Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Eric Ray

Research Interests

My research focuses on the transport of trace gases throughout the stratosphere and troposphere.  I use a combination of in situ and satellite remote sensing measurements as well as model output and reanalysis products to diagnose transport features such as due to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO).  I also participate in measurement field campaigns with flight planning and meteorological forecasting support for high flying research aircraft such as the WB-57, DC-8 and ER-2.

Current Research

My current research projects are (1) the diagnosis of age of air spectra and surface source regions of air in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the North American monsoon based on a wide range of trace gas measurements, and (2) the modulation of long-lived trace gas transport from the stratosphere to the surface by the QBO.

View Publications

  • Bourgeois I; Peischl J; Neuman JA; Brown SS; Thompson CR; Aikin KC; Allen HM; Angot H; Apel EC; Baublitz CB. (Dec 2021). Large contribution of biomass burning emissions to ozone throughout the global remote troposphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA , 118(52), e2109628118-e2109628118. 10.1073/pnas.2109628118
  • Williamson CJ; Kupc A; Rollins A; Kazil J; Froyd KD; Ray EA; Murphy DM; Schill GP; Peischl J; Thompson C. (Jun 2021). Large hemispheric difference in nucleation mode aerosol concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere at mid- and high latitudes. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 21(11), 9065-9088. 10.5194/acp-21-9065-2021
  • Chen X; Millet DB; Neuman JA; Veres PR; Ray EA; Commane R; Daube BC; McKain K; Schwarz JP; Katich JM. (May 2021). HCOOH in the Remote Atmosphere: Constraints from Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) Airborne Observations. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry , 1436-1454. 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00049
  • Bates KH; Jacob DJ; Wang S; Hornbrook RS; Apel EC; Kim MJ; Millet DB; Wells KC; Chen X; Brewer JF. (Feb 2021). The Global Budget of Atmospheric Methanol: New Constraints on Secondary, Oceanic, and Terrestrial Sources. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , 126(4). 10.1029/2020JD033439
  • Montzka SA; Dutton GS; Portmann RW; Chipperfield MP; Davis S; Feng W; Manning AJ; Ray E; Rigby M; Hall BD. (Feb 2021). A decline in global CFC-11 emissions during 2018-2019. Nature , 590(7846), 428-+. 10.1038/s41586-021-03260-5
  • Jin Y; Keeling RF; Morgan EJ; Ray E; Parazoo NC; Stephens BB. (Jan 2021). A mass-weighted isentropic coordinate for mapping chemical tracers and computing atmospheric inventories. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 21(1), 217-238. 10.5194/acp-21-217-2021
  • Kupc A; Williamson CJ; Hodshire AL; Kazil J; Ray E; Bui TP; Dollner M; Froyd KD; McKain K; Rollins A. (Dec 2020). The potential role of organics in new particle formation and initial growth in the remote tropical upper troposphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 20(23), 15037-15060. 10.5194/acp-20-15037-2020
  • Bourgeois I; Peischl J; Thompson CR; Aikin KC; Campos T; Clark H; Commane R; Daube B; Diskin GW; Elkins JW. (Sep 2020). Global-scale distribution of ozone in the remote troposphere from the ATom and HIPPO airborne field missions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 20(17), 10611-10635. 10.5194/acp-20-10611-2020
  • Schill GP; Froyd KD; Bian H; Kupc A; Williamson C; Brock CA; Ray E; Hornbrook RS; Hills AJ; Apel EC. (Jun 2020). Widespread biomass burning smoke throughout the remote troposphere. Nature Geoscience , 13(6), 422-+. 10.1038/s41561-020-0586-1
  • Hodzic A; Campuzano-Jost P; Bian H; Chin M; Colarco PR; Day DA; Froyd KD; Heinold B; Jo DS; Katich JM. (Apr 2020). Characterization of organic aerosol across the global remote troposphere: a comparison of ATom measurements and global chemistry models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 20(8), 4607-4635. 10.5194/acp-20-4607-2020
  • Brewer JF; Fischer E; Commane R; Wofsy SC; Daube BC; Apel EC; Hills AJ; Hornbrook RS; Barletta B; Meinardi S. (Feb 2020). Evidence for an Oceanic Source of Methyl Ethyl Ketone to the Atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters , 47(4). 10.1029/2019GL086045
  • Davis NA; Davis SM; Portmann RW; Ray E; Rosenlof KH; Yu P. (Feb 2020). A comprehensive assessment of tropical stratospheric upwelling in the specified dynamics Community Earth System Model 1.2.2-Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM (WACCM)). Geoscientific Model Development , 13(2), 717-734. 10.5194/gmd-13-717-2020
  • Ray, EA; Portmann, RW; Yu, PF; Daniel, J; Montzka, SA; Dutton, GS; Hall, BD; Moore, FL; Rosenlof, KH. (Jan 2020). The influence of the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation on trace gas levels at the Earths surface. NATURE GEOSCIENCE , 13(1). 10.1038/s41561-019-0507-3
  • Wang, SY; Hornbrook, RS; Hills, A; Emmons, LK; Tilmes, S; Lamarque, JF; Jimenez, JL; Campuzano-Jost, P; Nault, EA; Crounse, JD; Wennberg, PO; Kim, M; Allen, H; Ryerson, TB; Thompson, CR; Peischl, J; Moore, F; Nance, D; Hall, B; Elkins, J; Tanner, D; Huey, LG; Hall, SR; Ullmann, K; Orlando, JJ; Tyndall, GS; Flocke, FM; Ray, E; Hanisco, TF; Wolfe, GM; St Clair, J; Commane, R; Daube, B; Barletta, B; Blake, DR; Weinzierl, B; Dollner, M; Conley, A; Vitt, F; Wofsy, SC; Riemer, DD; Apel, EC. (28-May 2019). Atmospheric Acetaldehyde: Importance of Air-Sea Exchange and a Missing Source in the Remote Troposphere. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 46(10), 5601-5613. 10.1029/2019GL082034
  • Williamson, CJ; Kupc, A; Axisa, D; Bilsback, KR; Bui, T; Campuzano-Jost, P; Dollner, M; Froyd, KD; Hodshire, AL; Jimenez, JL; Kodros, JK; Luo, G; Murphy, DM; Nault, BA; Ray, EA; Weinzierl, B; Wilson, JC; Yu, FQ; Yu, PF; Pierce, JR; Brock, CA. (17-Oct 2019). A large source of cloud condensation nuclei from new particle formation in the tropics. NATURE, 574(7778), 399-+. 10.1038/s41586-019-1638-9
  • Rollins, AW; Thornberry, TD; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Schauffler, S; Moore, F; Elkins, JW; Ray, E; Rosenlof, K; Aquila, V; Gao, RS. (16-Dec 2018). SO2 Observations and Sources in the Western Pacific Tropical Tropopause Region. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(23), 13549-13559. 10.1029/2018JD029635
  • Kolonjari, F, DA Plummer, KA Walker, CD Boone, JW Elkins, MI Hegglin, GL Manney, FL Moore, D Pendlebury, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof and GP Stiller. (16-May 2018). Assessing stratospheric transport in the CMAM30 simulations using ACE-FTS measurements. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 18(9), 6801-6828. 10.5194/acp-18-6801-2018
  • Montzka, SA, GS Dutton, PF Yu, E Ray, RW Portmann, JS Daniel, L Kuijpers, BD Hall, D Mondeel, C Siso, D Nance, M Rigby, AJ Manning, L Hu, F Moore, BR Miller and JW Elkins. (17-May 2018). An unexpected and persistent increase in global emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11. NATURE, 557(7705), 413-+. 10.1038/s41586-018-0106-2
  • Elvidge, EL, H Bonisch, CAM Brenninkmeijer, A Engel, PJ Fraser, E Gallacher, R Langenfelds, J Muhle, DE Oram, EA Ray, AR Ridley, T Rockmann, WT Sturges, RF Weiss and JC Laube. (8-Mar 2018). Evaluation of stratospheric age of air from CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CHF3, HFC-125, HFC-227ea and SF6; implications for the calculations of halocarbon lifetimes, fractional release factors and ozone depletion potentials. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 18(5), 3369-3385. 10.5194/acp-18-3369-2018
  • Murphy, DM, KD Froyd, E Apel, D Blake, N Blake, N Evangeliou, RS Hornbrook, J Peischl, E Ray, TB Ryerson, C Thompson and A Stohl. (APR 2018). An aerosol particle containing enriched uranium encountered in the remote upper troposphere. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY, 184, 95-100. 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.01.006
  • Diallo, M, F Ploeger, P Konopka, T Birner, R Muller, M Riese, H Garny, B Legras, E Ray, G Berthet and F Jegou. (28-Oct 2017). Significant Contributions of Volcanic Aerosols to Decadal Changes in the Stratospheric Circulation. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 44(20), 10780-10791. 10.1002/2017GL074662
  • Yu, PF, KH Rosenlof, S Liu, H Telg, TD Thornberry, AW Rollins, RW Portmann, ZX Bai, EA Ray, YJ Duan, LL Pan, OB Toon, JC Bian and RS Gao. (3-Jul 2017). Efficient transport of tropospheric aerosol into the stratosphere via the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 114(27), 6972-6977. 10.1073/pnas.1701170114
  • Herman, RL, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof, KM Bedka, MJ Schwartz, WG Read, RF Troy, K Chin, LE Christensen, DJ Fu, RA Stachnik, TP Bui and JM Dean-Day. (17-May 2017). Enhanced stratospheric water vapor over the summertime continental United States and the role of overshooting convection. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 17(9), 6113-6124. 10.5194/acp-17-6113-2017
  • Diallo, M, B Legras, E Ray, A Engel and JA Anel. (21-Mar 2017). Global distribution of CO2 in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 17(6), 3861-3878. 10.5194/acp-17-3861-2017
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, JW Elkins, KH Rosenlof, JC Laube, T Rockmann, DR Marsh and AE Andrews. (27-Apr 2017). Quantification of the SF6 lifetime based on mesospheric loss measured in the stratospheric polar vortex. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 122(8), 4626-4638. 10.1002/2016JD026198
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, KH Rosenlof, DA Plummer, F Kolonjari and KA Walker. (27-May 2016). An idealized stratospheric model useful for understanding differences between long-lived trace gas measurements and global chemistry-climate model output. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 121(10), 5356-5367. 10.1002/2015JD024447
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, C Sweeney, P Tans, T Wang, JW Elkins, H Bonisch, A Engel, S Sugawara, T Nakazawa and S Aoki. (27-Dec 2014). Improving stratospheric transport trend analysis based on SF6 and CO2 measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 119(24), 14110-14128. 10.1002/2014JD021802
  • Moore, FL, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof, JW Elkins, P Tans, A Karion and C Sweeney. (JAN 2014). A Cost-Effective Trace Gas Measurement Program for Long-Term Monitoring of the Stratospheric Circulation. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 95(1), 147-155. 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00153.1
  • Schwarz, JP, BH Samset, AE Perring, JR Spackman, RS Gao, P Stier, M Schulz, FL Moore, EA Ray and DW Fahey. (28-Oct 2013). Global-scale seasonally resolved black carbon vertical profiles over the Pacific. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 40(20), 5542-5547. 10.1002/2013GL057775
  • Waugh, DW, AM Crotwell, EJ Dlugokencky, GS Dutton, JW Elkins, BD Hall, EJ Hintsa, DF Hurst, SA Montzka, DJ Mondeel, FL Moore, JD Nance, EA Ray, SD Steenrod, SE Strahan and C Sweeney. (16-Oct 2013). Tropospheric SF6: Age of air from the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude surface. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(19), 11429-11441. 10.1002/jgrd.50848
  • Manney, GL, MI Hegglin, WH Daffer, ML Santee, EA Ray, S Pawson, MJ Schwartz, CD Boone, L Froidevaux, NJ Livesey, WG Read and KA Walker. (2011). Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS): applications to climatology and transport studies. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 11(12), 6115-6137. 10.5194/acp-11-6115-2011
  • Bonisch, H, A Engel, T Birner, P Hoor, DW Tarasick and EA Ray. (2011). On the structural changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation after 2000. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 11(8), 3937-3948. 10.5194/acp-11-3937-2011
  • Wofsy, S., B.C. Daube, R. Jimenez, E. Kort, J.V. Pittman, S. Park, R. Commane, Bin Xiang, G. Santoni, D. Jacob, J. Fisher, C. Pickett-Heaps, H. Wang, K. Wecht, Q.-Q. Wang, B.B. Stephens, S. Shertz, P. Romashkin, T. Campos, J. Haggerty, W.A. Cooper, D. Rogers, S. Beaton, R. Hendershot, J.W. Elkins, D.W. Fahey, R.S. Gao, F. Moore, S.A. Montzka, J.P. Schwarz, D. Hurst, B. Miller, C. Sweeney, S. Oltmans, D. Nance, E. Hintsa, G. Dutton, L.A. Watts, J.R. Spackman, K.H. Rosenlof, E.A. Ray, M.A. Zondlo, Minghui Diao, R. Keeling, J. Bent, E.L. Atlas, R. Lueb, M.J. Mahoney, M. Chahine, E. Olson, P. Patra, K. Ishijima, R. Engelen, J. Flemming, R. Nassar, D.B.A. Jones, S.E. Mikaloff Fletcher. (2011). HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): Fine-grained, global scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 369(1943), 2073-2086.
  • Hurst, DF, SJ Oltmans, H Vomel, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, EA Ray, EG Hall and AF Jordan. (26-Jan 2011). Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colorado: Analysis of the 30 year Boulder record. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 116. 10.1029/2010JD015065
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, KH Rosenlof, SM Davis, H Boenisch, O Morgenstern, D Smale, E Rozanov, M Hegglin, G Pitari, E Mancini, P Braesicke, N Butchart, S Hardiman, F Li, K Shibata and DA Plummer. (6-Nov 2010). Evidence for changes in stratospheric transport and mixing over the past three decades based on multiple data sets and tropical leaky pipe analysis. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 115. 10.1029/2010JD014206
  • Petropavlovskikh, I, E Ray, SM Davis, K Rosenlof, G Manney, R Shetter, SR Hall, K Ullmann, L Pfister, J Hair, M Fenn, M Avery and AM Thompson. (10-Sep 2010). Low-ozone bubbles observed in the tropical tropopause layer during the TC4 campaign in 2007. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 115. 10.1029/2009JD012804
  • Kuester, MA, MJ Alexander and EA Ray. (OCT 2008). A model study of gravity waves over Hurricane Humberto (2001). JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 65(10), 3231-3246. 10.1175/2008JAS2372.1
  • Marcy, TP, PJ Popp, RS Gao, DW Fahey, EA Ray, EC Richard, TL Thompson, EL Atlas, M Loewenstein, SC Wofsy, S Park, EM Weinstock, WH Swartz and MJ Mahoney. (NOV 2007). Measurements of trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 41(34), 7253-7261. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.032
  • Ray, EA and KH Rosenlof. (30-Jun 2007). Hydration of the upper troposphere by tropical cyclones. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 112(D12). 10.1029/2006JD008009
  • Richard, EC, AF Tuck, KC Aikin, KK Kelly, RL Herman, RF Troy, SJ Hovde, KH Rosenlof, TL Thompson and EA Ray. (6-Jul 2006). High-resolution airborne profiles of CH4, O-3, and water vapor near tropical Central America in late January to early February 2004. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 111(D13). 10.1029/2005JD006513
  • Ray, EA, KH Rosenlof, EC Richard, PK Hudson, DJ Cziczo, M Loewenstein, HJ Jost, J Lopez, B Ridley, A Weinheimer, D Montzka, D Knapp, SC Wofsy, BC Daube, C Gerbig, I Xueref and RL Herman. (18-Sep 2004). Evidence of the effect of summertime midlatitude convection on the subtropical lower stratosphere from CRYSTAL-FACE tracer measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 109(D18). 10.1029/2004JD004655
  • Ridley, B, E Atlas, H Selkirk, L Pfister, D Montzka, J Walega, S Donnelly, V Stroud, E Richard, K Kelly, A Tuck, T Thompson, J Reeves, D Baumgardner, WT Rawlins, M Mahoney, R Herman, R Friedl, F Moore, E Ray and J Elkins. (MAR 2004). Convective transport of reactive constituents to the tropical and rigid-latitude tropopause region: I. Observations. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 38(9), 1259-1274. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.11.038
  • Ray, EA, KH Rosenlof, E Richard, D Parrish and R Jakoubek. (23-Apr 2004). Distributions of ozone in the region of the subtropical jet: An analysis of in situ aircraft measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 109(D8). 10.1029/2003JD004143
  • Tuck, AF, SJ Hovde, KK Kelly, SJ Reid, EC Richard, EL Atlas, SG Donnelly, VR Stroud, DJ Cziczo, DM Murphy, DS Thomson, JW Elkins, FL Moore, EA Ray, MJ Mahoney and RR Friedl. (13-Mar 2004). Horizontal variability 1-2 km below the tropical tropopause. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 109(D5). 10.1029/2003JD003942
  • Moore, FL, JW Elkins, EA Ray, GS Dutton, RE Dunn, DW Fahey, RJ McLaughlin, TL Thompson, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst and PR Wamsley. (8-Feb 2003). Balloonborne in situ gas chromatograph for measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 108(D5). 10.1029/2001JD000891
  • Richard, EC, KC Aikin, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof, TL Thompson, A Weinheimer, D Montzka, D Knapp, B Ridley and A Gettelman. (2-Dec 2003). Large-scale equatorward transport of ozone in the subtropical lower stratosphere. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 108(D23). 10.1029/2003JD003884
  • Salawitch, RJ, JJ Margitan, B Sen, GC Toon, GB Osterman, M Rex, JW Elkins, EA Ray, FL Moore, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, RM Bevilacqua, KW Hoppel, EC Richard and TP Bui. (SEP-OCT 2002). Chemical loss of ozone during the Arctic winter of 1999/2000: An analysis based on balloon-borne observations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D20). 10.1029/2001JD000620
  • Gao, RS, PJ Popp, EA Ray, KH Rosenlof, MJ Northway, DW Fahey, AF Tuck, CR Webster, DF Hurst, SM Schauffler, H Jost and TP Bui. (28-Dec 2002). Role of NOy as a diagnostic of small-scale mixing in a denitrified polar vortex. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D24). 10.1029/2002JD002332
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, JW Elkins, DF Hurst, PA Romashkin, GS Dutton and DW Fahey. (SEP-OCT 2002). Descent and mixing in the 1999-2000 northern polar vortex inferred from in situ tracer measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 107(D20). 10.1029/2001JD000961
  • Richard, EC, KC Aikin, AE Andrews, BC Daube, C Gerbig, SC Wofsy, PA Romashkin, DF Hurst, EA Ray, FL Moore, JW Elkins, T Deshler and GC Toon. (1-Jun 2001). Severe chemical ozone loss inside the Arctic polar vortex during winter 1999-2000 inferred from in situ airborne measurements. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 28(11), 2197-2200. 10.1029/2001GL012878
  • Neuman, JA, RS Gao, DW Fahey, JC Holecek, BA Ridley, JG Walega, FE Grahek, EC Richard, CT McElroy, TL Thompson, JW Elkins, FL Moore and EA Ray. (NOV 2001). In situ measurements of HNO3, NOy, NO, and O-3 in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 35(33), 5789-5797. 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00354-5
  • Ray, EA, FL Moore, JW Elkins, GS Dutton, DW Fahey, H Vomel, SJ Oltmans and KH Rosenlof. (20-Nov 1999). Transport into the Northern Hemisphere lowermost stratosphere revealed by in situ tracer measurements. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 104(D21), 26565-26580. 10.1029/1999JD900323