Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Veronica Vaida

Veronica Vaida

Research Interests

Building Chemical Complexity with Sunlight: Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Molecules, Radicals, and Their Complexes. Professor Vaida's research interest focuses on issues of photoreactivity in planetary atmospheres, including the contemporary and ancient Earth. The approach employed to obtain the structure and dynamics of molecules, radicals, and their complexes involves a combination of spectroscopic, photofragment and theoretical techniques. Aqueous environments, especially water-air interfaces as available at the sea surface and on atmospheric aerosols are special reaction environments investigated by surface reflection spectroscopy.

Current Research

Atmospheric Photochemistry of Organic Molecules. Our program explores water- and sunlight-mediated processes in planetary atmospheres including the contemporary and prebiotic Earth. My approach aims to provide new input for models of atmospheric chemistry and climate, using fundamental chemical physics to address complex multiphase chemistry. Current research has used oxoacids in aqueous environments to exemplify the environmental chemistry that generates complex self-assembled organic aggregates. The Earth’s ocean-atmosphere, a sunlight-driven photochemical reactor, is a large and complex system, but has been altered over its existence through both natural and anthropogenic events. In this global reactor, chemistry occurs in all phases, although gas phase chemistry has received the most attention. It has long been established, however, that heterogeneous and multiphase reactions can be extremely important for a fundamental understanding of environmental chemical reactions, which affect chemical processing, air quality, and ultimately visibility, human health, and the planet’s temperature. Starlight provides energy capable of driving planetary processes, which increase a system’s chemical complexity. Starlight-initiated reactions generate high-energy molecules that are precursors to metabolism as it has evolved in life on Earth. Our experiments are designed to investigate the photochemical synthesis and reactivity of such model organic systems under conditions representative of exoplanet Earth analogues, as well as the effect of water on reactivity. Based on this photochemistry, potential spectroscopic probes will be designed for the identification of high-energy species and consequently of potentially habitable environments.

Collaboration within CIRES allowed analysis of the importance of the aqueous phase photolysis of pyruvic acid in the atmosphere. Our laboratory measurements of the rate of the photochemical reaction in solution were used as input for an atmospheric model that compared the loss of pyruvic acid through aqueous photolysis to the loss from the gas-phase photochemistry and oxidative processes. Results indicated that in an acidic environment, the aqueous photolysis is equally as important as the gas-phase photolysis, emphasizing the importance of developing a mechanistic understanding of aqueous-phase photochemical processes.

We have scaled the fundamental experimental work with pyruvic acid to realistic atmospheric conditions by using environmental chamber studies. Specifically we are using the CESAM (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) at the Université Paris–Est Créteil Val de Marne (UPEC) in collaboration with UPEC Professor Jean-François Doussin. By combining these laboratory and chamber studies, we connect our understanding of the photolysis of pyruvic acid to mechanisms for aerosol nucleation and growth.

 



Schematic of the life cycle of aqueous atmospheric aerosols (orange areas represent surface-active organics, and light blue represents the aqueous core of the particle), highlighting the ocean-atmosphere interactions. From Rapf and Vaida (2016).

Honors and Awards

  • Fellow of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1981-83
  • Camille and Henrey Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award
  • Dr. Vaida is a professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

View Publications

  • Kroll, JA, BN Frandsen, HG Kjaergaard and V Vaida (2018), Atmospheric Hydroxyl Radical Source: Reaction of Triplet SO2 and Water. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 18th Meeting on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) 122 (18) 4465-4469, Cambridge, ENGLAND, 2017, issn: 1089-5639, ids: GF8FJ, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b03524, PubMed ID: 29665331
  • Kroll, JA, BN Frandsen, RJ Rapf, HG Kjaergaard and V Vaida (2018), Reactivity of Electronically Excited SO2 with Alkanes. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 122 (39) 7782-7789, issn: 1089-5639, ids: GW4WG, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b04643, PubMed ID: 30189135
  • Rapf, RJ, RJ Perkins, MR Dooley, JA Kroll, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2018), Environmental Processing of Lipids Driven by Aqueous Photochemistry of alpha-Keto Acids. ACS Central Sci. Version: 1 4 (5) 624-630, issn: 2374-7943, ids: GI9NK, doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.8b00124, PubMed ID: 29806009
  • Rapf, RJ, RJ Perkins, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2017), Mechanistic Description of Photochemical Oligomer Formation from Aqueous Pyruvic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (22) 4272-4282, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EX4GK, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b03310, PubMed ID: 28510434
  • Vaida, V, AER Harris, RJ Rapf, RJ Perkins and BK Carpenter (2017), Comment on "Reactivity of Ketyl and Acetyl Radicals from Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid". J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (45) 8738-8740, issn: 1089-5639, ids: FN7MY, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b06018, PubMed ID: 29083903
  • Rapf, RJ, RJ Perkins, HS Yang, G Miyake, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2017), Photochemical Synthesis of Oligomeric Amphiphiles from Alkyl Oxoacids in Aqueous Environments. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 139 (20) 6946-6959, issn: 0002-7863, ids: EW4VH, doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b01707, PubMed ID: 28481114
  • Reed Harris, AE, A Pajunoja, M Cazaunau, A Gratien, E Pangui, A Monod, EC Griffith, A Virtanen, JF Doussin and V Vaida (2017), Multiphase Photochemistry of Pyruvic Acid under Atmospheric Conditions. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (18) 3327-3339, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EV0BG, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b01107, PubMed ID: 28388049
  • Harris, AER, M Cazaunau, A Gratien, E Pangui, JF Doussin and V Vaida (2017), Atmospheric Simulation Chamber Studies of the Gas-Phase Photolysis of Pyruvic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (44) 8348-8358, issn: 1089-5639, ids: FM6DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b05139, PubMed ID: 29035055
  • Rapf, RJ, MR Dooley, K Kappes, RJ Perkins and V Vaida (2017), pH Dependence of the Aqueous Photochemistry of alpha-Keto Acids. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 121 (44) 8368-8379, issn: 1089-5639, ids: FM6DZ, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b08192, PubMed ID: 29032688
  • Kroll, JA, AS Hansen, KH Moller, JL Axson, HG Kjaergaard and V Vaida (2017), Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Gas Phase Hydration of Methylglyoxal. ACS Earth Space Chem. Version: 1 1 (6) 345-352, issn: 2472-3452, ids: FE4MC, doi: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.7b00054
  • Perkins, R and V Vaida (2017), Phenylalanine Increases Membrane Permeability. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 139 (41) 14388-14391, issn: 0002-7863, ids: FK4YF, doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b09219, PubMed ID: 28965406
  • Perkins, RJ, RK Shoemaker, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2016), Chemical Equilibria and Kinetics in Aqueous Solutions of Zymonic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 120 (51) 10096-10107, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EG6MI, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.6b10526, PubMed ID: 27991786
  • Reed Harris, AE, JF Doussin, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2016), Gas-Phase Photolysis of Pyruvic Acid: The Effect of Pressure on Reaction Rates and Products. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 120 (51) 10123-10133, issn: 1089-5639, ids: EG6MI, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.6b09058, PubMed ID: 27992197
  • Donaldson, DJ, JA Kroll and V Vaida (2016), Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation. Sci Rep Version: 1 6 , Art. No. 30000, issn: 2045-2322, ids: DR2JP, doi: 10.1038/srep30000, PubMed ID: 27417675
  • Rapf, RJ and V Vaida (2016), Sunlight as an energetic driver in the synthesis of molecules necessary for life. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 18 (30) 20067-20084, issn: 1463-9076, ids: DT4CV, doi: 10.1039/c6cp00980h, PubMed ID: 27193698
  • Perkins, RJ, A Kukharchuk, P Delcroix, RK Shoemaker, M Roeselova, L Cwiklik and V Vaida (2016), The Partitioning of Small Aromatic Molecules to Air-Water and Phospholipid Interfaces Mediated by Non-Hydrophobic Interactions. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 120 (30) 7408-7422, issn: 1520-6106, ids: DT1IV, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b05084, PubMed ID: 27399964
  • Schroder, SD, JH Wallberg, JA Kroll, Z Maroun, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2015), Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Methyl Lactate. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 70th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 119 (37) 9692-9702, Champaign, IL, JUN 22-26, 2015, issn: 1089-5639, ids: CS1ZL, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b04812, PubMed ID: 26296230
  • Griffith, EC, RJ Perkins, DM Telesford, EM Adams, L Cwiklik, HC Allen, M Roeseova and V Vaida (2015), Interaction of L-Phenylalanine with a Phospholipid Monolayer at the Water-Air Interface. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 119 (29) 9038-9048, issn: 1520-6106, ids: CN7OM, doi: 10.1021/jp508473w, PubMed ID: 25549016
  • Renard, P, AE Reed Harris, RJ Rapf, S Ravier, C Demelas, B Coulomb, E Quivet, V Vaida and A Monod (2014), Aqueous Phase Oligomerization of Methyl Vinyl Ketone by Atmospheric Radical Reactions. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 118 (50) 29421-29430, issn: 1932-7447, ids: AX2FP, doi: 10.1021/jp5065598
  • Griffith, EC, RJ Rapf, RK Shoemaker, BK Carpenter and V Vaida (2014), Photoinitiated Synthesis of Self-Assembled Vesicles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 136 (10) 3784-3787, issn: 0002-7863, ids: AD0KJ, doi: 10.1021/ja5006256, PubMed ID: 24559493
  • George, C, B DAnna, H Herrmann, C Weller, V Vaida, DJ Donaldson, T Bartels-Rausch and M Ammann (2014), Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Top. Curr. Chem. Version: 1 339 1-53, Ed. McNeill, VF; Ariya, PA, issn: 0340-1022, ids: BA0BQ, isbn: 978-3-642-41215-8; 978-3-642-41214-1, doi: 10.1007/128_2012_393, PubMed ID: 23247500
  • Vaida, V and DJ Donaldson (2014), Red-light initiated atmospheric reactions of vibrationally excited molecules. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 16 (3) 827-836, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 274ZE, doi: 10.1039/c3cp53543f, PubMed ID: 24281304
  • Reed Harris, AE, B Ervens, RK Shoemaker, JA Kroll, RJ Rapf, EC Griffith, A Monod and V Vaida (2014), Photochemical Kinetics of Pyruvic Acid in Aqueous Solution. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 118 (37) 8505-8516, issn: 1089-5639, ids: AP5KV, doi: 10.1021/jp502186q, PubMed ID: 24725260
  • Griffith, EC, BK Carpenter, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2013), Photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (29) 11714-11719, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 187AB, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303206110, PubMed ID: 23821751
  • Griffith, EC and V Vaida (2013), Ionization state of L-Phenylalanine at the Air-Water Interface. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 135 (2) 710-716, issn: 0002-7863, ids: 075XP, doi: 10.1021/ja308089n, PubMed ID: 23240998
  • Kahan, TF, TK Ormond, GB Ellison and V Vaida (2013), Acetic acid formation via the hydration of gas-phase ketene under ambient conditions. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 565 1-4, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 115EF, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2013.02.030
  • Thomsen, DL, JL Axson, SD Schroder, JR Lane, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2013), Intramolecular Interactions in 2-Aminoethanol and 3-Aminopropanol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 117 (40) 10260-10273, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 244DI, doi: 10.1021/jp405512y, PubMed ID: 24001040
  • Griffith, EC, BK Carpenter, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2013), Reply to Eugene et al.: Photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 110 (46) E4276-E4276, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 250DQ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316367110, PubMed ID: 24367807
  • Griffith, EC, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2013), Sunlight-initiated Chemistry of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid: Building Complexity in the Origin of Life. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. Version: 1 43 (5-Apr) 341-352, issn: 0169-6149, ids: AD4FS, doi: 10.1007/s11084-013-9349-y, PubMed ID: 24362712
  • Griffith, EC, TRC Guizado, AS Pimentel, GS Tyndall and V Vaida (2013), Oxidized Aromatic-Aliphatic Mixed Films at the Air-Aqueous Solution Interface. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 117 (43) 22341-22350, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 247HJ, doi: 10.1021/jp402737n
  • Griffith, EC, EM Adams, HC Allen and V Vaida (2012), Hydrophobic Collapse of a Stearic Acid Film by Adsorbed L-Phenylalanine at the Air-Water Interface. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 116 (27) 7849-7857, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 972GB, doi: 10.1021/jp303913e, PubMed ID: 22691061
  • Griffith, EC, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2012), Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions in the Emergence of Complexity in Simple Chemical Systems. Accounts Chem. Res. Version: 1 45 (12) 2106-2113, issn: 0001-4842, ids: 061CR, doi: 10.1021/ar300027q, PubMed ID: 22509900
  • Griffith, EC and V Vaida (2012), In situ observation of peptide bond formation at the water-air interface. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 109 (39) 15697-15701, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 017QD, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210029109, PubMed ID: 22927374
  • Kahan, TF, RA Washenfelder, V Vaida and SS Brown (2012), Cavity-Enhanced Measurements of Hydrogen Peroxide Absorption Cross Sections from 353 to 410 nm. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 5941-5947, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp2104616, PubMed ID: 22225472
  • Kramer, ZC, K Takahashi, V Vaida and RT Skodje (2012), Will water act as a photocatalyst for cluster phase chemical reactions? Vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 136 (16) , Art. No. 164302, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 936PJ, doi: 10.1063/1.4704767, PubMed ID: 22559477
  • Larsen, MC and V Vaida (2012), Near Infrared Photochemistry of Pyruvic Acid in Aqueous Solution. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 116 (24) 5840-5846, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 961DM, doi: 10.1021/jp2087972, PubMed ID: 22233273
  • Vaida, V (2011), Perspective: Water cluster mediated atmospheric chemistry. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 135 (2) , Art. No. 20901, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 792UN, doi: 10.1063/1.3608919, PubMed ID: 21766916
  • Axson, JL, RA Washenfelder, TF Kahan, CJ Young, V Vaida and SS Brown (2011), Absolute ozone absorption cross section in the Huggins Chappuis minimum (350-470 nm) at 296 K. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (22) 11581-11590, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 863AC, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-11581-2011
  • Maron, MK, K Takahashi, RK Shoemaker and V Vaida (2011), Hydration of pyruvic acid to its geminal-diol, 2,2-dihydroxypropanoic acid, in a water-restricted environment. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 513 (6-Apr) 184-190, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 814XW, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2011.07.090
  • Takahashi, K, KL Plath, JL Axson, GC Nelson, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2010), Dynamics and spectroscopy of vibrational overtone excited glyoxylic acid and 2,2-dihydroxyacetic acid in the gas-phase. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 132 (9) , Art. No. 94305, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 564VG, doi: 10.1063/1.3327839, PubMed ID: 20210396
  • Donaldson, DJ, C George and V Vaida (2010), Red sky at night: Long-wavelength photochemistry in the atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. Version: 1 44 (14) 5321-5326, issn: 0013-936X, ids: 623NF, doi: 10.1021/es903680v, PubMed ID: 20540491
  • Axson, JL, K Takahashi, DO De Haan and V Vaida (2010), Gas-phase water-mediated equilibrium between methylglyoxal and its geminal diol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 107 (15) 6687-6692, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 583AC, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912121107, PubMed ID: 20142510
  • Miller, BJ, M Yekutiel, AH Sodergren, DL Howard, ME Dunn, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2010), Overtone Spectra of 2-Mercaptoethanol and 1,2-Ethanedithiol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 114 (48) 12692-12700, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 686YP, doi: 10.1021/jp9112798, PubMed ID: 21067132
  • Vaida, V (2009), Spectroscopy of Photoreactive Systems: Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (1) 5-18, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 390BU, doi: 10.1021/jp806365r, PubMed ID: 19072328
  • Plath, KL, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2009), Fundamental and Overtone Vibrational Spectra of Gas-Phase Pyruvic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (26) 7294-7303, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 462VG, doi: 10.1021/jp810687t, PubMed ID: 19260671
  • Maron, MK, MJ Shultz and V Vaida (2009), Characterization of the nitric acid-water complex in the infrared and near-infrared region at ambient temperatures in carbon tetrachloride. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 473 (6-Apr) 268-273, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 443KM, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.03.071
  • Plath, KL, JL Axson, GC Nelson, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2009), Gas-phase vibrational spectra of glyoxylic acid and its gem diol monohydrate. Implications for atmospheric chemistry. React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. Version: 1 96 (2) 209-224, issn: 0133-1736, ids: 443WW, doi: 10.1007/s11144-009-5528-2
  • Miller, BJ, DL Howard, JR Lane, HG Kjaergaard, ME Dunn and V Vaida (2009), SH-Stretching Vibrational Spectra of Ethanethiol and tert-Butylthiol. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 113 (26) 7576-7583, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 462VG, doi: 10.1021/jp9017162, PubMed ID: 19432460
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2008), Vibrational spectroscopy of perfluorocarboxylic acids from the infrared to the visible regions. J. Phys. Chem. B Version: 1 112 (2) 276-282, issn: 1520-6106, ids: 250GE, doi: 10.1021/jp0749773, PubMed ID: 17927241
  • Vesselenyi, T, I Dzitac, S Dzitac and V Vaida (2008), Surface roughness image analysis using quasi-fractal characteristics and fuzzy clustering methods. Int. J. Comput. Commun. Control Version: 1 3 (3) 304-316, issn: 1841-9836, ids: 321AB
  • Tuck, AF, DJ Donaldson, MH Hitchman, EC Richard, H Tervahattu, V Vaida and JC Wilson (2008), On geoengineering with sulphate aerosols in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Clim. Change Version: 1 90 (3) 315-331, issn: 0165-0009, ids: 348BU, doi: 10.1007/s10584-008-9411-3
  • Vaida, V, KJ Feierabend, N Rontu and K Takahashi (2008), Sunlight-initiated photochemistry: Excited vibrational states of atmospheric chromophores. Int. J. Photoenergy Version: 1, Art. No. 138091, issn: 1110-662X, ids: 332GH, doi: 10.1155/2008/138091
  • Dunn, ME, GC Shields, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2008), Experimental and Theoretical Study of the OH Vibrational Spectra and Overtone Chemistry of Gas-Phase Vinylacetic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 112 (41) 10226-10235, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 358UN, doi: 10.1021/jp805746t, PubMed ID: 18798603
  • Takahashi, K, KL Plath, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2008), Dynamics of vibrational overtone excited pyruvic acid in the gas phase: Line broadening through hydrogen-atom chattering. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 112 (32) 7321-7331, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 335KT, doi: 10.1021/jp803225c, PubMed ID: 18637664
  • Lane, JR, V Vaida and HG Kjaergaard (2008), Calculated electronic transitions of the water ammonia complex. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 128 (3) , Art. No. 34302, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 252UC, doi: 10.1063/1.2814163, PubMed ID: 18205493
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2007), Miscibility of perfluorododecanoic acid with organic acids at the air-water interface. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 111 (27) 9975-9980, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 186EN, doi: 10.1021/jp0718395
  • Miller, Y, RB Gerber and V Vaida (2007), Photodissociation yields for vibrationally excited states of sulfuric acid under atmospheric conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 34 (16) , Art. No. L16820, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 204FD, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030529
  • Lane, JR, HG Kjaergaard, KL Plath and V Vaida (2007), Overtone spectroscopy of sulfonic acid derivatives. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 111 (25) 5434-5440, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 180VV, doi: 10.1021/jp0688005, PubMed ID: 17542563
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2007), Surface partitioning and stability of pure and mixed films of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol at the air-water interface. J. Phys. Chem. C Version: 1 111 (31) 11612-11618, issn: 1932-7447, ids: 196LF, doi: 10.1021/jp070484m
  • Takahashi, K, ZC Kramer, V Vaida and RT Skodje (2007), Vibrational overtone induced elimination reactions within hydrogen-bonded molecular clusters: the dynamics of water catalyzed reactions in CH2FOH center dot(H2O). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 9 (29) 3864-3871, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 191AN, doi: 10.1039/b705264b, PubMed ID: 17637978
  • Klemperer, W and V Vaida (2006), Molecular complexes in close and far away. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 103 (28) 10584-10588, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 063VG, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0508231103, PubMed ID: 16740667
  • Feierabend, KJ, DK Havey, ME Varner, JF Stanton and V Vaida (2006), A comparison of experimental and calculated spectra of HNO3 in the near-infrared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrational perturbation theory. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 124 (12) , Art. No. 124323, issn: 0021-9606, ids: 028CP, doi: 10.1063/1.2180248, PubMed ID: 16599690
  • Rontu, N and V Vaida (2006), Vibrational spectroscopy of perfluoroproplonic acid in the region between 1000 and 11000 cm(-1). J. Mol. Spectrosc. Version: 1 237 (1) 19-26, issn: 0022-2852, ids: 045LO, doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2006.02.009
  • Donaldson, DJ and V Vaida (2006), The influence of organic films at the air-aqueous boundary on atmospheric processes. Chem. Rev. Version: 1 106 (4) 1445-1461, issn: 0009-2665, ids: 035HB, doi: 10.1021/cr040367c, PubMed ID: 16608186
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend, K Takahashi, RT Skodje and V Vaida (2006), Experimental and theoretical investigation of vibrational overtones of glycolic acid and its hydrogen bonding interactions with water. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (20) 6439-6446, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 043TW, doi: 10.1021/jp060602q, PubMed ID: 16706399
  • Gilman, JB and V Vaida (2006), Permeability of acetic acid through organic films at the air-aqueous interface. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 110 (24) 7581-7587, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 053DH, doi: 10.1021/jp061220n, PubMed ID: 16774200
  • Gilman, JB, H Tervahattu and V Vaida (2006), Interfacial properties of mixed films of long-chain organics at the air-water interface. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 40 (34) 6606-6614, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 102BC, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.052
  • Gearheard, S, W Matumeak, I Angutikjuaq, J Maslanik, HP Huntington, J Leavitt, DM Kagak, G Tigullaraq and RG Barry (2006), Its not that simple: A collaborative comparison of sea ice environments, their uses, observed changes, and adaptations in barrow, Alaska, USA, and Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada. Ambio Version: 1 7th Royal Colloquium on Arctic Under Stress - A Thawing Tundra 35 (4) 203-211, SWEDEN, MAY 30-JUN 01, 2005, issn: 0044-7447, ids: 072YH, doi: 10.1579/0044-7447(2006)35[203:INTSAC]2.0.CO;2, PubMed ID: 16944646
  • Feierabend, KJ, DK Havey, SS Brown and V Vaida (2006), Experimental absolute intensities of the 4v(9) and 5v(9) O-H stretching overtones of H2SO4. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 420 (6-Apr) 438-442, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 026CC, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.01.013
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend, JC Black and V Vaida (2005), Temperature-dependent infrared spectra of torsional vibrations in acetic acid. J. Mol. Spectrosc. Version: 1 229 (2) 151-157, issn: 0022-2852, ids: 887FV, doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2004.09.009
  • Eliason, TL, DK Havey and V Vaida (2005), Gas phase infrared spectroscopic observation of the organic acid dimers (CH3(CH2)(6)COOH)(2), (CH3(CH2)(7)COOH)(2), and (CH3(CH2)(8)COOH)(2). Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 402 (3-Jan) 239-244, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 889YX, doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2004.12.021
  • Mills, MJ, OB Toon, V Vaida, PE Hintze, HG Kjaergaard, DP Schofield and TW Robinson (2005), Photolysis of sulfuric acid vapor by visible light as a source of the polar stratospheric CN layer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D8) , Art. No. D08201, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 922QG, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005519
  • Vaida, V (2005), Review article: Sunlight initiated atmospheric photochemical reactions. Int. J. Photoenergy Version: 1 7 (2) 61-70, issn: 1110-662X, ids: 941CR, doi: 10.1155/S1110662X05000103
  • Hintze, PE, KJ Feierabend, DK Havey and V Vaida (2005), High-resolution spectroscopy of H2SO4, HDSO4, and D2SO4 vapor in the region 1200-10,000 cm(-1). Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 61 (4) 559-566, issn: 1386-1425, ids: 892ZT, doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2004.05.006, PubMed ID: 15649784
  • Tervahattu, H, J Juhanoja, V Vaida, AF Tuck, JV Niemi, K Kupiainen, M Kulmala and H Vehkamaki (2005), Fatty acids on continental sulfate aerosol particles. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 110 (D6) , Art. No. D06207, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 913LS, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005400
  • Gilman, JB, TL Eliason, A Fast and V Vaida (2004), Selectivity and stability of organic films at the air-aqueous interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. Version: 1 280 (1) 234-243, issn: 0021-9797, ids: 872TP, doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2004.07.019, PubMed ID: 15476795
  • Donaldson, DJ, H Tervahattu, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2004), Organic aerosols and the origin of life: An hypothesis. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. Version: 1 34 (2-Jan) 57-67, issn: 0169-6149, ids: 756ZX, doi: 10.1023/B:ORIG.0000009828.40846.b3, PubMed ID: 14979644
  • Eliason, TL, JB Gilman and V Vaida (2004), Oxidation of organic films relevant to atmospheric aerosols. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 38 (9) 1367-1378, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 776DT, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.11.025
  • Mmereki, BT, DJ Donaldson, JB Gilman, TL Eliason and V Vaida (2004), Kinetics and products of the reaction of gas-phase ozone with anthracene adsorbed at the air-aqueous interface. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 38 (36) 6091-6103, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 869US, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.08.014
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend and V Vaida (2004), Vapor-phase vibrational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, in the region 2000-8500 cm(-1). J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 108 (42) 9069-9073, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 863CU, doi: 10.1021/jp0474881
  • Havey, DK and V Vaida (2004), Near infrared spectroscopy of organic acids: comparing O-H and C-H oscillator frequencies and intensities. J. Mol. Spectrosc. Version: 1 228 (1) 152-159, issn: 0022-2852, ids: 866KY, doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2004.07.015
  • Havey, DK, KJ Feierabend and V Vaida (2004), Ab initio study of H2SO4 rotamers. Theochem-J. Mol. Struct. Version: 1 680 (3-Jan) 243-247, issn: 0166-1280, ids: 837UP, doi: 10.1016/j.theochem.2004.04.048
  • Feierabend, KJ, DK Havey and V Vaida (2004), Gas phase spectroscopy of HNO3 in the region 2000-8500 cm(-1). Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 60 (12) 2775-2781, issn: 1386-1425, ids: 856MV, doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2004.01.016, PubMed ID: 15350912
  • Eliason, TL, S Aloisio, DJ Donaldson, DJ Cziczo and V Vaida (2003), Processing of unsaturated organic acid films and aerosols by ozone. Atmos. Environ. Version: 1 37 (16) 2207-2219, issn: 1352-2310, ids: 676XY, doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00149-3
  • Donaldson, DJ, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2003), Atmospheric photochemistry via vibrational overtone absorption. Chem. Rev. Version: 1 103 (12) 4717-4729, issn: 0009-2665, ids: 753MQ, doi: 10.1021/cr0206519, PubMed ID: 14664630
  • Vaida, V, HG Kjaergaard, PE Hintze and DJ Donaldson (2003), Photolysis of sulfuric acid vapor by visible solar radiation. Science Version: 1 299 (5612) 1566-1568, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 652EY, doi: 10.1126/science.1079297, PubMed ID: 12624265
  • Hintze, PE, HG Kjaergaard, V Vaida and JB Burkholder (2003), Vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of sulfuric acid vapor. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 107 (8) 1112-1118, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 648HW, doi: 10.1021/jp0263626
  • Kjaergaard, HG, TW Robinson, DL Howard, JS Daniel, JE Headrick and V Vaida (2003), Complexes of importance to the absorption of solar radiation. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 107 (49) 10680-10686, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 750QX, doi: 10.1021/jp035098t
  • Vaida, V, HG Kjaergaard and KJ Feierabend (2003), Hydrated complexes: Relevance to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 22 (1) 203-219, issn: 0144-235X, ids: 662RN, doi: 10.1080/0144235031000075780
  • Aloisio, S, PE Hintze and V Vaida (2002), The hydration of formic acid. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 106 (2) 363-370, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 513AN, doi: 10.1021/jp0121901
  • Tervahattu, H, K Hartonen, VM Kerminen, K Kupiainen, P Aarnio, T Koskentalo, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2002), New evidence of an organic layer on marine aerosols. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 107 (D7-8) , Art. No. 4053, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 609FY, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000282
  • Donaldson, DJ, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2002), The asymmetry of organic aerosol fission and prebiotic chemistry. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. Version: 1 32 (3) 237-245, issn: 0169-6149, ids: 576MH, doi: 10.1023/A:1016575224538, PubMed ID: 12227428
  • Donaldson, DJ, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2001), Spontaneous fission of atmospheric aerosol particles. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 3 (23) 5270-5273, issn: 1463-9076, ids: 496UB, doi: 10.1039/b105215m
  • Hintze, PE, S Aloisio and V Vaida (2001), Electronic spectroscopy of organic acid dimers. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 343 (2-Jan) 159-165, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 457NT
  • Vaida, V, JS Daniel, HG Kjaergaard, LM Goss and AF Tuck (2001), Atmospheric absorption of near infrared and visible solar radiation by the hydrogen bonded water dimer. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 127 (575) 1627-1643, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 461YH, doi: 10.1256/smsqj.57508
  • Headrick, JE and V Vaida (2001), Significance of water complexes in the atmosphere. Phys. Chem. Earth Pt. C-Solar-Terr. Planet. Sci. Version: 1 25th General Assembly of the European-Geophysical-Society 26 (7) 479-486, NICE, FRANCE, APR, 2000, issn: 1464-1917, ids: 450YE, doi: 10.1016/S1464-1917(01)00035-6
  • Goss, LH, V Vaida, JW Brault and RT Skodje (2001), Sequential two-photon dissociation of atmospheric water. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 105 (1) 70-75, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 390XF, doi: 10.1021/jp001828a
  • Vaida, V, AF Tuck and GB Ellison (2000), Optical and chemical properties of atmospheric organic aerosols. Phys. Chem. Earth Pt. C-Solar-Terr. Planet. Sci. Version: 1 25 (3) 195-198, issn: 1464-1917, ids: 296WX, doi: 10.1016/S1464-1917(00)00005-2
  • Vaida, V and JE Headrick (2000), Physicochemical properties of hydrated complexes in the Earths atmosphere. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 104 (23) 5401-5412, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 327DW, doi: 10.1021/jp000115p
  • Dobson, CM, GB Ellison, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2000), Atmospheric aerosols as prebiotic chemical reactors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Version: 1 97 (22) 11864-11868, issn: 0027-8424, ids: 367PQ, doi: 10.1073/pnas.200366897, PubMed ID: 11035775
  • Evans, GT and V Vaida (2000), Aggregation of water molecules: Atmospheric implications. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 113 (16) 6652-6659, Art. No. PII [S0021-9606(00)50340-7], issn: 0021-9606, ids: 368RL, doi: 10.1063/1.1310601
  • Donaldson, DJ, AF Tuck and V Vaida (2000), Enhancement of HOx at high solar zenith angles by overtone-induced dissociation of HNO3 and HNO4. Phys. Chem. Earth Pt. C-Solar-Terr. Planet. Sci. Version: 1 25 (3) 223-227, issn: 1464-1917, ids: 296WX, doi: 10.1016/S1464-1917(00)00009-X
  • Frost, GJ, GB Ellison and V Vaida (1999), Organic peroxyl radical photolysis in the near-infrared: Effects on tropospheric chemistry. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 103 (49) 10169-10178, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 266UM, doi: 10.1021/jp9917547
  • Ellison, GB, AF Tuck and V Vaida (1999), Atmospheric processing of organic aerosols. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D9) 11633-11641, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 198PZ, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900073
  • Wennberg, PO, RJ Salawitch, DJ Donaldson, TF Hanisco, EJ Lanzendorf, KK Perkins, SA Lloyd, V Vaida, RS Gao, EJ Hintsa, RC Cohen, WH Swartz, TL Kusterer and DE Anderson (1999), Twilight observations suggest unknown sources of HOx. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 26 (10) 1373-1376, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 197PR, doi: 10.1029/1999GL900255
  • Goss, LM, SW Sharpe, TA Blake, V Vaida and JW Brault (1999), Direct absorption spectroscopy of water clusters. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 103 (43) 8620-8624, issn: 1089-5639, ids: 253CB, doi: 10.1021/jp9920702
  • Phillips, JA, JJ Orlando, GS Tyndall and V Vaida (1998), Integrated intensities of OH vibrational overtones in alcohols. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 296 (4-Mar) 377-383, issn: 0009-2614, ids: 135PF, doi: 10.1016/S0009-2614(98)01045-8
  • Donaldson, DJ, JJ Orlando, S Amann, GS Tyndall, RJ Proos, BR Henry and V Vaida (1998), Absolute intensities of nitric acid overtones. J. Phys. Chem. A Version: 1 102 (27) 5171-5174, issn: 1089-5639, ids: ZZ640, doi: 10.1021/jp980811d
  • Donaldson, DJ, GJ Frost, KH Rosenlof, AF Tuck and V Vaida (1997), Atmospheric radical production by excitation of vibrational overtones via absorption of visible light. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 24 (21) 2651-2654, issn: 0094-8276, ids: YE985, doi: 10.1029/97GL02663
  • Vaida, V, GJ Frost and LM Goss (1997), Spectroscopic characterization of supersonic molecular beams. Isr. J. Chem. Version: 1 37 (4) 387-393, issn: 0021-2148, ids: ZE764
  • Frost, GJ, LM Goss and V Vaida (1996), Measurements of high-resolution ultraviolet-visible absorption cross sections at stratospheric temperatures .2. Chlorine dioxide. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 101 (D2) 3879-3884, issn: 2169-897X, ids: TW970, doi: 10.1029/95JD03389
  • Graham, JD, JT Roberts, LA Brown and V Vaida (1996), Uptake of chlorine dioxide by model polar stratospheric cloud surfaces: Ultrahigh-vacuum studies. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 100 (8) 3115-3120, issn: 0022-3654, ids: TX257, doi: 10.1021/jp9516654
  • Frost, GJ, LM Goss and V Vaida (1996), Measurements of high-resolution ultraviolet-visible absorption cross sections at stratospheric temperatures .1. Nitrogen dioxide. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 101 (D2) 3869-3877, issn: 2169-897X, ids: TW970, doi: 10.1029/95JD03388
  • Brown, LA, V Vaida, DR Hanson, JD Graham and JT Roberts (1996), Uptake of chlorine dioxide by model PSCs under stratospheric conditions. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 100 (8) 3121-3125, issn: 0022-3654, ids: TX257, doi: 10.1021/jp951664b
  • Brown, L and V Vaida (1996), Photoreactivity of oxygen dimers in the ultraviolet. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 100 (19) 7849-7853, issn: 0022-3654, ids: UK169, doi: 10.1021/jp9526713
  • Waschewsky, GCG, R Horansky and V Vaida (1996), Effect of dimers on the temperature-dependent absorption cross section of methyl iodide. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 100 (28) 11559-11565, issn: 0022-3654, ids: UW685, doi: 10.1021/jp960809r
  • VAIDA, V and JD SIMON (1995), THE PHOTOREACTIVITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE. Science Version: 1 268 (5216) 1443-1448, issn: 0036-8075, ids: RC190, doi: 10.1126/science.268.5216.1443, PubMed ID: 17843663
  • FROST, G and V VAIDA (1995), ATMOSPHERIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTOLYSIS OF THE OZONE-WATER WEAKLY-BOUND COMPLEX. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 100 (D9) 18803-18809, issn: 2169-897X, ids: RV887, doi: 10.1029/95JD01940
  • GOSS, LM, GJ FROST, DJ DONALDSON and V VAIDA (1995), PHOTOOXIDATION OF CS2 IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET AND ITS ATMOSPHERIC IMPLICATIONS. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 22 (19) 2609-2612, issn: 0094-8276, ids: RX918, doi: 10.1029/95GL02335
  • VAIDA, V, GJ FROST, LA BROWN, R NAAMAN and Y HURWITZ (1995), SPECTROSCOPY AND PHOTOREACTIVITY IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTS. Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 Meeting of the Deutsche-Bunsen-Gesellschaft-fur-Physikalische-Chemie on Molecular Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics - Theory and Experiment 99 (3) 371-377, GRAINAU, GERMANY, AUG 28-SEP 01, 1994, issn: 0005-9021, ids: QV748
  • VAIDA, V, K GOUDJIL, JD SIMON and BN FLANDERS (1994), COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE REACTIVITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE IN THE GAS-PHASE AND WATER SOLUTION. J. Mol. Liq. Version: 1 61 (3-Jan) 133-152, issn: 0167-7322, ids: PL988, doi: 10.1016/0167-7322(94)00757-8
  • RUDICH, Y, Y HURWITZ, GJ FROST, V VAIDA and R NAAMAN (1993), THE REACTIONS OF O((1)D) WITH CH4 AND C3H8 MONOMERS AND CLUSTERS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 99 (6) 4500-4508, issn: 0021-9606, ids: LX143, doi: 10.1063/1.466049
  • LANTZ, KO and V VAIDA (1993), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF THE FIRST EXCITED ELECTRONIC BAND OF JET-COOLED H2S. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 215 (4) 329-335, issn: 0009-2614, ids: MJ862, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(93)85723-2
  • VAIDA, V, EC RICHARD, A JEFFERSON, LA COOPER, R FLESCH and E RUHL (1992), SPECTROSCOPY AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE. Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 DISCUSSION MEETING ON PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE 96 (3) 391-394, SCHLIERSEE, GERMANY, OCT 07-09, 1991, issn: 0005-9021, ids: HR523, doi: 10.1002/bbpc.19920960329
  • VAIDA, V, A JEFFERSON and E RUHL (1992), PHOTOREACTIVITY OF MOLECULAR AGGREGATES. Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 DISCUSSION MEETING ON PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE 96 (3) 395-399, SCHLIERSEE, GERMANY, OCT 07-09, 1991, issn: 0005-9021, ids: HR523, doi: 10.1002/bbpc.19920960330
  • DUNN, RC, BN FLANDERS, V VAIDA and JD SIMON (1992), THE SPECTROSCOPY OF OCLO IN POLAR LIQUIDS. Spectroc. Acta Pt. A-Molec. Biomolec. Spectr. Version: 1 48 (9) 1293-1301, issn: 0584-8539, ids: JP756, doi: 10.1016/0584-8539(92)80266-Y
  • DUNN, RC, EC RICHARD, V VAIDA and JD SIMON (1991), COMPETING PHOTOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS OF OCLO IN POLAR SOLUTION. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 95 (16) 6060-6063, issn: 0022-3654, ids: GA417, doi: 10.1021/j100169a003
  • RICHARD, EC and V VAIDA (1991), THE DIRECT NEAR ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE A2A2[-X2B1 TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED CHLORINE DIOXIDE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 94 (1) 153-162, issn: 0021-9606, ids: ET473, doi: 10.1063/1.460389
  • RICHARD, EC and V VAIDA (1991), THE PHOTOCHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF THE A2A2 STATE OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 94 (1) 163-171, issn: 0021-9606, ids: ET473, doi: 10.1063/1.460390
  • LANTZ, KO, V VAIDA and DJ DONALDSON (1991), ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED CS2 - THE LINEAR EXCITED-STATE AT 55741 TO 60241 CM(-1). Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 184 (3-Jan) 152-158, issn: 0009-2614, ids: GH591, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(91)87180-J
  • VAIDA, V, DJ DONALDSON, SP SAPERS and R NAAMAN (1990), SPECTROSCOPIC AND PHOTOCHEMICAL PERTURBATIONS OF WEAK-INTERACTIONS ON ELECTRONIC SURFACES OF METHYL-IODIDE. J. Chem. Soc.-Faraday Trans. Version: 1 86 (11) 2043-2048, issn: 0956-5000, ids: DH291, doi: 10.1039/ft9908602043
  • VAIDA, V, DJ DONALDSON and R NAAMAN (1990), RYDBERG STATE DYNAMICS OF METHYL-IODIDE DIMERS AND CLUSTERS REVISITED - COMMENTS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 94 (19) 7740-7741, issn: 0022-3654, ids: EA465, doi: 10.1021/j100382a079
  • RUHL, E, A JEFFERSON and V VAIDA (1990), PHOTODISSOCIATION OF OCLO - REMPI STUDY OF PRIMARY PHOTOFRAGMENTS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 94 (7) 2990-2994, issn: 0022-3654, ids: CY584
  • VAIDA, V, DJ DONALDSON, SP SAPERS, R NAAMAN and MS CHILD (1989), SPECTROSCOPIC PROBE OF INTRAMOLECULAR PREDISSOCIATION DYNAMICS IN CLUSTERS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (2) 513-520, issn: 0022-3654, ids: T0489, doi: 10.1021/j100339a006
  • RICHARD, EC, DJ DONALDSON and V VAIDA (1989), FOURIER-TRANSFORM UV/VIS EMISSION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED CN(B2-SIGMA+). Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 157 (4) 295-299, issn: 0009-2614, ids: U6703, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(89)87250-1
  • VAIDA, V, DJ DONALDSON, SJ STRICKLER, SL STEPHENS and JW BIRKS (1989), A REINVESTIGATION OF THE ELECTRONIC-SPECTRA OF OZONE - CONDENSED-PHASE EFFECTS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (2) 506-508, issn: 0022-3654, ids: T0489, doi: 10.1021/j100339a003
  • PRINSLOW, DA and V VAIDA (1989), PHOTODISSOCIATION OF (OCS)2 AND (CS2)2 - COMPETING PHOTOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (5) 1836-1840, issn: 0022-3654, ids: T7220, doi: 10.1021/j100342a029
  • RICHARD, EC, CT WICKHAMJONES and V VAIDA (1989), FOURIER-TRANSFORM ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED OCLO. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 93 (17) 6346-6350, issn: 0022-3654, ids: AM550, doi: 10.1021/j100354a016
  • HOLLINGSWORTH, WE and V VAIDA (1989), GAS-PHASE PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF CO3(CO)9CCH3. Organometallics Version: 1 8 (7) 1614-1615, issn: 0276-7333, ids: AE880, doi: 10.1021/om00109a006
  • VAIDA, V, S SOLOMON, EC RICHARD, E RUHL and A JEFFERSON (1989), PHOTOISOMERIZATION OF OCLO - A POSSIBLE MECHANISM FOR POLAR OZONE DEPLETION. Nature Version: 1 342 (6248) 405-408, issn: 0028-0836, ids: CB426, doi: 10.1038/342405a0
  • YANG, GK, V VAIDA and KS PETERS (1988), APPLICATION OF TIME-RESOLVED PHOTOACOUSTIC CALORIMETRY TO CR-L BOND ENTHALPIES IN CR(CO)5-L. Polyhedron Version: 1 7 (16-17) 1619-1622, issn: 0277-5387, ids: Q4131, doi: 10.1016/S0277-5387(00)81787-8
  • HEMLEY, RJ, AC LASAGA, V VAIDA and M KARPLUS (1988), THEORETICAL-ANALYSIS OF THE 1(1)BU+(1B1+)[-1(1)AG-(1A1) TRANSITION OF TRANS-1,3,5-HEXATRIENE AND CIS-1,3,5-HEXATRIENE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (4) 945-954, issn: 0022-3654, ids: M4430, doi: 10.1021/j100315a018
  • SAPERS, SP, V VAIDA and R NAAMAN (1988), MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION STUDY OF INTRAMOLECULAR AND INTERMOLECULAR EFFECTS ON THE PHOTODISSOCIATION OF METHYL-IODIDE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 88 (6) 3638-3645, issn: 0021-9606, ids: M6668, doi: 10.1063/1.453863
  • DONALDSON, DJ, MS CHILD and V VAIDA (1988), SURFACE CROSSINGS AND PREDISSOCIATION DYNAMICS OF METHYL-IODIDE RYDBERG STATES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 88 (12) 7410-7417, issn: 0021-9606, ids: N7862, doi: 10.1063/1.454304
  • GAINES, GA, DJ DONALDSON, SJ STRICKLER and V VAIDA (1988), THE N-3S RYDBERG STATE OF ACETONE - ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED (CH3)2CO AND (CD3)2CO. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (10) 2762-2766, issn: 0022-3654, ids: N5407, doi: 10.1021/j100321a014
  • DONALDSON, DJ, GA GAINES and V VAIDA (1988), CLUSTER-INDUCED POTENTIAL SHIFTS AS A PROBE FOR DISSOCIATION DYNAMICS IN THE N-3S RYDBERG STATE OF ACETONE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (10) 2766-2769, issn: 0022-3654, ids: N5407, doi: 10.1021/j100321a015
  • DONALDSON, DJ, EC RICHARD, SJ STRICKLER and V VAIDA (1988), SPECTROSCOPY OF THE N0-3S RYDBERG STATE OF ISOLATED AND CLUSTERED ACETALDEHYDE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (19) 5514-5517, issn: 0022-3654, ids: Q4134, doi: 10.1021/j100330a036
  • DONALDSON, DJ, V VAIDA and R NAAMAN (1988), ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION DETERMINATION OF INTRAMOLECULAR PREDISSOCIATION DYNAMICS IN (CH3I)2 AND (CD3I)2. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (5) 1204-1208, issn: 0022-3654, ids: M5301, doi: 10.1021/j100316a039
  • MCCARTHY, MI and V VAIDA (1988), ELECTRONIC-SPECTRUM OF OCS AT 62000-72000 CM(-1). J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 92 (21) 5875-5879, issn: 0022-3654, ids: Q7318, doi: 10.1021/j100332a007
  • VAIDA, V, MI MCCARTHY, PC ENGELKING, P ROSMUS, HJ WERNER and P BOTSCHWINA (1987), THE ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE A-1A2\]-X1A1 TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED AMMONIA. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 86 (12) 6669-6676, issn: 0021-9606, ids: H7665, doi: 10.1063/1.452415
  • MCCARTHY, MI, P ROSMUS, HJ WERNER, P BOTSCHWINA and V VAIDA (1987), DISSOCIATION OF NH3 TO NH2+H. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 86 (12) 6693-6700, issn: 0021-9606, ids: H7665, doi: 10.1063/1.452417
  • PRINSLOW, DA and V VAIDA (1987), WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF GAS-PHASE MN2(CO)10. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 109 (17) 5097-5100, issn: 0002-7863, ids: J6754, doi: 10.1021/ja00251a007
  • VAIDA, V (1987), PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF TRANSITION-METAL CLUSTER COMPLEXES IN THE GAS-PHASE. ACS Symp. Ser. Version: 1 333 70-80, issn: 0097-6156, ids: G4962
  • ENGELKING, PC and V VAIDA (1987), SYMMETRY EFFECTS IN THE ELECTRONIC-SPECTRUM OF AMMONIA AT LOW-TEMPERATURE. Int. J. Quantum Chem. Version: 1 31 (1) 73-80, issn: 0020-7608, ids: F5674, doi: 10.1002/qua.560310109
  • ROSMUS, P, P BOTSCHWINA, HJ WERNER, V VAIDA, PC ENGELKING and MI MCCARTHY (1987), THEORETICAL A-1A2\-X1A1 ABSORPTION AND EMISSION-SPECTRUM OF AMMONIA. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 86 (12) 6677-6692, issn: 0021-9606, ids: H7665, doi: 10.1063/1.452416
  • DONALDSON, DJ, V VAIDA and R NAAMAN (1987), ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF DISSOCIATING MOLECULES - EFFECTS OF CLUSTER FORMATION ON THE PHOTODISSOCIATION OF CH3I. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 87 (5) 2522-2530, issn: 0021-9606, ids: J8080, doi: 10.1063/1.453091
  • GOODMAN, JL, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1986), THE DETERMINATION OF THE MN-MN BOND STRENGTH IN MN2(CO)10 USING PULSED TIME-RESOLVED PHOTOACOUSTIC CALORIMETRY. Organometallics Version: 1 5 (4) 815-816, issn: 0276-7333, ids: A9137, doi: 10.1021/om00135a035
  • YANG, GK, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1986), DYNAMICS OF INTERMEDIATES IN THE ALPHA-ELIMINATION AND BETA-ELIMINATION PROCESSES IN CPW(CO)2ME AND CPW(CO)2ET. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 108 (10) 2511-2513, issn: 0002-7863, ids: C3778, doi: 10.1021/ja00270a003
  • YANG, GK, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1986), STRENGTH OF THE METAL-LIGAND BOND IN LCR(CO)5 MEASURED BY PHOTOACOUSTIC CALORIMETRY. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 125 (6-May) 566-568, issn: 0009-2614, ids: C1699, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(86)87100-7
  • MCCARTHY, MI and V VAIDA (1986), SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF THE 1-SIGMA+ -]1-PI TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED OCS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 90 (26) 6759-6761, issn: 0022-3654, ids: F4331, doi: 10.1021/j100284a008
  • VAIDA, V (1986), ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED MOLECULES. Accounts Chem. Res. Version: 1 19 (4) 114-120, issn: 0001-4842, ids: C6933, doi: 10.1021/ar00124a003
  • HOLLINGSWORTH, WE and V VAIDA (1986), PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF TRANSITION-METAL-CLUSTER CARBONYLS IN THE GAS-PHASE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 90 (7) 1235-1240, issn: 0022-3654, ids: A6541, doi: 10.1021/j100398a008
  • HEMLEY, RJ, DG LEOPOLD, V VAIDA and M KARPLUS (1985), THE SINGLET-STATES OF STYRENE - THEORETICAL VIBRATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-SPECTRUM. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 82 (12) 5379-5397, issn: 0021-9606, ids: AKS85, doi: 10.1063/1.448622
  • HEMLEY, RJ, U DINUR, V VAIDA and M KARPLUS (1985), THEORETICAL-STUDY OF THE GROUND AND EXCITED SINGLET-STATES OF STYRENE. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 107 (4) 836-844, issn: Feb-63, ids: ACC47, doi: 10.1021/ja00290a018
  • ROEBBER, JL and V VAIDA (1985), THE DIRECT ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE 1-SIGMA-G+ -] 1B2(1-SIGMA-U+) TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED (C3252)-C-13 AND (C34S2)-C-12. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 83 (6) 2748-2753, issn: 0021-9606, ids: AQW58, doi: 10.1063/1.449224
  • LEOPOLD, DG, RD PENDLEY, JL ROEBBER, RJ HEMLEY and V VAIDA (1984), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED POLYENES .2. THE 1 1BU+[-1 1AG- TRANSITIONS OF BUTADIENES AND HEXATRIENES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 81 (10) 4218-4229, issn: 0021-9606, ids: TV207, doi: 10.1063/1.447453
  • VAIDA, V, W HESS and JL ROEBBER (1984), THE DIRECT ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE AA2\[-XA1 TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED AMMONIA. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 88 (16) 3397-3400, issn: 0022-3654, ids: TD549, doi: 10.1021/j150660a006
  • LEOPOLD, DG and V VAIDA (1984), PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF GAS-PHASE MN2(CO)10 AND RE2(CO)10 - MASS-SPECTROMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR A DINUCLEAR PRIMARY PHOTOPRODUCT. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 106 (13) 3720-3722, issn: Feb-63, ids: SW839, doi: 10.1021/ja00325a002
  • LEOPOLD, DG, V VAIDA and MF GRANVILLE (1984), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF JET-COOLED POLYENES .1. THE 1 1BU+[-1 1AG- TRANSITION OF TRANS, TRANS-1,3,5,7-OCTATETRAENE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 81 (10) 4210-4217, issn: 0021-9606, ids: TV207, doi: 10.1063/1.447452
  • HEMLEY, RJ, JI DAWSON and V VAIDA (1983), FRANCK-CONDON ANALYSIS OF THE 1 1AG--]1 1BU+ TRANSITION OF 1,3-BUTADIENE FROM ABSORPTION AND RAMAN INTENSITIES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 78 (6) 2915-2927, issn: 0021-9606, ids: QG962, doi: 10.1063/1.445251
  • GERRITY, DP, LJ ROTHBERG and V VAIDA (1983), ULTRAVIOLET VISIBLE MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION OF CR(CO)6 - EXPERIMENTAL-EVIDENCE FOR STATISTICAL FRAGMENTATION. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 87 (12) 2222-2225, issn: 0022-3654, ids: QU706, doi: 10.1021/j100235a035
  • WELCH, JA, V VAIDA and GL GEOFFROY (1983), GAS-PHASE MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION OF IRON CARBONYLS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 87 (19) 3635-3638, issn: 0022-3654, ids: RG485, doi: 10.1021/j100242a013
  • HEMLEY, RJ, DG LEOPOLD, JL ROEBBER and V VAIDA (1983), THE DIRECT ULTRAVIOLET-ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THE 1-SIGMA-G+-]1B2(1-SIGMA-U+) TRANSITION OF JET-COOLED CS2. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 79 (11) 5219-5227, issn: 0021-9606, ids: RR565, doi: 10.1063/1.445710
  • LEOPOLD, DG and V VAIDA (1983), MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION OF TRANSITION-METAL CARBONYL-COMPLEXES - A NOVEL ROUTE TO GAS-PHASE METAL-CLUSTERS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 105 (23) 6809-6811, issn: Feb-63, ids: RQ994, doi: 10.1021/ja00361a010
  • HALPERN, AM, DP GERRITY, LJ ROTHBERG and V VAIDA (1982), EVIDENCE OF A STATE DEPENDENT DEPLETION PROCESS IN THE 2-PHOTON FLUORESCENCE EXCITATION-SPECTRA OF SATURATED AMINES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 76 (1) 102-107, issn: 0021-9606, ids: MW465, doi: 10.1063/1.442763
  • WELCH, JA, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1982), MEDIUM EFFECTS ON THE PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF CR(CO)6. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 86 (11) 1941-1947, issn: 0022-3654, ids: NQ924, doi: 10.1021/j100208a008
  • LICHTIN, DA, RB BERNSTEIN and V VAIDA (1982), MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS-SPECTROMETRY OF TRANSITION-METAL COMPLEXES - MN2(CO)10 AND RE2(CO)10. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 104 (7) 1830-1834, issn: Feb-63, ids: NK245, doi: 10.1021/ja00371a009
  • ROTHBERG, LJ, NJ COOPER, KS PETERS and V VAIDA (1982), PICOSECOND DYNAMICS OF SOLUTION-PHASE PHOTOFRAGMENTATION OF [MN2(CO)10]. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 104 (12) 3536-3537, issn: Feb-63, ids: NT506, doi: 10.1021/ja00376a063
  • ROTHBERG, LJ, DP GERRITY and V VAIDA (1981), EFFECTS OF NON-RESONANT IONIZATION ON MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION LINE-SHAPES. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 75 (9) 4403-4412, issn: 0021-9606, ids: MK823, doi: 10.1063/1.442604
  • LEOPOLD, DG, RJ HEMLEY, V VAIDA and JL ROEBBER (1981), DIRECT ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF HIGHER EXCITED-STATES OF JET-COOLED MONOSUBSTITUTED BENZENES - PHENYLACETYLENE, STYRENE, BENZALDEHYDE, AND ACETOPHENONE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 75 (10) 4758-4769, issn: 0021-9606, ids: MN294, doi: 10.1063/1.441911
  • VAIDA, V, NJ COOPER, RJ HEMLEY and DG LEOPOLD (1981), PRODUCTION OF GAS-PHASE BARE TRANSITION-METAL CLUSTERS BY LASER PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF ORGANO-METALLIC CLUSTER COMPOUNDS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Version: 1 103 (23) 7022-7023, issn: Feb-63, ids: MQ502, doi: 10.1021/ja00413a067
  • ROTHBERG, LJ, DP GERRITY and V VAIDA (1981), GAS-PHASE MULTI-PHOTON PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF MN2(CO)10 - THE EFFECT OF COLLISIONS ON PHOTOFRAGMENTATION. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 74 (4) 2218-2220, issn: 0021-9606, ids: LE271, doi: 10.1063/1.441383
  • HEMLEY, RJ, DG LEOPOLD, V VAIDA and JL ROEBBER (1981), ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF JET-COOLED MOLECULES - THE S2 STATE OF STYRENE. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 85 (2) 134-135, issn: 0022-3654, ids: KZ190, doi: 10.1021/j150602a005
  • GERRITY, DP, LJ ROTHBERG and V VAIDA (1980), MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION OF METAL ATOMS PRODUCED IN THE PHOTO-DISSOCIATION OF GROUP-VI HEXACARBONYLS. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 74 (1) 1-5, issn: Sep-14, ids: KG965, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(80)85001-9
  • VAIDA, V and GM MCCLELLAND (1980), ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION-SPECTROSCOPY OF COOLED SUPERSONIC EXPANSIONS - DYNAMICS OF THE 1B1U STATE OF TRANS-BUTADIENE. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 71 (3) 436-439, issn: Sep-14, ids: JZ344, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(80)80197-7
  • ROEBBER, JL, DP GERRITY, R HEMLEY and V VAIDA (1980), ELECTRONIC-SPECTRUM OF FURAN FROM 2200-A TO 1950-A. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 75 (1) 104-106, issn: Sep-14, ids: KN668, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(80)80474-X
  • ROTHBERG, LJ, DP GERRITY and V VAIDA (1980), ELECTRONIC-SPECTRA OF BUTADIENE AND ITS METHYL-DERIVATIVES - A MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION STUDY. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 73 (11) 5508-5513, issn: 0021-9606, ids: KX295, doi: 10.1063/1.440070
  • VAIDA, V, MB ROBIN and NA KUEBLER (1978), NOTE ON ELUSIVE (E26)-E-1 STATE IN 2-PHOTON SPECTRUM OF BENZENE. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 58 (4) 557-560, issn: Sep-14, ids: FX421, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(78)80018-9
  • TURNER, RE, V VAIDA, CA MOLINI, JO BERG and DH PARKER (1978), MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION SPECTRA OF PYRIDINE AND PYRAZINE. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 28 (2-Jan) 47-54, issn: 0301-0104, ids: ET016, doi: 10.1016/0301-0104(78)85036-8
  • VAIDA, V and SD COLSON (1978), LOCAL STRUCTURE AND TRIPLET ENERGY MIGRATION IN PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE-PARA-DIBROMOBENZENE SOLID-SOLUTIONS. Mol. Phys. Version: 1 35 (4) 965-974, issn: 0026-8976, ids: FB258, doi: 10.1080/00268977800100711
  • VAIDA, V, RE TURNER, JL CASEY and SD COLSON (1978), MULTI-PHOTON TRANSITIONS IN TRANS-BUTADIENE OBSERVED BY MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION AND THERMAL LENSING SPECTROSCOPY. Chem. Phys. Lett. Version: 1 54 (1) 25-29, issn: Sep-14, ids: EW380, doi: 10.1016/0009-2614(78)85655-3
  • COLSON, SD, SM GEORGE, T KEYES and V VAIDA (1977), SINGLET AND TRIPLET EXCITON PERCOLATION IN BENZENE ISOTOPIC MIXED-CRYSTALS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 67 (11) 4941-4947, issn: 0021-9606, ids: EF423, doi: 10.1063/1.434676
  • COLSON, SD, RE TURNER and V VAIDA (1977), PHONON ASSISTED TRAP-TRAP TRIPLET ENERGY MIGRATION IN ODEGREESK LIMIT IN CRYSTALLINE BENZENE. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 66 (5) 2187-2190, issn: 0021-9606, ids: CY617, doi: 10.1063/1.434136
  • VAIDA, V and SD COLSON (1977), INTERMOLECULAR MIXING OF ELECTRONIC STATES IN CHEMICALLY MIXED MOLECULAR-CRYSTALS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 67 (2) 710-714, issn: 0021-9606, ids: DP685, doi: 10.1063/1.434876
  • COLSON, SD, FB TUDRON, RE TURNER and V VAIDA (1976), TRIPLET ENERGY-TRANSFER MECHANISM IN ISOTOPIC MIXED MOLECULAR-CRYSTALS. J. Phys. Chem. Version: 1 80 (20) 2196-2196, issn: 0022-3654, ids: CE507, doi: 10.1021/j100561a012
  • COLSON, SD and V VAIDA (1976), RESOLVED EMISSION FROM COMPOUND STATES IN CHEMICALLY MIXED CRYSTALS. J. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 64 (10) 4224-4225, issn: 0021-9606, ids: BR064, doi: 10.1063/1.431993