One Oil Field a Key Culprit in Global Ethane Gas Increase
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN—A single U.S. shale oil field is responsible for much of the past decade’s increase in global atmospheric levels of ethane, a gas that can damage air quality and impact climate, according to new study led by the University of Michigan.
The researchers found that the Bakken Formation, an oil and gas field in North Dakota and Montana, is emitting roughly 2 percent of the globe’s ethane. That’s about 250,000 tons per year.
“Two percent might not sound like a lot, but the emissions we observed in this single region are 10 to 100 times larger than reported in inventories. They directly impact air quality across North America. And they’re sufficient to explain much of the global shift in ethane concentrations,” said Eric Kort, assistant professor of climate and space sciences and engineering at U-M and first author of the paper, published today in Geophysical Research Letters.
A simulation of how Bakken oil field hydrocarbon emissions, including ethane, affected North American Ground-level ozone concentrations in july and August 2014. Full caption and credit information from U-M and NASA is here.
The Bakken is part of a 200,000-square-mile basin that underlies parts of Saskatchewan and Manitoba in addition to the two U.S. states. It saw a steep increase in oil and gas activity over the past decade, powered by advances in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, and horizontal drilling. Between 2005 and 2014, the Bakken’s oil production jumped by a factor of 3,500, and its gas production by 180. In the past two years, however, production has plateaued.
U.S. shale fields in the lower 48 states, including the Bakken in north dakota and Montana. Download.
Globally, the atmosphere’s ethane levels were on the downswing from 1984 to 2009. The gas gets into the air primarily through leaks in fossil fuel extraction, processing and distribution. Scientists attributed its declining levels to less venting and flaring of gas from oil fields and less leakage from production and distribution systems.
But in 2010, a mountaintop sensor in Europe registered an ethane uptick. Researchers looked into it. They hypothesized that the boom in US oil and gas brought about by hydraulic fracturing could be the culprit—even a continent away. Ethane concentrations have been increasing ever since.
To gather their data, the researchers flew over the Bakken Formation in a NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, sampling air for 12 days in May 2014. Their airborne measurements from directly over and downwind of oil production areas show that the field’s ethane emissions of 0.23 teragrams per year, or roughly 250,000 US tons, effectively cancel out half of the global decline rate.
“These findings not only solve an atmospheric mystery—where that extra ethane was coming from—they also help us understand how regional activities sometimes have global impacts,” said co-author Colm Sweeney, a scientist with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA. “We did not expect a single oil field to affect global levels of this gas.”
Ethane emissions from other U.S. fields, especially the Eagle Ford in Texas, likely contributed as well, the research team says. The findings illustrate the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising ethane levels.