Ziemann, RC Flagan and JH Seinfeld (2013), Effect of chemical structure on secondary organic aerosol formation from C-12 alkanes. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (21) 11121-11140, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 253PP, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-11121-2013
  • Aimanant, S and PJ Ziemann (2013), Development of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Analysis of Functional Groups in Oxidized Organic Aerosol. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (6) 581-591, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 122BQ, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2013.773579
  • Shiraiwa, M, LD Yee, KA Schilling, CL Loza, JS Craven, A Zuend, PJ Ziemann and JH Seinfeld (2013), Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (29) 11746-11750, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 187AB, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307501110, PubMed ID: 23818634
  • Aimanant, S and PJ Ziemann (2013), Chemical Mechanisms of Aging of Aerosol Formed from the Reaction of n-Pentadecane with OH Radicals in the Presence of NOx. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 47 (9) 979-990, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 222IZ, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2013.804621
  • Strollo, CM and PJ Ziemann (2013), Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH radicals in the presence of NOx. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 77 534-543, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 223YN, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.033
  • Ziemann, PJ and R Atkinson (2012), Kinetics, products, and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation. Chem. Soc. Rev. Version: 1 41 (19) 6582-6605, issn: 0306-0012, ids: 002TP, doi: 10.1039/c2cs35122f, PubMed ID: 22940672
  • Craven, JS, LD Yee, NL Ng, MR Canagaratna, CL Loza, KA Schilling, RLN Yatavelli, JA Thornton, PJ Ziemann, RC Flagan and JH Seinfeld (2012), Analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging using positive matrix factorization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra: application to the dodecane low-NOx system. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 12 (24) 11795-11817, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 058WR, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-11795-2012
  • Suda, SR, MD Petters, A Matsunaga, RC Sullivan, PJ Ziemann and SM Kreidenweis (2012), Hygroscopicity frequency distributions of secondary organic aerosols. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 117 , Art. No. D04207, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 899DU, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016823
  • Yee, LD, JS Craven, CL Loza, KA Schilling, NL Ng, MR Canagaratna, PJ Ziemann, RC Flagan and JH Seinfeld (2012), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Low-NOx Photooxidation of Dodecane: Evolution of Multigeneration Gas-Phase Chemistry and Aerosol Composition. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 6211-6230, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp211531h, PubMed ID: 22424261
  • Ziemann, PJ (2011), Effects of molecular structure on the chemistry of aerosol formation from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 30 (2) 161-195, Art. No. PII 936491712, issn: 0144-235X, ids: 776KU, doi: 10.1080/0144235X.2010.550728
  • Docherty, KS, AC Aiken, JA Huffman, IM Ulbrich, PF DeCarlo, D Sueper, DR Worsnop, DC Snyder, RE Peltier, RJ Weber, BD Grover, DJ Eatough, BJ Williams, AH Goldstein, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2011), The 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR-1): instrumental intercomparisons and fine particle composition. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (23) 12387-12420, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 863AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-12387-2011
  • Russell, LM, R Bahadur and PJ Ziemann (2011), Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 108 (9) 3516-3521, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 728AD, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1006461108, PubMed ID: 21317360
  • Day, DA, S Liu, LM Russell and PJ Ziemann (2010), Organonitrate group concentrations in submicron particles with high nitrate and organic fractions in coastal southern California. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 44 (16) 1970-1979, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 599RR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.02.045
  • Matsunaga, A and PJ Ziemann (2010), Gas-Wall Partitioning of Organic Compounds in a Teflon Film Chamber and Potential Effects on Reaction Product and Aerosol Yield Measurements. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (10) 881-892, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 668WS, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2010.501044
  • Farmer, DK, A Matsunaga, KS Docherty, JD Surratt, JH Seinfeld, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2010), Response of an aerosol mass spectrometer to organonitrates and organosulfates and implications for atmospheric chemistry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6670-6675, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912340107, PubMed ID: 20194777
  • Matsunaga, A and PJ Ziemann (2010), Yields of beta-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, and trihydroxynitrates formed from OH radical-initiated reactions of 2-methyl-1-alkenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6664-6669, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910585107, PubMed ID: 20080570
  • Vicars, WC, JO Sickman and PJ Ziemann (2010), Atmospheric phosphorus deposition at a montane site: Size distribution, effects of wildfire, and ecological implications. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 44 (24) 2813-2821, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 630MP, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.04.055
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2009), Kinetics of the heterogeneous conversion of 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls to cyclic hemiacetals and dihydrofurans on organic aerosol particles. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (36) 8029-8039, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 491AD, doi: 10.1039/b904333k, PubMed ID: 19727510
  • Huffman, JA, KS Docherty, AC Aiken, MJ Cubison, IM Ulbrich, PF DeCarlo, D Sueper, JT Jayne, DR Worsnop, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2009), Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (18) 7161-7182, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 525ZW, doi: 10.5194/acp-9-7161-2009
  • Dzepina, K, RM Volkamer, S Madronich, P Tulet, IM Ulbrich, Q Zhang, CD Cappa, PJ Ziemann and JL Jimenez (2009), Evaluation of recently-proposed secondary organic aerosol models for a case study in Mexico City. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (15) 5681-5709, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 482HW, doi: 10.5194/acp-9-5681-2009
  • Volkamer, R, PJ Ziemann and MJ Molina (2009), Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2): seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (6) 1907-1928, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 425GQ, doi: 10.5194/acp-9-1907-2009
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2009), Chemistry of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Alkanes in the Presence of NOx. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (6) 604-619, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 434JV, doi: 10.1080/02786820902802567
  • Matsunaga, A and PJ Ziemann (2009), Yields of beta-Hydroxynitrates and Dihydroxynitrates in Aerosol Formed from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Linear Alkenes in the Presence of NOx. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (3) 599-606, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 395KF, doi: 10.1021/jp807764d, PubMed ID: 19105730
  • Matsunaga, A, KS Docherty, YB Lim and PJ Ziemann (2009), Composition and yields of secondary organic aerosol formed from OH radical-initiated reactions of linear alkenes in the presence of NOx: Modeling and measurements. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 43 (6) 1349-1357, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 408HR, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.004
  • Prenni, AJ, MD Petters, A Faulhaber, CM Carrico, PJ Ziemann, SM Kreidenweis and PJ DeMott (2009), Heterogeneous ice nucleation measurements of secondary organic aerosol generated from ozonolysis of alkenes. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L06808, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 426AF, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036957
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2009), Effects of Molecular Structure on Aerosol Yields from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Alkanes in the Presence of NOx. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (7) 2328-2334, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 427DI, doi: 10.1021/es803389s, PubMed ID: 19452882
  • Huffman, JA, KS Docherty, C Mohr, MJ Cubison, IM Ulbrich, PJ Ziemann, TB Onasch and JL Jimenez (2009), Chemically-Resolved Volatility Measurements of Organic Aerosol from Different Sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 43 (14) 5351-5357, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 472NE, doi: 10.1021/es803539d, PubMed ID: 19708365
  • Petters, MD, SM Kreidenweis, AJ Prenni, RC Sullivan, CM Carrico, KA Koehler and PJ Ziemann (2009), Role of molecular size in cloud droplet activation. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 36 , Art. No. L22801, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 522JW, doi: 10.1029/2009GL040131
  • Huffman, JA, PJ Ziemann, JT Jayne, DR Worsnop and JL Jimenez (2008), Development and characterization of a fast-stepping/scanning thermodenuder for chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 42 (5) 395-407, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 318LF, doi: 10.1080/02786820802104981
  • Aiken, AC, PF Decarlo, JH Kroll, DR Worsnop, JA Huffman, KS Docherty, IM Ulbrich, C Mohr, JR Kimmel, D Sueper, Y Sun, Q Zhang, A Trimborn, M Northway, PJ Ziemann, MR Canagaratna, TB Onasch, MR Alfarra, ASH Prevot, J Dommen, J Duplissy, A Metzger, U Baltensperger and JL Jimenez (2008), O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 42 (12) 4478-4485, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 312XL, doi: 10.1021/es703009q, PubMed ID: 18605574
  • Jordan, CE, PJ Ziemann, RJ Griffin, YB Lim, R Atkinson and J Arey (2008), Modeling SOA formation from OH reactions with C-8-C-17 n-alkanes. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 42 (34) 8015-8026, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 372ZO, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.06.017
  • Dick, WD, PJ Ziemann and PH McMurry (2007), Multiangle light-scattering measurements of refractive index of submicron atmospheric particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 41 (5) 549-569, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 164AI, doi: 10.1080/02786820701272012
  • Prenni, AJ, MD Petters, SM Kreidenweis, PJ DeMott and PJ Ziemann (2007), Cloud droplet activation of secondary organic aerosol. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D10) , Art. No. D10223, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 173AV, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007963
  • Docherty, KS and PJ Ziemann (2006), Reaction of oleic acid particles with NO3 radicals: Products, mechanism, and implications for radical-initiated organic aerosol oxidation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (10) 3567-3577, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 022SV, doi: 10.1021/jp0582383, PubMed ID: 16526637
  • Petters, MD, AJ Prenni, SM Kreidenweis, PJ DeMott, A Matsunaga, YB Lim and PJ Ziemann (2006), Chemical aging and the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of carbonaceous aerosol. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 33 (24) , Art. No. L24806, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 120SH, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027249
  • Docherty, KS, W Wu, YB Lim and PJ Ziemann (2005), Contributions of organic peroxides to secondary aerosol formed from reactions of monoterpenes with O-3. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (11) 4049-4059, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 933VY, doi: 10.1021/es050228s, PubMed ID: 15984782
  • Chattopadhyay, S and PJ Ziemann (2005), Vapor pressures of substituted and unsubstituted monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids measured using an improved thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry method. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (11) 1085-1100, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 992SZ, doi: 10.1080/02786820500421547
  • Lim, YB and PJ Ziemann (2005), Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of n-alkanes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 39 (23) 9229-9236, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 989ZK, doi: 10.1021/es051447g, PubMed ID: 16382947
  • Ziemann, PJ (2005), Aerosol products, mechanisms, and kinetics of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with oleic acid in pure and mixed particles. Faraday Discuss. Version: 1 130 469-490, issn: 1364-5498, ids: 963KV, doi: 10.1039/b417502f, PubMed ID: 16161799
  • Gong, HM, A Matsunaga and PJ Ziemann (2005), Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of linear alkenes with NO3 radicals. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 109 (19) 4312-4324, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 926PE, doi: 10.1021/jo0580241, PubMed ID: 16833761
  • Docherty, KS, K Kumboonlert, IJ Lee and PJ Ziemann (2004), Gas chromatography of trimethylsilyl derivatives of alpha-methoxyalkyl hydroperoxides formed in alkene-O-3 reactions. J. Chromatogr. A Version: 1 1029 (2-Jan) 205-215, issn: 0021-9673, ids: 775TD, doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2003.12.014, PubMed ID: 15032366
  • Pui, DYH, RC Flagan, SL Kaufman, AD Maynard, JF de la Mora, SV Hering, JL Jimenez, KA Prather, AS Wexler and PJ Ziemann (2004), Experimental methods and instrumentation. J. Nanopart. Res. Version: 1 Workshop on Emerging Issues in Nanoparticle Aerosol Science and Technology 6 (3-Feb) 314-315, Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, JUN 27-28, 2003, issn: 1388-0764, ids: 837EF
  • Sakurai, H, HJ Tobias, K Park, D Zarling, KS Docherty, DB Kittelson, PH McMurry and PJ Ziemann (2003), On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 37 (10-Sep) 1199-1210, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 659LA, doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)01017-8
  • Ziemann, PJ (2003), Formation of alkoxyhydroperoxy aldehydes and cyclic peroxyhemiacetals from reactions of cyclic alkenes with O-3 in the presence of alcohols. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 107 (12) 2048-2060, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 658JH, doi: 10.1021/jp022114y
  • Docherty, KS and PJ Ziemann (2003), Effects of stabilized Criegee intermediate and OH radical scavengers on aerosol formation from reactions of beta-pinene with O-3. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 37 (11) 877-891, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 706MH, doi: 10.1080/02786820390228364
  • Sakurai, H, K Park, PH McMurry, DD Zarling, DB Kittelson and PJ Ziemann (2003), Size-dependent mixing characteristics of volatile and nonvolatile components in diesel exhaust aerosols. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 37 (24) 5487-5495, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 753UB, doi: 10.1021/es034362t, PubMed ID: 14717155
  • Ziemann, PJ (2002), Evidence for low-volatility diacyl peroxides as a nucleating agent and major component of aerosol formed from reactions of O-3 with cyclohexene and homologous compounds. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 106 (17) 4390-4402, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 547WW, doi: 10.1021/jp012925m
  • Tobias, HJ, DE Beving, PJ Ziemann, H Sakurai, M Zuk, PH McMurry, D Zarling, R Waytulonis and DB Kittelson (2001), Chemical analysis of diesel engine nanoparticles using a nano-DMA/thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 35 (11) 2233-2243, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 438KQ, doi: 10.1021/es0016654, PubMed ID: 11414024
  • Tobias, HJ and PJ Ziemann (2001), Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and water with the C13 stabilized Criegee intermediate formed from ozonolysis of 1-tetradecene. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 105 (25) 6129-6135, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 446VJ, doi: 10.1021/jp004631r
  • Docherty, KS and PJ Ziemann (2001), On-line, inlet-based trimethylsilyl derivatization for gas chromatography of mono- and dicarboxylic acids. J. Chromatogr. A Version: 1 921 (2) 265-275, issn: 0021-9673, ids: 448VT, doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00864-0, PubMed ID: 11471810
  • Chattopadhyay, S, HJ Tobias and PJ Ziemann (2001), A method for measuring vapor pressures of low-volatility organic aerosol compounds using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 73 (16) 3797-3803, issn: 0003-2700, ids: 463NT, doi: 10.1021/ac010304j, PubMed ID: 11534699
  • Tobias, HJ, KS Docherty, DE Beving and PJ Ziemann (2000), Effect of relative humidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol formed from reactions of 1-tetradecene and O-3. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 34 (11) 2116-2125, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 320GX, doi: 10.1021/es991057s
  • Tobias, HJ and PJ Ziemann (2000), Thermal desorption mass spectrometric analysis of organic aerosol formed from reactions of 1-tetradecene and O-3 in the presence of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 34 (11) 2105-2115, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 320GX, doi: 10.1021/es9907156
  • Tobias, HJ, PM Kooiman, KS Docherty and PJ Ziemann (2000), Real-time chemical analysis of organic aerosols using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 33 (2-Jan) 170-190, issn: 0278-6826, ids: 330HM, doi: 10.1080/027868200410912
  • Tobias, HJ and PJ Ziemann (1999), Compound identification in organic aerosols using temperature-programmed thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Version: 1 71 (16) 3428-3435, issn: 0003-2700, ids: 227HM, doi: 10.1021/ac990056f
  • Ziemann, PJ and PH McMurry (1998), Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 28 (1) 77-90, issn: 0278-6826, ids: YQ056, doi: 10.1080/02786829808965513
  • Dick, WD, PJ Ziemann, PF Huang and PH McMurry (1998), Optical shape fraction measurements of submicrometre laboratory and atmospheric aerosols. Meas. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 9 (2) 183-196, issn: 0957-0233, ids: YW938, doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/9/2/006
  • Ziemann, PJ (1998), Particle mass and size measurement using mass spectrometry. Trac-Trends Anal. Chem. Version: 1 17 (6) 322-328, issn: 0165-9936, ids: ZX453, doi: 10.1016/S0165-9936(98)00036-3
  • Jefferson, A, FL Eisele, PJ Ziemann, RJ Weber, JJ Marti and PH McMurry (1997), Measurements of the H2SO4 mass accommodation coefficient onto polydisperse aerosol. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 102 (D15) 19021-19028, issn: 2169-897X, ids: XT101, doi: 10.1029/97JD01152
  • Ziemann, PJ and PH McMurry (1997), Spatial distribution of chemical components in aerosol particles as determined from secondary electron yield measurements: Implications for mechanisms of multicomponent aerosol crystallization. J. Colloid Interface Sci. Version: 1 193 (2) 250-258, issn: 0021-9797, ids: YE457, doi: 10.1006/jcis.1997.5075
  • Ziemann, PJ, DB Kittelson and PH McMurry (1996), Effects of particle shape and chemical composition on the electron impact charging properties of submicron inorganic particles. J. Aerosol. Sci. Version: 1 27 (4) 587-&, issn: 0021-8502, ids: UT314, doi: 10.1016/0021-8502(96)00010-9
  • LIU, P, PJ ZIEMANN, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), GENERATING PARTICLE BEAMS OF CONTROLLED DIMENSIONS AND DIVERGENCE .2. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF PARTICLE MOTION IN AERODYNAMIC LENSES AND NOZZLE EXPANSIONS. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 22 (3) 314-324, issn: 0278-6826, ids: QU242, doi: 10.1080/02786829408959749
  • LIU, P, PJ ZIEMANN, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), GENERATING PARTICLE BEAMS OF CONTROLLED DIMENSIONS AND DIVERGENCE .1. THEORY OF PARTICLE MOTION IN AERODYNAMIC LENSES AND NOZZLE EXPANSIONS. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Version: 1 22 (3) 293-313, issn: 0278-6826, ids: QU242, doi: 10.1080/02786829408959748
  • ZIEMANN, PJ, P LIU, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), ELECTRON-IMPACT CHARGING PROPERTIES OF SIZE-SELECTED, SUBMICROMETER ORGANIC PARTICLES. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 99 (14) 5126-5138, issn: 0022-3654, ids: QR228, doi: 10.1021/j100014a037
  • ZIEMANN, PJ, P LIU, NP RAO, DB KITTELSON and PH MCMURRY (1995), PARTICLE-BEAM MASS-SPECTROMETRY OF SUBMICRON PARTICLES CHARGED TO SATURATION IN AN ELECTRON-BEAM. J. Aerosol. Sci. Version: 1 26 (5) 745-756, issn: 0021-8502, ids: RM409, doi: 10.1016/0021-8502(95)00009-2
  • FARLEY, RW, PJ ZIEMANN, RG KEESEE and AW CASTLEMAN (1993), KINETIC-STUDY OF NEUTRAL LEAD CLUSTER REACTIONS. Z. Phys. D-Atoms Mol. Clusters Version: 1 25 (3) 267-273, issn: 0178-7683, ids: KM773, doi: 10.1007/BF01426890
  • ZIEMANN, PJ and AW CASTLEMAN (1992), STRUCTURES AND BONDING PROPERTIES OF CA-O CLUSTERS INFERRED FROM MASS-SPECTRAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 96 (11) 4271-4276, issn: 0022-3654, ids: HX268, doi: 10.1021/j100190a031
  • ZIEMANN, PJ and AW CASTLEMAN (1992), MASS-SPECTROMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE STABILITIES AND STRUCTURES OF MN-O AND MN-MG-O CLUSTERS. Phys. Rev. B Version: 1 46 (20) 13480-13486, issn: 1098-0121, ids: KA577, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.13480
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  • ZIEMANN, PJ and AW CASTLEMAN (1991), STABILITIES AND STRUCTURES OF GAS-PHASE MGO CLUSTERS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 94 (1) 718-728, issn: 0021-9606, ids: ET473, doi: 10.1063/1.460340
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