Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Gijs de Boer

Research Interests

  • Clouds
  • Arctic Science
  • Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Atmospheric Research
  • Aerosol-Cloud Interactions
  • Autonomous Observing Systems
  • Atmospheric Remote Sensing
  • Climate

Current Research

Current efforts focus on understanding processes controlling the formation, lifecycle, and climatic influence of Arctic clouds. Clouds play important roles in the climate system, including the modulation of atmospheric radiation and the distribution of precipitation. Specific topics currently being investigated include:

Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Atmospheric Observation: Together with collaborators at the University of Colorado, we are exploring the potential for UAS to obtain critical measurments of the atmosphere, including vertical profiles of key quantities, information on spatial variability of surface and atmospheric quantities and their co-variability, and for sampling difficult-to-reach environments. These measurements have been made across a variety of locations, with Arctic deployments at the Oliktok Point, Alaska facility operated by the Department of Energy.

Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Arctic Clouds: Cloud radiative forcing and precipitation characteristics are influenced by the particles upon which cloud hydrometeors form. Changes to precipitation rates, cloud lifetime, and cloud thickness can all result from changes to aerosol properties. Using a variety of observational and modeling tools, we are improving our understanding of the physical processes responsible for these interactions, as well as the resulting impact on the influence of clouds on the climate system.

The Role of Various Processes in Arctic Cloud Formation and Lifecycle: Arctic clouds form as a result of a complex web of interacting physical processes, including those related to synoptic scale transport of water and heat, surface fluxes of these quantities, cloud-driven radiation, cloud microphysics, and aerosol properties. Our research involves establishing which of these processes are most important while simultaneously improving our understanding of individual components. This knowledge is crucial for improvement of weather and climate model simulations at high latitudes.

Currently Funded Projects

  • "Development and deployment of Air-Deployable Micro Buoys (ADMBs)" (NOAA, de Boer/Fairall PI)
  • "Advancing understanding of the Arctic atmosphere through process-level analysis and product development using Oliktok Point measurements " (DOE ASR, de Boer PI)
  • "Understanding the Sources and Impacts of Pacific Arctic Aerosol Particles " (NOAA CPO, Creamean PI)

Previous Projects

  • "Development and Evaluation of Low Cost, Unmanned Aircraft-Based Turbulent Flux Measurement Techniques" (CIRES, de Boer PI)
  • "Evaluating Aerosol Indirect Effects in Mixed-Phase Clouds" (DOE ASR, de Boer PI)
  • "Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems" (DOE ARM, de Boer PI)
  • "Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems" (DOE ASR, de Boer PI)
  • "A Multi-Faceted Evaluation of Aerosol Impacts on Arctic Clouds" (NSF, de Boer PI)


  • National Academies of Sciences US Delegate: International Arctic Science Committe (IASC)
  • Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Atmosphere Collaboration Team co-lead
  • US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Systems Research (ASR) High Latitude Processes Working Group lead
  • International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) steering committee


Outreach allows researchers to share their work with a broader audience than reached by scientific journals alone. As scientists, we are passionate and excited about the topics we study, but seldom have opportunities to discuss our ideas and research with the general public. In particular, as Arctic scientists it is often challenging to interact with the people living in the environment we study.

Thanks to past funding from the National Science Foundation, several researchers have traveled to Barrow, Alaska to share their research, discuss ideas with the local population, and gain firsthand experiences in the environment which they study everyday. Activities have included discussions with Barrow residents, presentations in local schools, seminars in the "Saturday Schoolyard" seminar series, helping to run summer camps, and more. These trips are meant to both share our knowledge with residents as well as enlighten and motivate researchers.

Some examples of recently supported outreach efforts include (photos):

Dr. Gijs de Boer Presentation at Ipalook Elementary School (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Gijs de Boer Presentations at Barrow High School (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Gijs de Boer Seminar at the Saturday Schoolyard Seminar Series (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Amy Solomon Presentation at and Assistance with STEM camp at NOAA/DOE facilities (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Amy Solomon Seminar at the Saturday Schoolyard Seminar Series (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Christopher Cox Seminar at the Saturday Schoolyard Seminar (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Christopher Cox Presentations at Barrow High School (Barrow, AK) -- Cancelled due to inclement weather
Dr. Kara Sulia Presentation and Assistance with STEM camp at NOAA/DOE facilities (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Ola Persson Radio Interview regarding the science behind the Oden cruise (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Jessie Creamean Presentation at Barrow High School (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Jessie Creamean Presentation at Hopson Middle School (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Jessie Creamean Public Presentation (Barrow, AK)
Dr. Gijs de Boer Presentation at St. Helena Primary School (St. Helena, CA)
Dr. Gijs de Boer Volunteer at the ARCUS AGU Exploration Station

Honors and Awards

  • Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering (PECASE)

View Publications

  • Brus, D; Gustafsson, J; Vakkari, V; Kemppinen, O; de Boer, G; Hirsikko, A (2021), Measurement report: Properties of aerosol and gases in the vertical profile during the LAPSE-RATE campaign. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 21 (1) 517-533, issn: 1680-7316, doi: 10.5194/acp-21-517-2021
  • de Boer, G; Waugh, S; Erwin, A; Borenstein, S; Dixon, C; Shanti, W; Houston, A; Argrow, B (2021), Measurements from mobile surface vehicles during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation - a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE). Version: 1 EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE DATA 13 (1) 155-169, issn: 1866-3508, doi: 10.5194/essd-13-155-2021
  • Creamean, JM; de Boer, G; Telg, H; Mei, F; Dexheimer, D; Shupe, MD; Solomon, A; McComiskey, A (2021), Assessing the vertical structure of Arctic aerosols using balloon-borne measurements. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 21 (3) 1737-1757, issn: 1680-7316, doi: 10.5194/acp-21-1737-2021
  • Matrosov, SY; Ryzhkov, AV; Maahn, M; De Boer, G (2020), Hydrometeor Shape Variability in Snowfall as Retrieved from Polarimetric Radar Measurements. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY 59 (9) 1503-1517, issn: 1558-8424, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-20-0052.1
  • Hashino, T; de Boer, G; Okamoto, H; Tripoli, GJ (2020), Relationships between Immersion Freezing and Crystal Habit for Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds-A Numerical Study. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 77 (7) 2411-2438, issn: 0022-4928, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-20-0078.1
  • McFarquhar, GM; Smith, E; Pillar-Little, EA; Brewster, K; Chilson, PB; Lee, TR; Waugh, S; Yussouf, N; Wang, XG; Xue, M; de Boer, G; Gibbs, JA; Fiebrich, C; Baker, B; Brotzge, J; Carr, F; Christophersen, H; Fengler, M; Hall, P; Hock, T; Houston, A; Huck, R; Jacob, J; Palmer, R; Quinn, PK; Wagner, M; Zhang, Y; Hawk, D (2020), Current and Future Uses of UAS for Improved Forecasts/Warnings and Scientific Studies. Version: 1 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 101 (8) E1322-E1328, issn: 0003-0007, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0015.1
  • de Boer, G; Diehl, C; Jacob, J; Houston, A; Smith, SW; Chilson, P; Schmale, DG; Intrieri, J; Pinto, J; Elston, J; Brus, D; Kemppinen, O; Clark, A; Lawrence, D; Bailey, SCC; Sama, MP; Frazier, A; Crick, C; Natalie, V; Pillar-Little, E; Klein, P; Waugh, S; Lundquist, JK; Barbieri, L; Kral, ST; Jensen, AA; Dixon, C; Borenstein, S; Hesselius, D; Human, K; Hall, P; Argrow, B; Thornberry, T; Wright, R; Kelly, JT (2020), Development of Community, Capabilities, and Understanding through Unmanned Aircraft-Based Atmospheric Research: The LAPSE-RATE Campaign. Version: 1 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 101 (5) E684-E699, issn: 0003-0007, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0050.1
  • Cione, JJ; Bryan, GH; Dobosy, R; Zhang, JA; de Boer, G; Aksoy, A; Wadler, JB; Kalina, EA; Dahl, BA; Ryan, K; Neuhaus, J; Dumas, E; Marks, FD; Farber, AM; Hock, T; Chen, XM (2020), Eye of the Storm Observing Hurricanes with a Small Unmanned Aircraft System. Version: 1 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 101 (2) E186-E205, issn: 0003-0007, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0169.1
  • de Boer, G; Cox, CJ; Creamean, JM (2019), Accelerated Springtime Melt of Snow on Tundra Downwind from Northern Alaska River Systems Resulting from Niveo-aeolian Deposition Events. Version: 1 ARCTIC 72 (3) 245-257, issn: 0004-0843, doi: 10.14430/arctic68654
  • de Boer, G; Dexheimer, D; Mei, F; Hubbe, J; Longbottom, C; Carroll, PJ; Apple, M; Goldberger, L; Oaks, D; Lapierre, J; Crume, M; Bernard, N; Shupe, MD; Solomon, A; Intrieri, J; Lawrence, D; Doddi, A; Holdridge, DJ; Hubbell, M; Ivey, MD; Schmid, B (2019), Atmospheric observations made at Oliktok Point, Alaska, as part of the Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments (POPEYE) campaign. Version: 1 EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE DATA 11 (3) 1349-1362, issn: 1866-3508, doi: 10.5194/essd-11-1349-2019
  • de Boer, G., C. Diehl, J. Jacob, A. Houston,  S. Smith, P. Chilson, D.G. Schmale, J. Intrieri, J. Pinto, J. Elston, D. Brus, O. Kemppinen, A. Clark, D. Lawrence, S. Bailey, M. Sama, A. Frazier, C. Crick, V. Natalie, E. Pillar-Little, P. Klein, S. Waugh, J.K. Lundquist, L. Barbieri, S. Kral, A. Jensen, C. Dixon, S. Borenstein, D.  Hesselius, K. Human, P. Hall,  B. Argrow, T. Thornberry, R. Gao, R. Wright, J.T. Kelly (2019), Development of community, capabilities and understanding through unmanned aircraft-based atmospheric research: The LAPSE-RATE campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 101 E684-E699, doi:
  • de Boer, G; Argrow, B; Cassano, J; Cione, J; Frew, E; Lawrence, D; Wick, G; Wolff, C (2019), Advancing Unmanned Aerial Capabilities for Atmospheric Research. Version: 1 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 100 (3) ES105-ES108, issn: 0003-0007, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0254.1
  • Barbieri, L; Kral, ST; Bailey, SCC; Frazier, AE; Jacob, JD; Reuder, J; Brus, D; Chilson, PB; Crick, C; Detweiler, C; Doddi, A; Elston, J; Foroutan, H; Gonzalez-Rocha, J; Greene, BR; Guzman, MI; Houston, AL; Islam, A; Kemppinen, O; Lawrence, D; Pillar-Little, EA; Ross, SD; Sama, MP; Schmale, DG; Schuyler, TJ; Shankar, A; Smith, SW; Waugh, S; Dixon, C; Borenstein, S; de Boer, G (2019), Intercomparison of Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) Measurements for Atmospheric Science during the LAPSE-RATE Campaign. Version: 1 SENSORS 19 (9) , Art. No. 2179, issn: 1424-8220, doi: 10.3390/s19092179, PubMed ID: 31083477
  • Matrosov, SY; Maahn, M; De Boer, G (2019), Observational and Modeling Study of Ice Hydrometeor Radar Dual-Wavelength Ratios. Version: 1 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY 58 (9) 2005-2017, issn: 1558-8424, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0018.1
  • Maahn, M; Hoffmann, F; Shupe, MD; de Boer, G; Matrosov, SY; Luke, EP (2019), Can liquid cloud microphysical processes be used for vertically pointing cloud radar calibration?. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 12 (6) 3151-3171, issn: 1867-1381, doi: 10.5194/amt-12-3151-2019
  • Norgren, M., G. de Boer and M.D. Shupe (2018), Observed aerosol suppression of cloud ice in low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 18 13345-13361, Art. No. 2179, doi: https//
  • Nolan, PJ; Pinto, J; Gonzalez-Rocha, J; Jensen, A; Vezzi, CN; Bailey, SCC; de Boer, G; Diehl, C; Laurence, R; Powers, CW; Foroutan, H; Ross, SD; Schmale, DG (2018), Coordinated Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and Ground-Based Weather Measurements to Predict Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). Version: 1 SENSORS 18 (12) , Art. No. 4448, issn: 1424-8220, doi: 10.3390/s18124448, PubMed ID: 30558335
  • Solomon, A, G de Boer, JM Creamean, A McComiskey, MD Shupe, M Maahn and C Cox (2018), The relative impact of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particle concentrations on phase partitioning in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 18 (23) 17047-17059, issn: 1680-7316, ids: HC6OB, doi: 10.5194/acp-18-17047-2018
  • Creamean, JM; Kirpes, RM; Pratt, KA; Spada, NJ; Maahn, M; de Boer, G; Schnell, RC; China, S (2018), Marine and terrestrial influences on ice nucleating particles during continuous springtime measurements in an Arctic oilfield location. Version: 1 ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 18 (24) 18023-18042, issn: 1680-7316, doi: 10.5194/acp-18-18023-2018
  • Miller, NB, MD Shupe, JTM Lenaerts, JE Kay, G de Boer and R Bennartz (2018), Process-Based Model Evaluation Using Surface Energy Budget Observations in Central Greenland. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 123 (10) 4777-4796, issn: 2169-897X, ids: GJ5TM, doi: 10.1029/2017JD027377
  • Dole, RM, JR Spackman, iman, W Otto, O Persson, XW Quan, I RangwalaM Newman, GP Compo, CA Smith, LM Hartten, JJ Barsugli, RS Webb, MP Hoerling, R Cifelli, K Wolter, CD Barnet, M Gehne, R Gelaro, GN Kiladis, S Abbott, E Akish, J Albers, JM Brown, CJ Cox, L Darby, G de Boer, B DeLuisi, J Dias, J Dunion, J Eischeid, C Fairall, A Gambacorta, BK Gorton, A Hoell, J Intrieri, D Jackson, PE Johnston, R Lataitis, KM Mahoney, K McCaffrey, HA McColl, MJ Mueller, D Murrrray, PJ Ne, AJ Ray, D Reynolds, ER Dellaripa, K Rosenlof, N Sakaeda, PD Sardeshmukh, LC Slivinski, L Smith, A Solomon, D Swales, S Tulich, A White, G Wick, MG Winterkorn, DE Wolfe and R Zamora (2018), ADVANCING SCIENCE AND SERVICES DURING THE 2015/16 EL NINO The NOAA El Nino Rapid Response Field Campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 99 (5) 975-1002, issn: 0003-0007, ids: GH8CF, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0219.1
  • Creamean, J. M., M. Maahn, G. de Boer, A. McComiskey, A. J. Sedlacek, and Y. Feng (2018), The influence of local oil exploration and regional wildfires on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 18 (2) 555-570, issn: 1680-7316, ids: FT1PC, doi: 10.5194/acp-18-555-2018
  • de Boer, G., M. Ivey, B. Schmid, D. Lawrence, D. Dexheimer, F. Mei, J. Hubbe, A. Bendure, J. Hardesty, M. D. Shupe, A. McComiskey, H. Telg, C. Schmitt, S. Y. Matrosov, I. Brooks, J. Creamean, A. Solomon, D. D. Turner, C. Williams, M. Maahn, B. Argrow, S. Palo, C. N. Long, R.-S. Gao, and J. Mather (2018), A Bird's-Eye View Development of an Operational ARM Unmanned Aerial Capability for Atmospheric Research in Arctic Alaska. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 99 (6) 1197-1212, issn: 0003-0007, ids: GL6FH, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0156.1
  • Matrosov, S. Y., C. G. Schmitt, M. Maahn, and G. de Boer (2017), Atmospheric Ice Particle Shape Estimates from Polarimetric Radar Measurements and In Situ Observations. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. Version: 1 34 (12) 2569-2587, issn: 0739-0572, ids: FT6SL, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0111.1
  • Maahn, M., G. de Boer, J. M. Creamean, G. Feingold, G. M. McFarquhar, W. Wu, and F. Mei (2017), The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 17 (23) 14709-14726, issn: 1680-7316, ids: FP4VB, doi: 10.5194/acp-17-14709-2017
  • de Boer, G, S Palo, B Argrow, G LoDolce, J Mack, RS Gao, H Telg, C Trussel, J Fromm, CN Long, G Bland, J Maslanik, B Schmid and T Hock (2016), The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 9 (4) 1845-1857, issn: 1867-1381, ids: DL4OC, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-1845-2016
  • Uttal, T, S Starkweather, JR Drummond, T Vihma, AP Makshtas, LS Darby, JF Burkhart, CJ Cox, LN Schmeisser, T Haiden, M Maturilli, MD Shupe, G De Boer, A Saha, AA Grachev, SM Crepinsek, L Bruhwiler, B Goodison, B McArthur, VP Walden, EJ Dlugokencky, POG Persson, G Lesins, T Laurila, JA Ogren, R Stone, CN Long, S Sharma, A Massling, DD Turner, DM Stanitski, E Asmi, M Aurela, H Skov, K Eleftheriadis, A Virkkula, A Platt, EJ Forland, Y Iijima, IE Nielsen, MH Bergin, L Candlish, NS Zimov, SA Zimov, NT ONeill, PF Fogal, R Kivi, EA Konopleva-Akish, J Verlinde, VY Kustov, B Vasel, VM Ivakhov, Y Viisanen and JM Intrieri (2016), International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere: An International Polar Year Legacy Consortium. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 97 (6) 1033-1056, issn: 0003-0007, ids: DS1HA, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00145.1
  • Intrieri, JM, G de Boer, MD Shupe, JR Spackman, J Wang, PJ Neiman, GA Wick, TF Hock and RE Hood (2014), Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Version: 1 7 (11) 3917-3926, issn: 1867-1381, ids: AU7LB, doi: 10.5194/amt-7-3917-2014
  • Solomon, A, MD Shupe, O Persson, H Morrison, T Yamaguchi, PM Caldwell and G de Boer (2014), The Sensitivity of Springtime Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus Clouds to Surface-Layer and Cloud-Top Inversion-Layer Moisture Sources. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 71 (2) 574-595, issn: 0022-4928, ids: AG5XG, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0179.1
  • Wesslen, C, M Tjernstrom, DH Bromwich, G de Boer, AML Ekman, LS Bai and SH Wang (2014), The Arctic summer atmosphere: an evaluation of reanalyses using ASCOS data. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 14 (5) 2605-2624, issn: 1680-7316, ids: AE6LK, doi: 10.5194/acp-14-2605-2014
  • de Boer, G, MD Shupe, PM Caldwell, SE Bauer, O Persson, JS Boyle, M Kelley, SA Klein and M Tjernstrom (2014), Near-surface meteorology during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS): evaluation of reanalyses and global climate models. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 14 (1) 427-445, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 292VL, doi: 10.5194/acp-14-427-2014
  • de Boer, G, SE Bauer, T Toto, S Menon and AM Vogelmann (2013), Evaluation of aerosol-cloud interaction in the GISS ModelE using ARM observations. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (12) 6383-6395, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 187OY, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50460
  • de Boer, G, T Hashino, GJ Tripoli and EW Eloranta (2013), A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 13 (4) 1733-1749, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 096LW, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-1733-2013
  • de Boer, G., G.J. Tripoli and E.W. Eloranta (2012), Implementation and Validation of Dynamical Downscaling in a Micro-Scale Simulation of a Lake Michigan Land Breeze. ISRN Meteorol. Version: 1 2012 , Art. No. 529401, doi: 10.5402/2012/529401
  • Cesana, G, JE Kay, H Chepfer, JM English and G de Boer (2012), Ubiquitous low-level liquid-containing Arctic clouds: New observations and climate model constraints from CALIPSO-GOCCP. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 39 , Art. No. L20804, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 024AH, doi: 10.1029/2012GL053385
  • de Boer, G, W Chapman, JE Kay, B Medeiros, MD Shupe, S Vavrus and J Walsh (2012), A Characterization of the Present-Day Arctic Atmosphere in CCSM4. J. Clim. Version: 1 25 (8) 2676-2695, issn: 0894-8755, ids: 925UN, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00228.1
  • Morrison, H, G de Boer, G Feingold, J Harrington, MD Shupe and K Sulia (2012), Resilience of persistent Arctic mixed-phase clouds. Nat. Geosci. Version: 1 5 (1) 11-17, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 866WT, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1332
  • de Boer, G, WD Collins, S Menon and CN Long (2011), Using surface remote sensors to derive radiative characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: an example from M-PACE. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Version: 1 11 (23) 11937-11949, issn: 1680-7316, ids: 863AD, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-11937-2011
  • Morrison, H, P Zuidema, AS Ackerman, A Avramov, G de Boer, JW Fan, AM Fridlind, T Hashino, JY Harrington, YL Luo, M Ovchinnikov and B Shipway (2011), Intercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed during SHEBA/FIRE-ACE. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. Version: 1 3 , Art. No. M06003, issn: 1942-2466, ids: 931EM, doi: 10.1029/2011MS000066
  • de Boer, G, H Morrison, MD Shupe and R Hildner (2011), Evidence of liquid dependent ice nucleation in high-latitude stratiform clouds from surface remote sensors. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 38 , Art. No. L01803, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 704OB, doi: 10.1029/2010GL046016
  • de Boer, G, EW Eloranta and MD Shupe (2009), Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratiform Cloud Properties from Multiple Years of Surface-Based Measurements at Two High-Latitude Locations. J. Atmos. Sci. Version: 1 66 (9) 2874-2887, issn: 0022-4928, ids: 494LM, doi: 10.1175/2009JAS3029.1
  • Klein, SA, RB McCoy, H Morrison, AS Ackerman, A Avramov, G de Boer, MX Chen, JNS Cole, AD Del Genio, M Falk, MJ Foster, A Fridlind, JC Golaz, T Hashino, JY Harrington, C Hoose, MF Khairoutdinov, VE Larson, XH Liu, YL Luo, GM McFarquhar, S Menon, RAJ Neggers, S Park, MR Poellot, JM Schmidt, I Sednev, BJ Shipway, MD Shupe, DA Spangenbery, YC Sud, DD Turner, DE Veron, K von Salzen, GK Walker, ZE Wang, AB Wolf, SC Xie, KM Xu, FL Yang and G Zhang (2009), Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I: Single-layer cloud. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 135 (641) 979-1002, issn: 0035-9009, ids: 473QL, doi: 10.1002/qj.416
  • de Boer, G, GJ Tripoli and EW Eloranta (2008), Preliminary comparison of CloudSAT-derived microphysical quantities with ground-based measurements for mixed-phase cloud research in the Arctic. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 113 (D17) , Art. No. D00A06, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 348HC, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010029
  • Shupe, MD, JS Daniel, G de Boer, EW Eloranta, P Kollias, CN Long, EP Luke, DD Turner and J Verlinde (2008), A FOCUS ON MIXED-PHASE CLOUDS The Status of Ground-Based Observational Methods. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 89 (10) 1549-+, issn: 0003-0007, ids: 370BN, doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2378.1